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language of our country and in our institutions of government. The development of teacher training has been so high in some localities that the superintendents are now supplying teachers for these classes from the teacher training schools. These yomg teachers are proving a great success in the teaching of English to our new citizens. Teachers' institutes have been held in many of the States in largely increasing numbers. In some States a series of institutes has been held, so intense is the interest now being felt in this national en. terprise.
The increased interest in the work of the Government for the training of the coming Americans is reflected in the organization of classes to instruct teachers. In some States this has become so active that the normal schools are adopting this as a part of their teacher-training course. State universities have extended their work in this field and with most promising results.
In the State of Oklahoma all the schools are engaged in this work in conjunction with this branch of the Government. From these normal classes there will soon be coming a corps of highly trained teachers who have specialized on the work of teaching English and civics in these classes, working in cooperation with this office. Respectfully submitted.
RAYMOND F. CRIST,
Dircctor of Citizenship. Hon. RichD. K. CAMPBELL,
Commissioner of Naturalization.
AIDS AND HINDRANCES TO INCREASED ATTENDANCE.
Superintendents of schools in 166 communities report the following influences favoring and hindrances deterring increase in school attendance, in answer to a questionnaire sent to them in April, 1919:
INFLUENCES FAVORING ATTENDANCE.
Concerts.--Singing; orchestra; graphophone; entertainments.
Sociability.-Socials to particular nationalities (Italians, etc.). Social hour after class. Weekly evening of social activities. Gatherings to bring their friends. Refreshments. Entertain in American homes at Christmas, Easter, etc., by teachers. Personal visits. Contests between men and women. Public celebrations and receptions for new citizens under auspices of Americanization committees and chambers of commerce, women's, and other organizations. Illustrated lectures. Motion pictures.
Teachers and teaching.–Trained teachers. Better teachers. Man instructors. Work with them and for them. Personal interest in candidate and his friends. Personal letter of invitation to each student by instructor on special occasions, as when some speaker is to address the class. Preliminary examination of individual members of class by superintendent of schools. Special assistance in filling out applications for citizenship papers. Closer grading. Carefully plan definite work for each session. Work made attractive. Easier text for beginners. Greater variety of studies.
Organization and supervision.-- Establish both day and evening classes. Sessions in spring instead of winter. Full time instead of regular day teachers. Factory classes. Central location. Schools in vicinity of homes. Extra schools and equipment. Better teaching organization. Teachers' meetings. A special director of evening schools and of Americanization in personal contact with each student. Personal visits by teachers, letters, or postal cards written when a student misses three successive nights; in such cases use reply potsal caris. Teachers paid by industrial plant, school board furnishing building, supplies, and janitor service. Ability of teaching force. Kindergarten for children. Cooperation of school nurse. Maintain a bureau of information in each school to help students in any emergencies. Organize Americanization committees of foreign-born leaders. Establish a local bureau to enlist interest of foreign born through meetings to be addressed in the language understood hy the audience. Students' advisory council in running schools. Advertise classes through school children. Notices to applicants for citizenship, telling where they can attend classes. Students visit absentees. Rivalry between schools for attendance records. Compulsory attendance law. But to bring people to classes. Certificates and medals. Prizes for best answer to “How can I become a better citizen of
city and of the U. S. A.?” Certificates for attendance and of graduation. Talks by naturalized citizens to students. Use school auditorium for social meetings.
Teaching material.-Federal Textbook and Manual. Special vocabulary for workmen in industry. Use supplementary literature. Nature of material presented to class. Variety of studies. Classes in domestic science for women. Bookkeeping offered. Typewritten questions on Government, history, etc., for reviewing, for answer and discussion in class. Spelling contests. Special class in civics. Practical work essential.
Bureau aids.-The fact that work is under Government supervision. Textbook and manual. Certificate of graduation. Letters of invitation to classes 862
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF NATURALIZATION
mailed to applicants. Applicants should have statement to present to examine. showing time he has attended citizenship classes. Increased attention everywhere given to Americanization.
Industrial aids.—Cooperation of managers and foremen of factories. Welfare departments encourage attendance. Miners' union to encourage attendance. Canvass of factory employees. Individual talk in factories. Distribute registration cards. Give student a card each session for delivery to his foreman. Weekly attendance kept by factories. Inspection visits to classes by factory officials. Giving one or two hours for instruction, for which they receive full or part time pay.
Civic aids.—Cooperation of women's clubs, court clerks, Y. M. C. A., industries, commercial organizations, societies, churches, press, police, and other city departments. Better schools. Send applicants for citizenship notice when they can attend classes. More money for more schools. Naturalization court to ask “ Do you go to school?” Higher qualifications required by courts. School principal address civic organizations and women's clubs to secure cooperation. Officials, professional, and business men address classes.
Publicity.-Posters and bulletins. Posters in several languages. Posters sent to schools and factories. Posters in public places, shops, Federal building, post office and substations, school buildings, city hall and courthouse. Circular letters. Letters and announcements sent frequently pertaining to formation of classes. Handbills. Circulars printed in high school. Newspaper advertising. Newspaper articles. Articles in foreign-language papers. Individual letters. Letters sent by school officials. Letters following bureau letters to declarants. Send personal letters through day or parochiai schools. Cards telling of advantages. Personal canvass. Use evening school pupils as solicitors to invite others. Some one explain to foreign born in their language of the opportunity. Help of pupil in day school. Speaking campaign. Personal talks. Teachers call at their homes. School nurse and truant officer invite non-English to attend. Talks at public meetings. Cooperation of industries, commercial organizations, women's societies, churches, and press. Slips in foreign language in pay envelope. Motion-picture advertising.
Religious aids.-Cooperation of churches, including visits of clergymen to the homes of the foreign born.
Personal reasons.-Desire for naturalization. Desire for knowledge of English. Treat naturalized citizens as Americans. Sympathetic attitude toward foreign attendants on evening schools. Student button on enrollment. Influence by outsiders.
Miscellaneous.-Friendly rivalry among foreign born for securing attendance. Call the class a club to get away from school idea. Have club officers keep attendance record and make reports. Members go through mock citizenship court. Visits to city-council sessions, office of scale of weights and measures. Overcome objectors to movement. Two-dollar registration fee refunded if student attends 75 per cent of sessions. War conditions offering positions requiring English.
Influenza. The local industry shut down. Change in shift. Moving from city to city. Adult foreigner shy. Women do not understand that schools are for their benefit.