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Departments upon the subject of proper supervision of aliens coming to this country during the continuance of the war. While these regulations were being enforced at our seaports and on the borders by immigration officers, and abroad by the diplomatic and consular officials, efforts were directed by the interested branches of the Departments of State, Treasury, War, Navy, Justice, and Labor toward the preparation of a law on that subject. These efforts resulted in the passage of the act of May 22, 1918, "To prevent in time of war departure from and entry into the United States contrary to the public safety," upon which the proclamation and Executive order of the President were based, establishing regulations the enforcement of which in foreign countries devolved upon the diplomatic and consular services, and in our own land upon the Customs Service of the Treasury Department and certain officials of the Department of Justice, and upon the Bureau of Immigration. As a part of these regulations the joint order above referred to was continued in force by Executive order.
According to the act of April 9, 1912, creating the Children's Bureau, it is its duty to investigate and report upon all matters pertaining to the welfare of children and child life. The law provides that the bureau "shall especially investigate the questions of infant mortality, the birth rate, orphanage, juvenile courts, desertion, dangerous occupations, accidents and diseases of children, employment, legislation affecting children in the several States and Territories." Much effort has been made to cover this great field, but the task of investigation is scarcely begun. Reports have been made in various forms with a view to making the results of investigations available to the largest possible audience. The intensive investigations have been reported in the usual form of bulletins. Other forms of publicity have been utilized, among them Children's Year.
Various Government bureaus are carrying on technical studies in their own fields involving the welfare of children, directly or indirectly. Such studies should not be duplicated. But it is evidently the intent of the law, according to the words of the statute quoted above, that the Children's Bureau--the only Government body dealing only with children-should be charged with general responsibility for studying and popularizing information in the whole field of child welfare. Hence a recognized coordination should be established between all Government bureaus dealing with scientific studies or popular activities affecting children, and such studies and activities should be undertaken with mutual understanding. It is therefore felt that it would be especially desirable for other departments of the Government which include bureaus, services, or divisions studying problems including children to designate representatives to act upon a standing liaison committee, and congressional action is suggested to the same end.
It has been possible for the Children's Bureau to accomplish the work of Children's Year because of the special allotment of $150,000 from the President's fund for that purpose. During the progress of the year and in the follow-up work since last April there has been an increasing demand upon the bureau for investigations of various types, surveys, children's health conferences, and other demonstrations--all work of a constructive character and in the highest degree important. The appropriation available for the current year compels the bureau to leave this work untouched for the greater part. According to a moderate plan of reorganization based upon the experiences of last year a total appropriation of $473,220 is requested. This is a minimum estimate for efficient work on lines already undertaken; it must be augmented in order to develop new lines of investigation.
Children's Year. The general purpose and activities of Children's Year as a war-time activity were stated in my sixth annual report. Children's Year ended April 6, 1919, the close of the second year after this country's entrance into the war, and although its results can not be reckoned fully either now or at any time, certain outstanding facts indicate its widespread influence. The interest aroused by the campaign continues and grows. State Children's Year chairmen of 31 States have formed themselves into an advisory committee offering cooperation with the Children's Bureau and forwarding many kinds of child-welfare work in their respective States. During the past year, in cooperation with the women's committees of the Council of National Defense, about 17,000 local child-welfare committees were organized with a membership of several million women who enlisted the professional aid of physicians, nurses, and others and obtained local financial backing for their work. Over 18,000,000 copies of publications were sent out in response to requests during the year.
Child hygiene.-The weighing and measuring test of babies and children of preschool age has been conducted up to May 4, 1919, by these committees in 16,811 cities, towns, villages, and rural communities, and the Children's Bureau has distributed in response to requests over seven and one-half million record cards for use in these tests. In its literature the Children's Bureau has shown the value of child hygiene divisions as a needful feature of a competent State organization for child protection. Since the announcement of Children's Year, 21 States have created such child-welfare divisions, in two cases under the State department of education, in 19 under the State department of health. The total number of States so equipped is 28 at this writing, and the establishment of such divisions is under discussion in other States. In addition to the emphasis on keeping young children well given by the weighing and measuring test, the bureau in cooperation with the women's committee of the Council of National Defense, the Playground Association of America, and 16 other national societies, and the Department of Agriculture Club and Demonstration Directors carried on in the summer and autumn of 1918 a Recreation drive on behalf of wholesome recreation for older children.
Child labor.-Forty-five States, New York City, the District of Columbia, and Hawaii organized special committees for Back-toSchool and Stay-in-School drives which are continuing with increasing momentum. This was done because of the recognition that the true way to eliminate child labor is to substitute school.
Standards of child life. -As the crowning activity of Children's Year it was decided to hold a Conference on Child-Welfare Standards with the purpose of getting, by a consensus of expert opinion, a statement of “irreducible minimum” standards as suggested by President Wilson in his letter approving Children's Year. It was believed that such a statement would give a point of departure, not a goal. It would give a definite working basis and be a consistent and forwardlooking contribution to the work. An allotment by the President from his fund made possible this conference, which accordingly took place in May. The first session was held in Washington. A limited number of invitations were sent to representative authorities for a round table conference upon the various aspects of child welfare. Following that, regional conferences were held in Boston, New York, Cleveland, Chicago, Minneapolis, Denver, San Francisco, and Seattle, which were attended by large and representative audiences. The public press gave them excellent reports.
Because of the extraordinary work for the protection of childhood carried on abroad under war conditions, the severity of which this country did not experience, it was decided to invite a small number of foreign authorities to attend the conference. Guests accepted from England, Belgium, France, Italy, Serbia and Japan, and their assistance is most gratefully acknowledged. Members of the party not only attended the conference in Washington and all regional conferences, but also addressed representative bodies such as the Woman's Trade Union League, the Southern Sociological Congress, the National Conference of Social Work, Civic Associations, etc.
At the Washington conference standards of child welfare were worked out and submitted by committees appointed for that purpose. They have been printed and widely distributed for discussion, criticism and comment being invited. In the light of all the suggestions received they have been revised by a special committee appointed by the Washington conference.
Somewhat abbreviated for this summary, the standards are essentially as follows:
MINIMUM STANDARDS FOR CHILDREN ENTERING EMPLOYMENT.
Age minimum.-An age minimum of 16 for employment in any occupation, except that children between 14 and 16 may be employed in agriculture and domestic service during vacation periods until schools are continuous throughout the year.
An age minimum of 18 for employment in and about mines and quarries.
An age minimum of 21 for girls employed as messengers for telegraph and messenger companies.
An age minimum of 21 for employment in the special delivery service of the United States Post Office Department.
Prohibition of the employment of minors in dangerous, unhealthy or hazardous occupations, or at any work which will retard their proper physical or moral development.
Educational minimum.-All children between 7 and 16 years of age shall be required to attend school for at least nine months each year.
Children between 16 and 18 years of age who have completed the eighth grade but not the high school and are legally and regularly employed shall be required to attend day continuation schools at least eight hours a week.
Children between 16 and 18 who have not completed the eighth grade or children who have completed the eighth grade and are not regularly employed shall attend full-time school. Occupational training especially adapted to their needs shall be provided for those children who are unable because of mental subnormality to profit by ordinary school instruction,
Vacation schools placing special emphasis on healthful play and leisure time activities shall be provided for all children.
Physical minimum.-A child shall not be allowed to go to work until he has had a physical examination by a public-school physician or other medical officer especially appointed for that purpose by the agency charged with the enforcement of the law, and has been found to be of normal development for a child of his age and physically fit for the work at which he is to be employed.
There shall be annual physical examination of all working children who are under 18 years of age.
Hours of employment.—No minor shall be employed more than 8 hours a day or 44 hours a week. The maximum working day for children between 16 and 18 shall be shorter than the legal working day for adults.
The hours spent at continuation schools by children under 18 years of age shall be counted as part of the working day.
Night work for minors shall be prohibited between 6 p. m. and 7 a.m.
Minimum wage.—Minors at work shall be paid at a rate of wages which for full-time work shall yield not less than the minimum essential for the “necessary cost of proper living," as determined by a minimum wage commission or other similar official board. During a period of learning they may be rated as learners and paid accordingly. The length of the learning period should be fixed by such commission or other similar official board on educational principles only.
Placement and employment supervision.—There shall be a central agency which shall deal with all juvenile employment problems. Adequate provision shall be made for advising children when they leave school of the employment opportunities open to
them, for assisting them in finding suitable work and providing for them such super. vision as may be needed during the first few years of their employment. All agencies working toward these ends shall be coordinated through the central agency.
Employment certificates. —Provision shall be made for issuing employment certificates to all children entering employment who are under 18 years of age.
An employment certificate shall not be issued to the child until the issuing officer has received, approved, and filed the following:
1. A birth certificate, or if unobtainable, other reliable documentary proof of the child's age.
2. Satisfactory evidence that the child has completed the eighth grade.
3. A certificate of physical fitness signed by a public-school physician or other medical officer especially appointed for that purpose by the agency charged with the enforcement of the law. This certificate shall state that the minor has been thoroughly examined by the physician and that he is physically qualified for the employment contemplated.
4. Promise of employment.
The certificate shall be issued to the employer and shall be returned by the employe) to the issuing officer when the child leaves his employment.
The school last attended, the compulsory-education department, and the continuation schools shall be kept informed by the issuing officers of certificates issued or refused and of unemployed children for whom certificates have been issued.
Minors over 18 years of age shall be required to present evidence of age before being permitted to work in occupations in which the entrance age or hours are especially regulated.
Record forms shall be standardized and the issuing of employment certificates shall be under State supervision.
Reports shall be made to the factory inspection department of all certificates issued and refused.
Compulsory-attendance laws.-Full-time attendance officers adequately proportioned to the school population shall be provided in cities, towns, and counties to enforce the school-attendance law.
The enforcement of school-attendance laws by city, town, or county school authorities shall be under State supervision.
Factory inspection and physical examination of employed minors.-Inspection for the enforcement of all child-labor laws, including those regulating the employment of children in mines or quarries, shall be under one and the same department. The number of inspectors shall be sufficient to insure semiannual inspection of all establishments in which children are employed, and such special inspections and investigations as are necessary to insure the protection of the children.
Provision should be made for a staff of physicians adequate to examine annually all employed children under 18 years of age.
MINIMUM STANDARDS FOR PUBLIC PROTECTION OF THE HEALTH OF MOTHERS AND
1. Maternity or prenatal centers, sufficient to provide for all cases not receiving prenatal supervision from private physicians.
2. Clinics, such as dental clinics and venereal clinics, for needed treatment during pregnancy.