« PreviousContinue »
by J. S. Lippincott of N. J., published in the Report of the Department of Agriculture, and from which he read the following extracts :
“ It has been demonstrated that at those localities where the summer mean temperature falls below 67° the wine grape will not ripen its ' ruit so as to produce wine of any valuable quality; 65° mean summer temperature is the lowest that will permit the vine Extremes of humidity and dryness are exceedingly injurious to the wine grape. [He quotes Bludgele's Climatology.] Throughout thu Northern States the fall of rain during the summer varies from 9 to 14 inches. • The region over which the full of 9 to 10 inches of summer rain extends includes ull the localities where the cultivation of the vine, in the Northern section of our country, bas been attended with the largest share of success.' At Cincinnati and St. Louis the summer fall of rain is about 14 inches.
“ Temperature as affected by the Lakes.--In May, the water of the lower lakes, one foot b.low the surface, is but 70 above the freezing point. Its temperature rises gradually to that of the atmosphere the latter part of July, and above it in August. In September it is nearly three degrees Warmer, and to the middle of October it rotains the temperature of 53o, which is 60 ahove that of the air along the southern shore. The region around the southwest shores of Lake Erie, Blodgett says, correeponds more nearly than any other egction of our country to thie wine-growing regions of the Rhine.”
In reference to the distance inland from the lake, which these advantages extended, considerable difference of opinion prevailed. Mr. Dewey, of Sandu-ky, thought that an average of about a mile was as far as could be relied on. Mr. Scott thought I wo miles would be safe if the soil was good, but in going towards Cleveland from Sandusky, the character of the soil changes to a sandy loam, which is not as favorable for grapes, especially for making wine. This was followed by remarks of similar import by Mr. Kelley, of the Island, Mr. Elliott, of Cleveland, and a number of others.
Soils.--Mr. Dewey said the Catawba grapes grown on sandy lands east of the Huron River ripened well, apparently, but were not as sweet as those grown at Sandušky, and on the Island—the latter sbowing 90° or 92° by the saccharometer, and the former only 750 or 80°. Mr. Elliott said that 75 10 80 was about the average of the Catawba must at Cleveland, and wbich bad been regarded as making fair wine. He would like to see some rule established in regard to the strength of the must requisite for making good wine. Dr. Warder said at Cincinnati the range was from about 75 to 90°.
Mr. E., respecting soils, said he believed facts prove that clayey soils are best for grapes, especially for wine. One reason probably is, such soils do not start up the beat and growth so early in spring as warm, sandy svils, and tbey retain the heat longer io tbe fall.
Mr. Kelley said, Mr. Addison Kelley once used stable manure on a portion of his vineyard, and it caused the fruit to speck and rot for several years. Plaster is found to have no effect on the Island.
Mr. Dewey bad tried slaughter-bouse manure and lime mixed, a shovelful to a vine, on a vineyard of one acre, with very good results. Mr. McKelvey said no. manure was generally used around Sandusky, and the best vineyards were on the poorest land. Mr. Barney preferred to be near the lime rock.
Mr. Elliott said no manure was often used around Cleveland; when it had been tried it usually caused mildew on the fruit and vines.
PREPARATION or Soil.—Mr. Kelley said the first requisite was to drain the land thoroughly-be makes the drains about 40 feet apart. Next plows as deeply as possible, say 15 to 18 inches. Trencbing with the spade is not practised in that region, por deemed of advantage. Mr. Elliott said trenching is not now practised around Cleveland, and is not necessary if land is well drained. It was formerly thought that sloping bill-sides were requisite for vineyards, but that was a mistake ; most of the vineyards in Cuyaboga county, and also around Sandusky, are on level lands.
In planting young grape vines Mr. Kelley recommended cutting off all the surface roots, as if left to grow the lower roots will die and all will be surface roots, to the detriment of the vine. [Ts that faci, or only theory ?— Sec'y.] Dr. Warder said another reason for preventing the growth of surface roots is, they are apt to be in the way of the plow or cultivator, in tilling.
The distance apart for setting the vines on the Island is about 6 X 8 feet, which is a little over 900 to the acre. This is allowing the vines more space than has been the practice at Cincionati, and most other places.
Nute.--The discussion on planting. training, and pruning the vines is not published bere, as the information may be found in better form in the Patent Office Report for 1861, and in several other publications.--Sec'y.
ON PLUM CULTURE AND THE CURCU!.10.
Mr. Bateham inquired whether any progress could be reported in the cultivation of plums in Ohio, or in discovering a mode of preventing the ravages of the curculio. Mr. Scott said the best remedy for the curculio was to cut down all the plum trees and not plant any more ; we can easily do without them. Mr. B said he was not disposed to give up the contest so readily ; for bis part, if he had suitable land and opportunity he would as soon plant an orchard of plum trees with an expectation of profit as any other kind of fruit. He referred to the practice of Messrs. Ellwanger and Barry of Rochester, and their success, by the jarring method. Their plum orchard is on a level piece of ground, convenient to the house and worksbops. It is a part of their system to spade the ground each spring. then roll it hard and smooth, just as ihe trees are in blossom, or when the insects begin to appear. It is kept hard and smooth during the summer, so that the fallen fruit can easily be gathered up and burned. Theo during the three or four weeks that the little Tu,ks" are about, the trees arc jarred two or three times a day with a blow from a mallet having an Indiarubber cu:biin on i18 fuce, to prevent injury to the bark, a catcher in the form of a light frainc with muslin stretched on it being frst spread under the tree, in to which the insects drop, and from which they are transferred to a pail of scalding wa'er.
This process is quite simple and easy, and very little expense compared with the
value of the crop, when a good number of trees are concerned, as would be the case where cultivated for market; but for balf a dozen or so trees, as in a private yard or garden, of course it won't pay.
Mr. — inquired if the practice of digging the ground and beating and rolling it bard, when the trees were in blossom, was not the substance of the Mathews Remedy for the curculio, of which there was a good deal of talk some years ago?
Mr. Fahnestock said that he was a personal friend of Mr. Mathews, and was one of the committee to whom he imparted a knowledge of bis remedy for the purpose of having it tested and the result made known. That committee, of whom Mr. Barry was also a member, had never been satisfied that the remedy was sufficiently effective to answer the expectations of the public or the desires of the inventor; and now that 80 long time has elapsed he believed there was no object to be accomplished by keeping the matter secret. In fact it was already pretty extensively known, as we have just learned, and is a part of the method practised by Ellwanger and Barry, to wit, spading the ground under the trees, turning it over as deeply as can be done, and beating it bard just before the insects ascend the trees in the spring. At this time, it was claimed, the insects would be very near the surface of the ground, and if buried 4 to 8 ioches deep and the ground made bard above them, they were unable to make their way out. Mr. F. was of the opinion that if this was properly done at the right time, it was of considerable advantage, and no doubt contributed materially to the success of Messrs. Ellwanger and Barry, although they probably relied mainly on the jarring of the trees afterwards.
Mr. A. G. Hanford, of Columbus, spoke of the contrivance of Dr. Hull of Alton, IU., for jirring plum trees. He has a light, folding frame, covered with cotton cloth, with an opening on one side to admit the body of the tree; this is placed on top of a sort of wheelbarrow so constructed that it can be wheeled from one tree to another, and striking against the tree cause sufficient jar, by its momentum, the frame or catcher being at the same time brought into position without the operator having to let go the handles of the barrow, except occasionally to empty out the insects.
Mr. Nelson said he had tried the jarring process pretty thoroughly without success did not think it would pay. Mr. Storrs bad succeeded so well with it that he had to prop up bis plum trees to prevent their breaking down with fruit. Mr. Lyon bad seen good results from jarring; said the curculio often sting: apples, as seen by its mark, but he thinks the worm does not live so as to come to maturity there, as he never could find a live one of considerable size in an apple ; and the wound always seemed to have healed. He also thought the worms did not generally come to maturity in cherries, the fruit ripening too early for them. Dr. Lungren, of Toledo, said he had paid much attention to the babits of the cur
be found that it was not disposed to fly from tree to tree, except when dis turbed, or in search of the proper nidus for its eggs. He had considerable faith in Mathews' remedy, and also in jarring; but the latter would need to be continued for a longer period than three or four weeks, for he had discovered a second crop of the insects, depositing eggs, as late as the 1st of July; but probably this second brood is
Bot often so numerous as to cause much damage, especially as fruit is then so far advanced.
Black Knot in Plum Trees.—Mr. Storrs said he formerly lived in Cortland Co., N. Y., and there the black knot very generally prevailed, as it does in many other parts of that State ; he had recently seen it very bad in Western Pennsylvania, around Erie and Gerard; but he had not seen any of it in Ohio; be could not tell wby it should prevail in those States and not in this; had noticed that it was, seemingly, worst in cold, clayey lands, whore beech and bemlock timber prevails; he was not aware that the cause of the disease, or the remedy, had as yet been discovered.
Mr. Elliott, Mr. Stowe, ard several others were familiar with the disease, but had never seen it in Ohio except in young trees brought from the East, and then it did not spread. Dr. Warder said the opinion had been put forth that this disease was caused by the curculio depositing its eggs in the young branches, when it could not find fruit; but this idea was erroneous and soon abandoned. The eggs of the curculio and other insects may have been found in the soft, pulpy substance produced by the disease, but that was an effect and not a cause of the evil. The real cause had not been discovered ; and no better remedy was known than cutting off the affected parts and burning them. Similar disease exists in some kinds of forest trees, as the scrub oak, in certain parts of the country.
The Committee on Election made the following recommendation of officers for the ensuing year :
For President Dr. J. A. WARDER, of Cincindati.
Committee Ad Interim-G. W. Campbell, of Delaware ; S. B. Marsball, Massillon; F. R. Elliott, Cleveland ; J. R. Miller, Springfield, with the abore officers.
The report of the Committee was confirmed by the meeting, and the officers recommended were elected.
Mr. Elliott, of Cleveland, offered the following rosolution, which was unanimously adopted by the Society :
Resolved, That the President, Vice President, and Secretary of the Obio Pomological Society be a Committee empowered in the name of this Society to petition the State Legislature for a grant of money sufficient to pay the traveling expenses of the Ad-Interim Committee, in examining, comparing and preparing a report on early and late summer fruits, or such as cannot be brought together for examination at our regular annual meetings.
Mr. Bateham offered the following, which was also adopted :
Resolved, That the Committee Ad-Interim be requested to make a report on Strawberries and other summer fruits, the coming season, from observations made by them in two or more sections of the State, and that their traveling expenses for this purpose be paid by the Society as far as there may be funds on hand.
A resolution was also adopte i thanking the President for the very able and gentlemanly manner in which he had presided over the deliberations of the Convention.
Another resolution was adopted by acclamation, thanking the citizens of Toledo for their very cordial and generous hospitality to the members and delegates of the Society from abroad, during the three days of the meeting.
NEXT MEETING OF THE SOCIETY.
Mr. Storrs, in behalf of the citizens of Painesville, O., invited the Society to appoint its next annual meeting at that place.
Mr. Miller did the same in bebalf of the citizens of Springfield, O.
Sei eral members of the committee expressed their preference for Painesville ; (and the Secretary of the Society is now a resident of that place.]
FRUITS AND WINES EXHIBITED.
Indiana Horticultural Society, by G. M. Beeler, Secretary-31 varieties of Apples.
H. T. Dewey. Sandusky-Catawba Wine, vintage of '62 and '63; Isabella, vintage of '62 and ’63; Kittridge, vintage of '63; Black Currant, vintage of '63.
James Dunipace, Wood county-Catawba and Clinton, vintage '61; Isabella and Clinton, vintage of '62; Red Currant.
Mrs. Joseph Bell, of Washington township, Lucas county_7 varieties of Wines Elderberry, Isabella, Peach, Raspberry, Pear, Red and Wbite Currant.
APPLE JELLY FROM CIDER.
C. Cory & Sons, of Lima, Indiana, exhibited specimens of Apple Jelly made from