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20, 790 2, 205
Net increase (1919)...
Increase in net addition to population, 12.2 per cent.
Under 16 years.. 16 to 44 years... 45 years and over.
26, 373 97, 341 17, 418
Literacy of admitted immigrant aliens:
114, 759 Unable to read or write...
2, 827 Able to read but not write..
443 Illiterate (over 16 years of age).......
12, 827 Literate (over 16 years of age).....
111, 932 Illiterate, 2.6 per cent.
Financial ability. There were shown to inspection officers by immigrant aliens admitted sums of money aggregating $15,831,247, or an average of $112 per person. About 42 per cent of those able to prove possession of money had less than $50 each, 79,646 claimed to
1 Admissible under exemptions provided by section 3 of the immigration act.
have paid their own passage, 49,773 admitted that their passage had been paid by relatives, and 11,713 that it had been paid by persons other than relatives.
Ages and periods of residence of departing aliens. —During the year 123,522 emigrant aliens left the United States. Of these, 60,731 had resided in the United States less than 5 years, 53,579 from 5 to 10 years, 5,610 from 10 to 15 years, 1,677 from 15 to 20 years, and 1,925 over 20 years. As to ages, 7,352 were under 16, 86,006 were from 16 to 44, and 30,164 were 45 years of age or over.
Exclusion of arriving aliens. On account of the abnormal conditions during the past four years it is difficult to make comparisons with previous years. Exclusions in 1913 amounted to 1.38 per cent, in 1914 to 2.3 per cent, in 1915 to 5.3 per cent, while during the years 1916, 1917, and 1918 they were 4.9, 4.2, and 3.3 per cent, respectively. The past fiscal year shows a percentage of 3.5. As to numbers excluded, there were 24,111 for 1915, 18,867 for 1916, 16,028 for 1917, 7,297 for 1918, and 8,626 for 1919.
The following table shows the principal causes of rejection for the years 1910 to 1919, inclusive:
16 12 10 18 14 6 5 9 4 Imbeciles..
40 26 44 54 68 27 17 19 5 Feeble-minded persons..
125 126 110 483 995 302 224 224 19 29 Insanity (including epileptics).. 198 144 133 198 197 128 151 146 95 67 Constitutional psychopathic inferiority,
3 20 37 Likely to become a public
charge (including paupers,
vagrants, and beggars). 15,927 12,048 8,182 7,956 15,781 15,596 10,427 7,893 2,836 4,005
3,033 2,735 | 1,674 2,457 3,143 | 1,613 | 1,050 1,383 401 331 Afflicted with tuberculosis.
95 111 74 107 114 89 106 119 85 57 Physically or mentally defective...
312 3,055 | 2,288 4,208 6,537 955 1,703 1,734 315 313 Chronic alcoholism.
10 24 10 Criminals.
580 644 592 808 755 276 245 257 160 261 Prostitutes and other immoral aliens...
316 253 263 367 380 201 439 510 161 86 Procurers of prostitutes.
179 141 192 253 254 192 307 371 88 46 Contract laborers..
1,786 1,336 | 1,333 1,624 2,793 2,722 2,080 1,116 474 774 Unable to read (over 16 years of age)..
391 1,598 1, 456 Alien enemies.
Reasons for exclusion. It will be observed from the foregoing table that “likelihood of becoming a public charge” continues to be by far the most important single cause of rejections, about 46 per cent of those turned back at the ports being under that head. Illiteracy was second in importance as a cause of rejections during the past year as well as in 1918--the only years in which the "illiteracy test” in the new law has been in full operation.
Expulsion of aliens. There have been expelled from the country under departmental process during the past year 3,068 aliens, com
pared with 1,569 in 1918. The 3,068 expelled during the year are divided as follows with respect to causes of expulsion: In the country five years or less: Members of excluded classes at time of entry....
2, 257 Became public charges from causes existing prior to entry.. Violation of Chinese-exclusion laws....
47 In the country three years or less: Entered without inspection....
183 Aliens whose deportation is compulsory without regard to the length of time they have been in the country: Sexually immoral..
127 Total deportations.-Adding together the 8,626 aliens excluded at the ports and returned to countries of origin, the 3,068 arrested and expelled from the country, and the 34 Chinese aliens whose deportation was ordered by courts or commissioners under the exclusion laws, it is shown that the total number of aliens deported during the year was 11,728, compared with 8,916 in 1918. In addition to the foregoing, there were arrested during the year, 637 aliens whose deportation was impracticable on account of war conditions. At the beginning of the fiscal year a plan was adopted which enabled the Department to release from custody aliens whose immediate deportation was impossible, as well as those deemed worthy of an opportunity to demonstrate their fitness to remain in this country. The plan provides that such aliens shall remain under the supervision of immigration officers, and that a percentage of their earnings shall be deposited at regular intervals in postal savings banks, such deposits being returned with accrued interest when the cases are closed by the deportation or final release, as the case may be. During the year the Department released 154 aliens under the provisions of this rule.
IMMIGRATION FROM INSULAR UNITED STATES.
Statistics of the movement of aliens from insular United States to continental United States were published for the first time in 1914, but the record is available since 1908. During the entire period a total of 29,138 have come to the mainland from all the insular territory. Of these 19,311 came from Hawaii; 8,559 from Porto Rico; 1,017 from the Philippines, and 251 from the Virgin Islands. During the past year 2,398 such aliens have been admitted to the mainland, of whom 1,305 came from Hawaii; 806 from Porto Rico; 180 from the Philippines, and 107 from the Virgin Islands. Formerly this movement of aliens from insular territory was a somewhat troublesome problem, but this was largely solved by the immigration law of 1917, which makes such aliens, as well as aliens passing
from one island to another, subject to the same examination as aliens coming from a foreign country. This does not apply to citizens of the islands, however, for they are not regarded as aliens. The commissioner of immigration at San Juan has experienced some difficulty in connection with aliens passing between Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands, and he has recommended that, in view of the proximity of these two, they be not regarded as foreign to each other in this respect; but this, of course, can not be done under existing law.
INDUCED AND ASSISTED IMMIGRATION.
The problem of induced and assisted immigration, which in prewar years was a serious one, gave little trouble during the year, but it is probable that former conditions will be revived. However, the new immigration law will afford a more satisfactory means of dealing with the problem than previous laws.
The number of contract labor cases which came to the attention of the bureau was unusually large, but they were of such a nature that legal proceedings against importers were instituted in only three cases during the year. However, investigations of many reported or suspected violations have been made, and 69 aliens who were found to have entered the country in violation of the contract labor clause were deported, as compared with 33 during the fiscal year 1918. During the year 774 alien contract laborers arriving at United States ports were denied admission as compared with 474 in 1918. It has always been possible under the law to import skilled laborers provided unemployed laborers of like kind could not be found in this country, but the immigration act of 1917 goes a step farther and provides that the necessity for importing such labor may be determined by the Secretary of Labor before importation is made. The law stipulates that permission to bring in laborers under this provision may be granted only after a hearing and investigation into each case, and such investigations have formed an important part of the work of the contractlabor division during the year. Concrete examples of the operation of the new law are found in certain Canadian border cases, where it has been a long established custom for employers to bring more or less skilled laborers from Canada for seasonal work. Formerly these cases occasioned much trouble. Many suits were instituted against importers but convictions were infrequent and the practice persisted. Under the new law, however, some employers who practically ignored the contract-labor law, are required first to present applications to the Department. On the whole, results have been satisfactory, although a more general observance of the rules would still save much embarrassment and delay and enable many applicants to avoid useless trips
to this country. Too often the blame is placed upon the Government when it should be borne by the importer.
IMPORTATION OF LABORERS FOR WAR NECESSITIES.
The principle alluded to under the heading of contract labor was utilized in a much broader way through the temporary admission during the fiscal year of 20,643 Mexicans and a smaller number of Bahama Island negroes for emergency labor during the war. This was accomplished under authority of section 3 of the law of 1917, which confers upon the Secretary of Labor discretionary power to admit temporarily aliens who are otherwise inadmissible. This waiver was strictly a war measure and met a labor need which could not have been supplied otherwise. The privilege was terminated at the close of the calendar year 1918, except with regard to certain classes of farm laborers. The existing arrangement as to these continued until the close of the fiscal year.
Chinese immigration. Only a comparatively small number of Chinese applied for admission during the year, the number admitted and rejected being 1,697 and 172, respectively, while 112 Chinese found to be unlawfully in the country were deported. The total number of immigrant and nonimmigrant Chinese, and those in transit through the United States to a foreign country, was 7,426, and the number of emigrant and nonemigrant aliens and transients departing from the country was 7,930, showing a net decrease of 504 in the Chinese population through immigration and emigration. The number of Chinese granted transit privileges during the year was 5,041, compared with 34,977 in 1918, of whom 28,838 were destined to France for war work. The Circuit Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit has rendered a decision (Quan Hing Sun et al. v. White, 254 Fed., 402) holding that Chinese persons who apply for admission to the United States and are rejected on primary inspection are entitled to an examination before a board of special inquiry—a privilege which is granted to all rejected aliens by the immigration law, but not by the Chinese-exclusion law. This decision has enabled the Department to take a long desired step in the direction of bringing the procedure in the cases of Chinese applicants into harmony with that followed in the cases of aliens generally. It is believed that good results will follow, through the assurance of fair and just hearings to all applicants and the prevention of delays in the adjudication of cases.
Japanese immigration. During the year 10,056 Japanese immigrant aliens were admitted, as compared with 10,168 admitted in the previous year, while 171 were debarred and 137 deported after landing as compared with 201 and 52, respectively, in 1918. In the present fiscal year 4,848 nonimmigrant Japanese were also admitted, so that