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If time had permitted, similar studies in several other industries could have been completed, but it was found impossible to prepare for publication within the limited period any more of the wealth of material at hand. More than 20 important industries were on the lists of the service, requesting studies to be made and courses prepared for their use, when the appropriations for the service were discontinued.

Meantime, employers in those industries that were being studied were becoming greatly interested, as is shown by the following table of training reported to the service in the week before operations ceased:

Table showing the status of training in industrial plants on June 30, 1919.

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With 359 training departments in existence and only 67 departments discontinued within six months after the close of hostilities, evidently industrial training is found by the industries themselves to be of practical value for peace-time service. The further fact that on June 30, 247 establishments were reported asking for advice and contemplating instituting training departments and 125 other establishments were preparing to install such departments, many of them held up because the Training Service could not assign them the advice of one of its officers, the growing interest of the industries is manifest.

Much of this interest is due to the work of the chief of training. After the service undertook as its principal aim the preparation of training methods, he devoted his time to attending meetings of employers, in conventions and associations, and there explained to them the purposes of the service and the possibilities of training as a means of interesting their employees in developing themselves. Hundreds of employers were thus induced to look into the subject and they requested advice and assistance. But almost an equal factor was the interest of competitors. Employers began to find that where


a rival had a good training department a better class of employees sought his employment for the wider opportunities afforded them; that better grades of work were turned out and better wages earned, with consequent decreased turnover and cheaper production even on higher wage scales. Whereupon they also asked for advice, and from this source increasing interest was being shown during the latter months of the service.

The greatest value of such a service as this, however, lies in the preparation of methods and the conduct of a clearing house of information for industries. Industrial training is pedagogic, but it is also experimental. The methods of the pedagogue, as traditionally employed, fail conspicuously. Teachers of the school type rarely succeed in a training department. They do not understand the necessities of the factory, which require a kind of discipline, both mental and physical, different from that of the school. The standards of factory production differ radically, both in kind and degree. In schools the “passing mark” of 65 to 75 per cent satisfies. In industry nothing will do but 100 per cent quality in any well-organized establishment. Product falling below the top grade is either "seconds” or rejected. Workers must produce “firsts” habitually or they can not be retained. In the industrial school perfect product must be coupled with adequate output to pay costs of operation, and the school being really a miniature factory run with factory methods, rather than a laboratory, production must be on a production basis. These two fundamental elements—perfection of product and sufficiency of output-are not included in the instruction of the schoolmaster, so that in setting up training departments the service found it necessary to seek instructors from the ranks of workers rather than from other sources. Employers and workers both realize this, and when training of a practical type is provided employees seek it with enthusiasm. In many plants where comprehensive training schemes were adopted, waiting lists of applicants for opportunities to take courses became an immediate necessity.

The tendency to improve quality of training was very manifest also. The action of the National Foundrymen's Association is significant. When this body was asked for assistance in studying the foundry industry, the reply of its leaders was "we will gladly do anything we can, if the purpose is to provide methods for thorough training of workers who shall know all the minutiæ of their employ

Similar expressions from leaders in a dozen other lines showed that many thoughtful employers are being led to realize that workers can not profitably be employed on a single process as a general rule; that the method of production by specialists is useful only to a degree, not as a plan for the entire staff of an industry or even a single factory. Indeed, analyses of several large factories



known as "production organized” brought out the unexpected discovery that even in such establishments a large proportion of employees are all-round workers, and necessarily must be so qualified. To maintain the percentage of such workers practical training must be provided in the plants. The schools can not meet the need.

The vital necessity for a system of industrial training has been proved by the experience of the United States Training Service. The required elements are (1) a clearing house of methods and experience; (2) a corps of adequately trained experts to study special conditions, industry by industry, and to prepare from time to time up-to-date and sound methods which industries themselves may apply in their establishments; and (3) regular periodic gatherings of leading employers and leaders of employees, at which the broader aspects of the subject of industrial training may be discussed and the Govern.ment advised as to the improvement of industrial education in the interest of the employee, employer, and the public.

The experience of the service indicates that out of the 10,000,000 wage earners now employed in American factories, probably threefourths are not properly qualified for their chosen occupations. This great body of seven and a half million workers to-day has no recourse for education suited to its needs. With workers stumbling along from day to day, oppressed with a sense of inferiority and hampered in ability to produce the goods the Nation needs and to earn the wages they must have to live, industrial unrest is not surprising. It is the duty as well as the privilege of the Nation to meet the need for industrial education by showing employers how to establish adequate training schools for their workers. No single remedy can be found for industrial unrest; its causes are complex. But no element in its causes is larger or more important than the feeling of denied opportunity that oppresses the worker who knows that his knowledge of his work is insufficient, and who charges that denial upon a society that ignores his situation and will not give him even advice and suggestions.

The sum of the findings of the United States Training Service is that labor wants an open way to self-development, a real opportunity for self-advancement, and that througn a system of practical industrial training, intensive but thorough, lies more of such opportunity than in any of the present accepted types of education


Origin and functions.—The Information and Education Service was creatad as a part of the War Labor Administration and was provided for through an appropriation of $225,000 in the act making appropriations for sundry civil expenses for the fiscal year 1918. The service itself was organized July 1, 1918. Its function was to disseminate information among employers and wage earners concerning the work performed by the various branches of the Department of Labor and to stimulate such morale among workers and employers as was necessary to increase production. This work was performed in various ways—through the press, public speakers, motion pictures, and posters.

The title of this service does not wholly describe its work. Strictly interpreted, the title would have included the functions of the Bureau of Labor Statistics also, for the work of that body is almost wholly educational and informative. The investigations of the Bureau of Labor Statistics are, however, largely fixed; in large part they are of a statistical, historical, or scientific nature. The work of the Bureau of Labor Statistics is of a permanent character and is carried on without regard to either war or peace. Through the Information. and Education Service on the other hand it was proposed to handle the publication of matters of an informational and educational nature, such as that especially needed in the war emergency. Such diffusion of information could not have been obtained through the machinery of the Bureau of Labor Statistics nor through any extension of that machinery. It was necessary, therefore, to create a separate service for that purpose. While the functions of this service were not confined within extremely narrow limits, it had in view, nevertheless, the more immediate purpose of promoting sound sentiment in industrial plants or combating unsound industrial philosophies and the acquainting of the public with the national war labor program of the Government.

Organization.-For the purpose of subdividing the work of this organization five divisions were created. They are as follows:

1. Educational Division.
2. Information Division,
3. Economics Division.
4. Poster Division.

5. Industrial Plants Division.
Later there was added still a sixth division, during the period of
reconstruction, known as the Division of Public Works and Con-
struction Development.

The work performed by the Information and Education Service falls, as in the case of the other branches of the Department, into two periods—that included during the war and that period extending from the signing of the armistice to the end of the fiscal year.

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Educational Division.—The purpose of the Educational Division was to assemble the news of the Department of Labor and to bring it to the attention of the public through a central agency. It was commonly known as the Publicity Division since its chief relations were with newspapers, magazines, and periodicals. The news as brought to the attention of the press had to do with labor and its allied topics, the cost of living, wages, working conditions, activities of trade-unions, etc. Its main purpose was to strengthen by the written word the morale of both worker and employer. In carrying out this purpose, however, no articles were prepared with a view to sending out propaganda on particular subjects or to give labor news a partisan or a prejudiced presentation. It acted wholly upon the theory that the morale could best be stimulated by making the truth available to all the people of the United States. Acting upon this theory it cooperated with the public press at all times so as to make accessible any information with regard to the war labor program of the Government. In carrying out this work the Educational Division formed interdivisional contacts with all the bureaus of the Department of Labor and interdepartmental contacts with all the other executive departments of the Government. Through these contacts it obtained much information of value to wage earners which would not otherwise have been disclosed and made available for public use many valuable economic reports which would otherwise have been made known only to a limited audience. A clipping service was es

A tablished which covered most of the newspapers and magazines in the country.

Method of distribution.-Both telegraph and mail were used. In conducting its telegraph service this division received hearty cooperation from the principal war distributing information to the newspapers not only of the United States but of foreign countries. Much cooperation was also received from the commercial organizations which sent material to regular clients in what is known to the trade as “boiler plate.” Magazines were reached through the staff and special writers. The facilities of the division, however, were placed at the disposal of all such persons as were genuinely interested in securing information for magazine articles and stories. In addition many other special channels were used. Among these such institutions and organizations as the Carnegie Institute, the Military Intelligence, the Council of National Defense, Committee on Public Information, the American Educational Association, the Federal Board for Vocational Education, the Signal Corps of the War Department, Red Cross, etc.

Extent of distribution. It is difficult to state exactly what circulation any particular item may attain. The method adopted by this

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