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of bankruptcy and the inconvenience of any inquiry into present Act of 1869 is, perhaps, correctly stated to offerthe state of his affairs or other proceeding before a court, greater facilities to debtors than previous Acts. The pro-while enabling the vote of a majority, at a meeting called by mised result of compositions is that comfortable homes are himself, to relieve him from his liabilities to all bis creditors, not disturbed, the trader continues in business uninjured, the was apparently intended for the encouragement and pro. amount of composition being no more than he may borrow tection of specially deserving cases ; for instance, to en. on the security of his property, leaving him, say, one-third courage honest debtors to come forward at an early stage of that property, with freedom from all liabilities ; a very of insolvency while they could offer terms with which the tempting prospect to a man whose property consists of goodsgeneral body of their creditors might reasonably be satisfied, bought on credit and who, perhaps, by such composition and which could be accepted by a majority, potwithstand woold be better off than he ever was before. All these may ing the possible ill-will or cupidity of individual creditors. appear idle promises “to extort fees" ; bat debtors have It could not have been intended to reproduce the continued appeared in better circumstances after compounding, and andual increase of insolvency which occurred under the there can be no doubt that agents of this class learn by similar provisions of the Act of 1861, and the fraudulent experience how resolutions of majorities of creditors may character of which has just been proved by the Act of 1868. in most cases be carried. As pointed out in a former report,
Unless majorities of creditors exercised with great care there were in the first two years of the present Act many and judgment the absolute powers intrusted to them, in more declarations of insolvency by debtors seeking adjudica-. solvency would naturally be increased by the removal of tion of bankruptcy than since; arrangement or composition all its disagreeables (from imprisonment for debt down to was soon found to be easier and more profitable ; in a year or the nominal stigma) encouraging speculation, trading on two agents are generally acquainted with any means by insufficient capital, and generally loose principles and which new legislation may be evaded. practice in questions of debtor and creditor. The fact that While this class of agent is all for the debtors and commajorities of creditors too commonly exercise their powers by position, another and very similar class represents itself as all handing them over to canvassing agents leads necessarily to for the creditors and liquidation by arrangement, its aim an incalculable amount of direct or indirect fraud. The first
| being the profits to be made by trusteeships; and betweets step in canvassing being to obtain a list of the creditors, an them touting for proxies has become, as is generally well agent acting for the debtor has so far the best chance, and if | known, a regular business under the present Act. A striking he cannot himself collect enough proxies to carry the resolu
illustration was afforded a few months ago in the conviction tion, he may perhaps arrange with other agents who have of an individual who had for years successfully carried on canvassed on their own account, and are in the same position, that business in all parts of England, the only peculiarity of The system begins from the beginning of difficolties ; almost his proceedings being that he frequently changed bis name every person who has a bill of sale registered or a judgment and address, and that instead of being satisfied with the against bim receives a number of circulars; one of these,
more or less lawful profits of trusteesbip, he appropriated the which claims to be the original, is rather long ; tbe writer
whole funds of liquidations in which he represented the does not presume to infer that bis services are required, but majority of creditors, sometimes declaring dividends payable as such things as bills of sale may lead to bankruptcy and in various places by purely imaginary persons, for no “the destruction of comfortable homes,” he offers the assist
apparent purpose but to amuse himself at the expense of the ance of his long and extensive practice in " arranging for an
creditors. extension of time for payment of debts, or for a composition of the same," observing that “the Bankruptcy Act of 1869
Many creditors must bave known in that case, and must has extended considerable advantages to debtors and creditors,
constantly know, that they have been defrauded; but frauds and its liquidation clauses afford the former an easy method
of that gross character occur chiefly in the thousands of of arranging their affairs and relieving themselves from their
smaller insolvencies, and in these are most severely felt by difficulties without the objectionable publicity and suspension
the smaller creditors, whose debts may not be insured in the of business which bappened under previous Acts."
ordinary way of trade, who do not understand the subject, “ (Signed) E. C.,
and who cannot afford to place themselves in the hands of
solicitors. “Accountant in Bankruptcy."
As submitted in former reports, it is not the interest of A postscript, stating that "no charge whatever is made the majority of trade creditors to devote time, trouble, or unless business is actually done,” and that money can be money to the chance of getting a little more salvage from advanced the day after application, is followed by this : the wreck of insolvent estates; an average amount of bad
« Caution : Several persons, who really have no knowledge debts being an incident of trade as much allowed for in prices or experience, are copying this circular, with the object to as the incidental expenses of trading, the majority of crediextort fees. Mr. C. conceived the idea of sending to persons tors would probably feel, as some traders bave expressed, who have bills of sale or judgments issued against them, that they are not more likely to look after such matters persome eighteen years since, therefore all others are only sonally than to carry their own parcels ; they can employ copyists."
their time more profitably. Applying the figures of the year The senior registrar of the London Bankruptcy Court | 1880 to a simple illustration in a former report, we have recently notified to the public (" County Courts Chronicle," | 10,298 estates estimated to average £450 “gross value," and 1st June, 1881), that the writer of another circular headed whicb, if wound up by arrangement, would proba' ly not with the Royal Arms, who also described himself as “ AC- produce £300 available assets, subject to reduction by costs countant in Bankruptcy," with the addition, “and an and other deductions to perbaps £160; if the creditors could officer of the court,” is not the “ Accountant in Bank. hope by their own exertions to procure a tenth more assets ruptcy," or an officer of the court; in fact, he is and a tenth less deductions, the result would be an average only a “copyist" who has improved on and explains | gain of about £40 per estate, or say, 40s. per creditor, some one or two points in the above original. His “office aims large creditore gaining much more wbile many small creditors at effecting an arrangement with creditors, whereby the would hardly gain forty pence. Large debts generally occurin. trader continues in business uninjured, and there is a fund large failures, and are mostly due to creditors in a large from which loads can be granted to pay the composition, or way of business, who would not be tempted by the remote to enable the debtor to purchase his estate in the unusual | possibility of gaining even £40 to give their personal event of liquidation. Consultation free. N.B. The new attention during several years to the winding up of and very stringent Bankroptcy Bill, now being passed a large insolvency. Very large cases, being generally through the Houges of Parliament, will come into operation intrusted to respectable and experienced trustees, need shortly.”
not be considered; there are always comparatively few However little attention such circulars muy deserve, the of them, and the returns for the year 1880, including an upidea of sending them being conceived eighteen years ago, or usually small proportion, afford the best illustration of the soon after the commencement of the Bankruptcy Act, 1861, : prospects of creditors in the great majority of insolvencies, and of arrangements and compositions to which a majority | Such prospects would not induce the majority of creditors of creditors can bind a minority without any examination to take more trouble than needed to band their proxies to into the debtor's affairs, seems to agree very well with the agents, leaving them to settle the question of arrangement enormous annual iocrease of compositions under that Act, or composition with the debtors ; 3757 compositions were and with their extraordinary reduction by such simple pro accepted in the year 1880, of which 102 were over 10s. in visions as that persons helping to carry deeds by signing the £; 1,009 from 29. 6. to 59.; and 2,095 from 1d. to. them as creditors should prove that they are creditors; the 2s. 6d.
The amount of annual loss by insolvency has been shown from former returns to bave varied considerably, reaching
OBITUARY. about £25,000,000 in more recent times, and averaging, as estimated in my last report, about £20,000,000 per annum during the then last five years, 1875-79.
*.* In our Obituary column last week, we noticed the The amount being of secondary importance, and purely death of Mr. W. C. A, WILLIAMS, of Monmouth, who, we speculative, depending on the possible results from thousands are glad to learn, is still living. The error arose from of estates not yet wound up, and respecting the great confounding Mr. W. C. A. Williams' name with that of the majority of which nothing will ever be known, I did not late Mr. T. J. A. Williams, of Monmouth. think it necessary to explain that those figures were only intended to suggest in round millions a very rough estimate
MR. FENTHAM HEDGES. of probable minimum loss, so far as it could be estimated from the ascertained results of comparatively few cases, with
Mr. Fentham Hedges, barrister, died at his chambers, 2, the considerable margin that should always be allowed in Old-buildings, Lincoln's-inn, on the 1st inet., from accidental such estimates. Want of this explanation appears to have poisoning. Mr. Hedges was the son of the late Mr. Killing. led to some misapprehensions ; among others to an impres
worth Hedges, of Sunbury. He was born in 1853, and he sion that the accurate maximum loss of each year may be
was educated at Exeter College, Oxford, where he graduated
was educated at Exeter College, Oxford, wb worked out by a rule which perhaps might serve for the pur
second class in jorisprudence in 1875.
He was called to poses of a very rough estimate of minimum loss in the year the bar at Lincoln's-inn in July, 1878, and he was an 1870, and with some allowance, in one or two other equity draftsman and conveyancer. Mr. Hedges was found years the estates of which were of considerable average size; dead on the morning of the 1st iost., and upon a post but it is clear that no rule which would apply to such years mortem examination, a quantity of cyanide of potassium could apply to the remaining years in which the average of was discovered in his stomach. He was in the habit of assets was much smaller, because, as frequently explained, occupying bis leisure time with chemical experiments, and the rate of costs, expenses, and every other element of loss is it is supposed that, having become faint through the fumes very much greater in smaller than in larger estates. The of the chemicals, he inadvertently drank the poison. A amount of loss, as shown for each year by that rule, proves,
coroner's inquest has been held, at which a verdict of “ death however, that my estimate for the above five years was, | by misadventure” was returned. Mr. Hedges was un. either by mistake or misprint, at least a million too low; married. correcting it to about £21,000,000, and estimating the loss for the year 1880 at about £14,000,000, the average for the last six years would be about £20,000,000 per annum So far as they may represent the state of trade the returns
LEGAL APPOINTMENTS. for the year 1880 show a satisfactory decrease in the better class of insolvencies, and consequently in the amount of loss; Mr. Thomas CALTHORPE BLOFELD, barrister, has been but, as before observed, bankruptcy statistics refer to the appointed Chancellor of the Diocese of Norwich, in succes. working of the bankruptcy law rather than to the state of sion to Mr. John Worlledge, deceased. Mr. Blofield was trade, and the returns show no improvement in the points to educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated which attention has been directed in this and former reports, in the second class of the classical tripos in_1859. He was among others the constant increase of petty arrangements and called to the bar at Lincoln's-inn in Hilary Term, 1859, and compositions of almost nominal value. The rate of costs in he is a member of the South-Eastern Circuit, practising closed bankruptcies was higher than in any preceding year, locally at Norwich. He was for several years one of the being 414 per cent. of net assets, or 3 per cent. more than staff of the WEEKLY REPORTER, and he was appointed rein the year 1879, and 11 per cent. more than in the year corder of the borough of Ipswich in 1878. 1873, when the assets were of about the same everage. Mr. HENRY BARRELL BRADLEY, solicitor, of Folkestone, This is accounted for partly by the assets of two large bank.
has been appointed a Perpetual Commissioner for taking the ruptcies being entirely absorbed by costs, chiefly of litiga
Acknowledgments of Deeds by Married Women for the County tion; partly by the closing in the last two years of estates
of Kent. that have been a considerable time in hand, and partly by the fact that in the early years of the Act a larger propor
Mr. R. CHAPMAN, solicitor, of 92, London-wall, E.C., tion of estates were undertaken by creditor trustees without
has been appointed a Commissioner to administer Oaths in remuneration, or by solicitors under the provisions of section
the Supreme Court of Judicature. 29 of the Act, at a moderate percentage, including their pro
Mr. THOMAS HERBERT EDWARD FOORD, solicitor, of 16, fessional charges.
Philpot-lane, E.C., and Forest Hill, Kent, has been apThe balance of unemployed funds in bankruptcy on the | pointed a Commissioner to administer Oaths in the Supreme the 31st of December, 1880, was £308,907 ; judging only
Court of Judicature. by their relative assets in the last two years, there would Mr. HERBERT JOHN LLOYD, solicitor, of Carmarthen and be not quite four millions between bankruptcy and liquida Haverfördwest, has been appointed a Perpetual Commis. tion, the whole of which fund is in the bands, or under the sioner for Carmarthenshire and the Town and County of the control, of the trustees, except £14,467 unclaimed dividends Town of Carmarthen for taking the Acknowledgments of &c., in bankruptcy, lodged in the Bank of England. Like | Deeds by Married Wonen. the former estimates, the above supposes that the same trus- |
Mr. MORRIS OWEN, solicitor, of Carnarvon, has been tees who in bankruptcy need to be considerably pressed to
appointed a Perpetual Commissioner for Carnarvonshire for perform their duties, perform them as regularly in liqui. taking the Acknowledgments of Deeds by Married Women dation without any supervision or chance of the results of their administration being known. The amount of
Mr. FRANCIS Scott, solicitor, of 63, Aldermanbury and unclaimed dividends in bankruptcy affords, moreover, no
Hounslow, has been appointed a Commissioner to ad. index to the probable amount in liquidation ; general rules
minister Oaths in the Supreme Court of Judicatore. require trustees in liquidation to reserve dividends for all
Mr. John WHITHAM, solicitor, of Ripon, has been appersons who appear as creditors in the bankrupt's statement, 1 pointed Registrar of the Ripon County Court (Circuit No. or who may notify that they claim to be creditors ; thé | 15), on the resignation of his partner, Mr. John Frederick amount of unclaimed dividends may be largely increased | Augustus Coppen. Mr. Whitbam was admitted in 1876. by imaginary claims, and various other means to the advantage of trustees, but, without reference to that possibility, considerable funds must remain in their hands that in bankruptcy would be distributed among the persons who had
COMPANIES. proved that they were creditors.
LIMITED IN CHANCERY.
BIRMINGHAM ACORN HOTEL COMPANY, LIMITED. - Petition for MAGER, JAMES, Upland rd, Peckbam Rye. Aug 30. Lindsay V..
Malyear y Hale, Hall, V.0. Crouch and Co, Queen Victoria st MANUFACTURERS' FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, LIMITED.-Fry, J, MITCHELL, JOSEPH, Darfield, York, Esq. Oct 1. Mitchell v Mitchell,
has, by an order dated July 25, appointed William Henry Fox, 17, M.R. Stewart, Wakefield Austin Friars, to be official liquidator. Creditors are required, PEARSON, ANN, West Bromwich, Licensed Victualler. Aug 31. on or before Sept 30, to send their names and addresses and the Sheward v Pearson, Hall, V.C. Jackson, West Bromwich particulars of their debts or claims to the above. Oct 28 at 12 is PELL, JONATHAN, Penygarreig, Oswestry, Salop. Oct 25. M.R. appointed for hearing and adjudicating upon the debts and claims POPHAM, EDWARD WILLIAM LEYBORNE, Littlecote, nr Hungerford. SAINT BRIDE's WELSH SLATE AND SLAB COMPANY, LIMITED, -By Oct 26. Popham v Mundy, Hall, V.C. Meynell, Whitehall pl, an order made by the M.R., dated July 16, it was ordered that the Westminster above company be wound up. Marsland, St Swithin's lane, SMITI, EDMUND JAMES, Whitehall pl, Land Agent. Sepr 21. solicitor for the petitioner
Macken v Smith, Hall, V.C. Hardisty and Rhodes, Gt MarlSWISS UNSWEETENED PURE MILK COMPANY, LIMITED.-Petition borough st
for winding up, presented July 29, directed to be heard before WILLIAMS, EDWARD, Rhayader, Radnor, Esq. Sept 1. Williams v Cave, J, on Aug 17. Talbot, Bennet's hill, Doctors' commons, Williams, Bacon, V.0. Underwood, Holles st, Cavendish sq solicitor for the petitioner
WITHERS, WILLIAM, Cranfield rd, Deptford, Master Mariner. 'Sept UNITED SERVICE SUPPLY ASSOCIATION, LIMITED.-Creditors are 1. Withers v Withers, M.R. Marchant, George yd, Lombard st required, on or before Oct 1, to send their names and addresses
[Gazette, July 29.] and the particulars of their debts or claims, to Everitt Everitt,
FEARX, JOB, Slaley, Derby, Retired Farmer. Oct 1. Wardman v and Lieut-Col Francis Ottawa Shearman, 15, Leicester sq. Oct
Fearn, Hall, V.C. Skidmore, Matlock Bath 27 at 12 is appointed for hearing and adjudicating upon the debts
HARLAND, JOHN THOMAS, Tixall Lodge, nr Stafford, M.D. Oct l. and claims
Harland v Entwistle, Hall, V.O. Davenport, Chancery lane [Gazette, Aug. 5.]
RICHARDS, Jostai, Llanddowror, Carmarthen, Farmer. Sept 1. BOURNEMOUTH AND SOUTH COAST STEAM PACKET COMPANY, Nicholas y Richards, Fry J. Lewis, Narberth LIMITED.-V.C. Hall has, by an order dated July 13, appointed SWINBURNE, EDWARD, Malvern Link, Worcester, Land Surveyor. Frederick Henry Cridland, Observer chmbrs, Bournemouth, to be 1 Sept 1. Swinburne v Pitt, M.R. Whatley, Malvern official liquidator
[Gazette, Aug. 2.] COMEDY OPERA COMPANY, LIMITED.-By an order made by the
M.R., dated July 30, it was ordered that the above company be CREDITORS UNDER 22 & 23 VICT. CAP. 25. wound up. Lowless and Co, Martin's lane, Cannon st, solicitors
LAST DAY OF CLAIM, for the petitioner ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC COMPANY, LIMITED.-Fry, J, has, by an
BARKER, SAMUEL, Sheffield, Merchant. Sept 21. Burdekin and Co, order dated July 29, appointed Dalton Easum, 302, Regent st, to
Sheffield be official liquidator. Creditors are requested, on or before Sept
BATFIELD, ELIZABETH, Highfield, Godalming, Surrey. Aug 24. 30, to send their names and addresses, and the particulars of their
Mellersh, Godalming debts or claims, to the above. Oct 28 at 12 is appointed for hear.
BLANTERN, WILLIAM, Ellesmere, Salop, Gent. Aug 20. Salter, ing and adjudicating upon the debts and claims
Ellesmere ENFIELD STUD AND RACE COURSE COMPANY, LIMITED.-The MR.
BROWN, GEORGE, Thrumpton, Nottingham, Miller. Aug 22. has fixed Aug 19 at 11, at his chambers, for the appointment of an
Marshall, East Retford official liquidator
CLAYTON, WILLIAM, Sheffield, Engraver. Aug 29. Webster and GROSVENOR CO-OPERATIVE STORES, LIMITED,-By an order made Styring, Sheffield by V.C. Hall, dated July 29, it was ordered that the voluntary
COLSTON, JOSEPH CARTER, Woodstock terr, Stroud Green rd, winding up of the above stores be continued. Sydney, Coleman
Chemist. Aug 22. Harris, Leicester st, solicitor for the petitioners
DICKINSON, THOMAS, Beverley, York, Gent. Aug 31. Kirkpatrick, LAGER BEER BREWERY, LIMITED.-The M.R. has, by an order
Market Weighton dated July 5, appointed John Henry Champness, 10, Basinghall
HARRISON, JAMES STOCKDALE, Lancaster, Esq. Aug 31. Swainson st, to be official liquidator
and Co, Lancaster PROVINCE OF BRESCIA STEAM TRAMWAY COMPANY, LIMITED.
HAZELL, 'WILLIAM, Farnham, Surrey, Manufacturer. Aug 27. Petition for winding up, presented Aug 8, directed to be heard
Potter, Farnham before Cave, J, on Aug 17. Bellamy and Co, Bishopsgate st
JONES, JOSEPH, Abberley Hall, Worcester, Esq. Oct 15. Tweedalo
and Co, Oldham SANKEY BROOK AND ASHTONS GREEN COLLIERIES COMPANY,
JUKES, ARTHUR, Suffield Lodge, South Totter
Engineer, LIMITED.-By an order made by the M.R., dated July 30, it was
Nov 30. Noon and Clarke, Blomfield st ordered that the above company be wound up. Sharpe and Co,
MILNER, John, Ingleton, Durham, Butcher. Sept 20. Bowes anu Bedford row, agents for Peace and Co, Wigan, solicitors for the
Hett, Darlington petitioner
PARKINSON, CHRISTOPHER, Ramsbottom, Lancaster, Retiredo SUMBURGH MINING COMPANY, LIMITED.-Creditors are required,
Farmer, Aug 23. Grundy, Bury on or before Oct 3, to send their names and addresses and the
PHILLIPS, LUCY RACHEL, Finsbury Park rd, Hornsey. Sept 10. particulars of their debts or claims to Joseph John Saffery, 14,
Price, Walbrook Old Jewry chmbrs. Oct 31 at 11 is appointed for hearing and ad.
RICHARDSON, ELIZABETH, St John's Wood rd. Aug 31. Mullings judicating upon the debts and claims
and Co, Cirencester WHEAL ELIZABETH, LIMITED.-Petition for winding up, presented
ROBERT, WILLIAM THOMAS, Tancredston, Pembroke, Farmer. Aug Aug 4, directed to be heard before Cave, J, on Aug 17. Beall and
31. Price, Haverfordwest Co, Queen Victoria st, solicitors for the petitioners
| Rogers, EDWARD, St Martin's, Salop, Farmer. Aug 20. Salter, [Gazette, Aug. 9.]
Roos, ALEXANDER, Gt Pulteney st, Golden sq, Gent. Aug 31. COUNTY PALATINE OF LANCASTER.
Lattey and Hart, Devonshire sq, Bishopsgate VICTORIA SAW MILL AND WAGON COMPANY, LIMITED.-Petition
SCRIVEN, JOSEPH WILLIAM, Gt St Andrew st, Bloomsbury, Mineral for winding up, presented Aug 6, directed to be heard before the Water Manufacturer. Aug 23. Crump, Budge row, Cannon st V.C. on Aug 22, at his chambers, 21, Old sq, Lincoln's inn, at SHERWIN, JANE, Carthope, York. Aug 12. Coppin and Whitham, 10.30. Houghton and Myres, Preston, solicitors for the peti Ripon tioners
STANTON, JOHN ALFRED, Seven Sisters' rd, Optical Turner, Sept [Gazette, Aug. 9.] 1. Heathfield and Son, Lincoln's inn fields
STEVENS, CHARLES, Hurstpierpoint. Sussex, Tailor, Aug 31. FRIENDLY SOCIETIES DISSOLVED.
Maydwell, Brighton LOWER SWELL AGRICULTURAL LABOURERS' FRIENDLY SOCIETY, WALKER, JOAN, Stamland, Halifax, Cotton Merchant. Oct 1. Lower Swell, Gloucester, Aug 6
Emmet and Walker, Halifax ST. GEORGE'S COURT, UNITED SHEPHERDESSES' SOCIETY, Friendly WATKINS, JOHN, Montpelier sq, Colonel in the Honourable East Societies Hall, Castlegate, York, Aug 6
India Company's Service.“ Aug 31. Waddilove and Nutt, [Gazette, Aug. 9.] Godliman st, Doctors' commons
WIALLEY, THOMAS, Woodville, Dunbam Massey, Chester, Commis. sion Agent. Sept 3. Minor, Manchester
Gazette, July 26.]
SANKEY BROOKOT's for the petitioneellamy and Co. Biso be heard
CREDITORS UNDER ESTATES IN CHANCERY
HIGH COURT OF JUSTICE.
CHANCERY DIVISION. v Basham, M.R. Gemmell, Essex st, Strand BRERETON, FRANCES, Little Massingham, Norfolk. Oct 1. Dew V
LONG VACATION, 1881. Brereton, Hall, V.C. Iliffe, Bedford row
Judge's Paper3. CHILTON, RICHARD HOLBROOK, Farnham, Surrey, Draper. Oct 1.
The foliowing papers for the Vacation Judge are required Knight v Scammell, V.0. Hall. Ward, Farnham COWLEY, CHARLES, Hove, Sussex, Farmer. Oct 1, Souch v Cow.
| to be left with the officer in attendance at the Royal Courts ley, V.C. Hall. Woods and Dempster, Brighton
of Justice (Room 136), on or before the Monday previous GILBERT, GEORGE, Hilldrop crescent, Islington, Gent. Oct 1. MacGregory Hudleston, V.C. Hall. Bramall, Lombard ct, Grace
to the day on which the application to the judge is intended church st
to be made :JOHNSON, ELIZABETI, Birmingham. Sept 10. Woolley v Wadhams, 1 1. Counsel's certificate of urgency, or note of special
M.R. Clarke, Birmingham
leave granted by the judge. Jones y Davies, Fry, J. Peters, Knighton
1 2. Two copies of writ and two copies of pleadings (if
LEGISLATION OF THE WEEK.
any), and any other documents showing the nature of the
In Callahan v. Stanley, California Supreme Court (Jane
15, 1881, 7 Pac. L. J. 672), says the Albany Lane Journal, Mr. Justice Cave will sit as Vacation Judge to hear the lessee of farming land covenanted that the “gtobble urgent applications in obapoery cases in the Rolls Court
should belong to the landlord. In an action by the landon Wednesday, August 17, at 11 a.m., and on every follow lord's assignee to recover damages for having been preing Wednesday until further notice-vide further partion.
vented from grazing his sheep on the land, held, that lars in pripted vacation notice.
evidence was admissible to prove that by the custom of Do Thesday and Thursday in every week Mr. Justice the locality of the leased premises the word "stabble" Cave will attend Judges' Chambers, Royal Courts of Jus
included whatever was left upon the grourd after harvest. tice, to hear sommonses in the Queen's Bench Division, | The court said: “It was the daty of the court to construe when applications for ex parte injonotions or for special the contract in such a way as to render it operative and leave to serve notice of motion, or other argent applica
effectual to carry out the purpose of the parties as ex. tions in chancery matters may be made to his lordship.
pressed in the language and terms which they used. As The time of making the application should be arranged a general rule, the words of a contract are to be understood with his lordship's olerk at judge's obambers.
in their ordinary and popular sense rather than On other days application may be made to Mr. Justice according to their striot legal meaning; but if they Cave at his lordship's residence, Manor Park, Chislehurst.
are used in a technical senge, they should be Kent.
interpreted as osoally understood by persons in the Chancery Registrars’ Chambers, August 9, 1881.
profession or business to which they relate ; or, if they have à special meaning given to them by usage, the meaning should be followed. In such a case evidence explanatory of the words is admissible, not for the purpose of adding to or qualifying or contradicting the contract, but for the purpose of ascertaining it by expounding the language, and so
enabling the court to interpret it according to the actual inHOUSE OF LORDS.
tention of the parties, and the law and usage of the place AUG. 5.-BILLS READ A THIRD TIME.
where it is to be performed. If there was an existing usage
among farmers as to the meaning of the word "stubble' PRIVATE BILLS.—Brighton and Hove Gas, Great Western
when this contract was made, it must be inferred that the Railway, Caterham Spring Water.
contracting parties, being farmers, contracted with reference AUG. 8.-BILL READ A SECOND TIME.
to it, and that they used the word in the broader meaning Publio Works Loads.
which was given to it by that usage, and not in the ordinary BILLS READ A THIRD TIME.
or popular sense. Evidence of such usage and uneaning was
therefore admissible to define and explain the peculiar or PRIVATE Bills. - London and South-Western Railway,
local meaning of the word as it was used in the contract." Rotherbam and Bawtry Railway.
(See Randall v. Smith, 63 Me. 105; S. C., 18 Am. Rep. 200, AUG. 9.-BILLS READ A SECOND TIME, and note, 204 ; Jones v. Hoey, 22 Alb. L. J. 297.) Ecolesiastical Courts Regulation, Metropolitan Board of The trial of Thomas Colclough, stamp distributor, in the Works (Money), Central Criminal Court (Prisons), Corrupt Queen's Bench Division of the Irish High Court, charged Practices (Suspension of Elections).
with having forged and issued stamps to the value of BILL IN COMMITTEE.
several thousand pounds, terminated in the Commission Public Works Loans.
Court in a verdict of “Guilty" on all counts. Mr. Porter,
Q.C., counsel for the prisoner, applied that judgment BILL READ A THIRD TIME.
should be deferred and sentence arrested pending the appeal Private Bill.-Kingston and London Railway.
on a legal point arising in the amendment of th, trial. The prisoner was first arraigned on an indictment which
alleged that he feloniously and with intent to defraud forged HOUSE OF COMMONS.
a certain die. To that he pleaded “not guilty.” Then AUG. 4.-BILLS READ A SECOND TIME. jurors were called, and after the Crown had exercised Corrupt Practices (Suspension of Elections), British
their right of ordering jurors to stand by, and after some
challenges by the prisoner, the jury were sworo. The Hondaras (Court of Appeal), Pedlars (Certificates).
Crown stated that they intended to try the prisoner on BILL WITHDRAWN.
another and a different indictment, on which he had not Exemption from Distress.
been arraigned, and to which he bad not pleaded. The prisoner AUG. 5.-BILLS READ A SECOND TIME. then pleaded to the second indictment and the trial proceeded National Debt, Indian Loan.
upon it. Counsel said it was clear that that course of pro
cedure was erroneous. Until the prisoner had pleaded to BILLS IN COMMITTEE.
the indictment on which he was to be tried, the jury Corrupt Practices (Suspension of Elections) (also read a should not bave been called and empannelled. As he did third time), Conveyancing and Law of Property.
not plead until after the jury were sworn, the whole proBILLS READ A THIRD TIME.
ceedings were void. Mr. Justice Barry observed that PRIVATE Bills.- Bagct Estate, Croker Estate, Manu
counsel might bring a writ of error. Mr. Murphy, Q.C.,
counsel for the Crown, remarked that these frauds comfacturers and Millowpers' Mutual Aid Association, St.
menced in 1871, and had gone on increasing until 1879. He John's Hospital (Bedford).
could prove the facts by witnesses. Mr Justice Barry British Honduras (Court of Appeal).
said they could be proved by affidavit. The prisoner was AUG. 8.-BILI READ A SECOND TIME.
then put back. Several witnesses proved the issue of the Patriotio Fand.
forged stamps. When the police reached the prisoner's BILL READ A THIRD TIME.
office they found a die for ls. 6d. stamps, and a stamping
press, and apparatus for taking fac-similes. They also Conveyancing and Law of Property.
found paper with the arms torn off and seven stamps fora AUG. 9.-BILL READ A SECOND TIME.
up. Bills of Exchange.
AUG. 10.-BILL IN COMMITTEE.
SALE OF ENSUING WEEK.
p.m., Corner Block of Buildings (see advertisement, July 30,
FRIDAY, Aug. 8, 1881.
Under the Bankruptcy Act, 1869. Creditors must forward their proofs of debts to the Registrar.
To Surrender in London, Blackman, William, Old Kent rd, Potato Salesman. Pet Aug 2.
Murray. Aug 16 at 12 Bousfield, William Jeune, Seething lane, Wine Merchant. Pet Aug
2. Murray. Aug 16 at 11 Footman, Thomas, Tabernacle sq. Finsbury, Leather Dresser. Pet
Aug 3.' Pepys. 'Aug 24 at 12.30 Hutchinson, Charles, l'hornhill rd, Barnsbury, Licensed Victualler. Pet Aug 2. Murray. Aug 24 at 12
To Surrender in the Country. Festing, Augustus Morton, Plymouth, Wine Merchant. Pet Aug 3.
Edmonds. East Stonehouse, Aug 19 at 12 Jenner, Samuel, Birmingham, Tailor. Pet Aug 2. Cole. Birming
ham, Sept 1 at 11 Looney, William, Wbitehaven, Cumberland, Grocer. Pet Aug 3.
Were. Whitehaven, Aug 17 at 11 Lord, J W Bedminster, Bristol, Draper. Pet Aug 3. Harley Bristol, Aug 16 at 2
TUESDAY, August 9, 1881.
Under the Bankruptcy Act, 1869. Creditors must forward their proofs of debts to the Registrar.
To Surrender in London. Barrett, William Thomas, Windermere rd, Upper Holloway, Gent.
Pet Aug 6. Murray, Aug 23 at 11 Field, George Harding, Chatsworth rd, Lower Clapton, Builder.
Pet Aug 5. Murray, Aug 31 at 11 Knocker, Charles, Lombard st. Pet Aug 4, Pepys. Aug 24 at
12.30 Matts, Joseph, Jamaica rd, Bermondsey, Licensed Victualler. Pet
Aug 4. Pepys. Aug 24 at 1 Preston, William Richard, Mark lane, Solicitor. Pet Aug 5. Pepys.
Sept 1 at 11 Reynolds, George, Blackfriars rd, Boot Manufacturer. Pet Aug 4. Pepys. Sept 2 at 11
To Surrender in the Country. Brown, James, Pulham, St Mary the Virgin, Norfolk, Butcher,
Pet Aug 4. Grimsey. Ipswich, Aug 23 at 11.30 Halford, Law Rooks, Bradford, York, Butter Factor. Pet Aug 6.
Lee. Bradford, Aug 19 at 12 Serrell, Campbelí, Ilminster, Somerset, Esg, Pet Aug 4. Batten.
Yeovil, Aug 30 at 11 Walters, William, Eirw, Porth, nr Pontypridd, Glamorgan, Grocer.
Pet Aug 2. Spickett. Pontypridd, Aug 20 at 10 Wibberley, Brian, Sturston, Derby, Miller. Pet Aug 4. Hubbersty.
Burton-on-Trent, Sept 27 at 1.30 Williamson, Edwin, Ashton-under-Lyne, Boot Manufacturer. Pet Aug 6. Hall. Ashton-under-Lyne, Aug 25 at 11
TUESDAY, Aug. 9, 1881.
Liquidations by Arrangement.
FRIDAY, August 5, 1881.
11 at the Royal Hotel, Wakefield. Shaw, Dewsbury Bailey, Samuel, Bolton, Lancaster, Earthenware Dealer. Aug 17
at 3 at offices of Ramwell and Co, Mawdsley st, Bolton Baldwin, John Frederick, Mitford, Northumberland, Farmer. Aug
12 at 2 at offices of Taylor, Grainger st, West, Newcastle-on
Tyne Beaumont, Alfred, Huddersfield, Warehouseman. Aug 17 at 11 at
offices of Johnson and Crook, Market wall, Huddersåeld Blunsdon, William Baker, North Moreton, Berks, Farmer. Aug 18
at 2 at the Lamb Hotel, High st, Wallingford. Hedges and Co, Wallingford Brown, Thomas, Birmingham, Fruit Salesman. Aug 19 at 11 at
offices of Ansell, Waterloo st, Birmingham Bye, Edmund, Westhall rd, Forest hili, Builder, Aug 24 at 2 at
111, Cheapside. Pettiver, College st, College hill Cartwright, Joseph, Castle Donnington, Leicester, Baker. Aug 18
at 11 at offices of Fisher and Co, Asby-de-la-Zouch Cheever, William Cannell, and Frederic Pooley, Liverpool, Wine Merchants. Aug 18 at 2 at the Cannon st Hotel, Cannon st,
Harris and Gorst, Liverpool Cowburn, Samuel, and Sidney Cowburn, Manufacturing Chemists. Gomersal, York. Aug 17 at 3 at offices of Carr and Cadman,
Crown st, Cleckheaton Culy, Ephraim, March, Cambridge, Farmer. Aug 15 at 11 at offices
of Sidney and Ollard, York row, Wisbech Daniel, William Edward, Short Heath, nr Wolverhampton, Licensed
Victualler. Aug 19 at 12 at offices of Baker, Bridgest, Walsall Dartcall, Henry Thomson, Cheltenham, Seedsman, Aug 26 at 11 at
offices of Heath, Regent st, Cheltenham Dealtry, John, Holcroft Culcheth, nr Warrington, Butcher Aug 24
at 3 at offices of Storer and Lloyd, Fountain st, Manchester Deane, Thomas, Radley, Berks, Farmer. Aug 19 at 3 at Crown and
Thistle Hotel, Abingdon Challenor and Son, Abingdon Dodds, Edward, Western hill, Durham, Engineer. Aug 24 at 11 at
offices of Marshall, Market pl, Durham Draycott, William, Hinckley, Leicester, Butcher. Aug 10 at 12 at
offices of Cowdell, Borough, Hinckley Dury, Joseph, Merthyr Tydfil, Coal Miner. Aug 15 at 12 at office of
James and Co, Merthyr Tydfil
Easterbrook, Nicholas James, Kingston-upon-Hull, Cabinet Maker.
Aug 10 at 3 at offices of Chambers, Scale lane, Kingston-uponHull Freeman, Charles, Dagenham, Essex, Farmer. Aug 18 at 2 at. New Exchange bldgs, George yd, Lombard st. Freeman and
Bothamley, Queen st, Cheapside French, Edward, Witney, Oxford, out of business. Aug 19 at 11 a
offices of Kilby and Mace, West st, Chipping Norton Fulford, Caroline, Clifton, Bristol, Greengrocer, Aug 19 at 12 at offices of Stanley and Co, Royal Insurance bldgs, Corn st, Bris
tol Gentle, John, Bow rd, Ham and Beef Dealer, Aug 15 at 3 at offices
of Dashwood, Mark lane Gostling, William Thomas, Brighton, Bookseller. Aug 17 at 3 at
offices of Nye and Greenwood, Serjeant's inn Gregg, Harry, Weston st, Southwark, Provision Dealer. Aug 16 at
1 at offices of Hanson, King st, Cheapside. Wetherfield, Queen
st, Cheapside Grieves, James, Mincing lane, Commission Merchant. Aug 17 at
12 at City Terminus Hotel, Cannon st. Wickens, Palmerston bldgs, Old Broad st Harris, John, Dunmow, Essex, Butcher. Aug 23 at 10 at offices of
Snell, Gt Dunmow Harrison, James, Horncastle, Lincoln, Cattle Dealer. Aug 22 at 11
at offices of Tweed and Co, Saltergate Hill, Josiah, Coventry, Warwick, Corn Dealer. Aug 18 at 11 at
offices of Goate, Little Park st, Coventry Hodge, William, Bristol, Grocer. Aug 13 at 12 at offices of Sprod,
John st, Bristol. Essery, Bristol Holden, Jonathan George, Wigan, Lancaster. Innkeeper. Aug 23
at 11 at offices of Johnson, King st, Wigan Hopkinson, Nathan, Pimbole, Bury, Lancaster. Aug 22 at 3 at
offices of Anderton and Donnelly, Garden st, Bury Howard, Cyrus, Birkenhead, Chester, Baker. Aug 20 at 11 at office
of Bleakley and Downham, Hamilton sq, Birkenhead Johnson, Joseph, Llanaelhaiarn Carnarvon, Settmaker. Aug 19 at
12 at offices of Allanson, Bron Seiont, Carnarvon Kemp, Richard, jun, Gorleston, Suffolk, Carpenter. Aug 24 at 12
at offices of Blake, Hall quay chmbrs, Gt Yarmouth. Palmer, Gt
Yarmouth Keppler, John, Commercial rd East, Baker. Aug 22 at 3 at offices of
Morris, Paternoster row Kerstein, George Henry, Cardwell ter, Holloway, Baker. Aug 15 at
3 at offices of Ogle, Long acre King, George David, Millbrook, Southampton, Grocer. Aug 19 at
12 at Creditors' Association, Arthur st East, London bridge May and Co, Adelaide pl Lawley, William, Grove hill road, Denmark hill, out of business.
Aug 18 at 3 at offices of Curtis, Old Jewry chbrs Marshall, Edwin, Wakefield, York, Fruiterer. Aug 17 at 3 at offices
of Lodge, Townhall chmbrs, King st, Wakefield Martin, William, Saint Helen's, Lancaster, Painter. Aug 30 at 3
at Crescent Hotel, Liverpool rd, Saint Helen's. Tremewen, Man
chester Mills, James, Hulme, Manchester, Japan Furniture Manufacturer.
Aug 8 at 3 at offices of Simpson and Hockin, Mount st, Albert sq,
Manchester Mobbs, William, Leicester, Photographer. Aug 19 at 3 at offices of
Loseby and Battiscombe, Market pl, Leicester Moore, John William, Stean, nr Middlesmoor, York, Farmer. Aug 16
at l at offices of Bateson and Hutchinson, Ripon Morris, John, Bronghton, Lancaster, Wheelwright. Aug 19 at 3 at
offices of Blackhurst. Fox st, Preston Murphy, Frank, Bury, Lancaster, Slate Merchant. Aug 23 at 2 at
Dog and Partridge Inn, Fennell st, Manchester. Anderton and
Donnelly, Bury Nicholson, Senior, Batley, York, Flock Merchant. Aug 18 at 3 at
the Station Hotel, Batley Walker Nunn, Cornelius, St. Mary's rd, Commercial Traveller. Aug 19 at
12 at offices of Plunkett and Leader, St. Paul's churchyard Nuttman, Richard Jonathan, Maple rd, Penge, Clothier. Aug 25 at
3 at offices of Noton, Lombard st Orton, Thomas, Ravenstone, Leicester, out of business. Aug 18 at
11 at offices of Fisher and Co, Ashby-de-la-Zouch Parr. Jonathan. Westleigh, nr Manchester, Coal Miner. Aug 19 at
3 at offices of Taylor and Sons, Church st, Leigh Popple, Robert, Scarborough, York Builder Aug 15 at 3 at offices
of Cornwall and Watts, Queen st, Scarborough Posener, David, Commercial st, East, Tobacco Pipe Manufacturer.
Aug 24 at 2 at offices of Lee, Greshamn bldgs, Basinghall st Rodda, Walter Alan, Stratford, Essex, Builder. Aug 12 at 3 at
offices of Dashwood, Mark lane Russell, James, John Lemmon Russell, and Hezekiah Russell, Union
rd, Tufnell park, Photographers. Aug 19 at 2 at offices of Gregory, East st. Chichester Russell, Robert, Mumbles, Glamorgan, Licensed Victualler. Aug
18 at 3 at the Adelphi Hotel, Wind st, Swansea. John, Swansea Shemilt, Jchn David, Leigh, Stafford, Farmer, Aug 17 at 3 at at
offices of Welch, Carolina st, Longton Simkin, Henry, Bedford terrace, Kensington, Grocer. Aug 18 at 2 a
offices of Warde, Chancery lane Simpson, John Wilkinson, Hurworth, Durham, Butcher. Aug 17
at 11 at offices of Barron, High row, Darlington Standbridge, Edwin, Lancaster, Watchmaker. Aug 22 at 11 at office
of Clark and Co, Church st, Lancaster Stephenson, Charles, Leeds, Grocer. Aug 19 at 11 at Law Institu
tion, Albion pl, Leeds Sugden, William, Bradford, Aug 18 at 11 at offices of Hutchinson
and Son, Piccadilly chbrs, Piccadilly, Bradford Sykes, Charles Ernest, Slaithwaite, nr Huddersfield, Draper. Aug
13 at 10.30 at offices of Ainley and Hall, New st, Huddersfield Tavlor. Mary Jane, Gateshead, Confectioner. Aug 18 at 12 at office
of Maw, jun, Market pl, Bishop Auckland Walker, John Booth, and Jane Walker, Huddersfield, Timber Mer
chants. Aug 15 at 3 at Pack Horse Hotel, Huddersfield. Mills and Bibby, Huddersfield Ward, Alfred, Ilkley, York, Outfitter. Aug 24 at 10.30 at Guildhall
Coffee Tavern. Gardiner and Jeffery, Bradford