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III. TABLE III.—Meteorological Observations taken at Medina, Ohio, for the year ending Oct. 31, 1863, by William P. Clarke, A. M.

Latitude 41 deg. 7 min. N.; Longitude 81 deg. 47 min. W. Height above the sea, 1,255 feet.

REMARK8.1

BAROMETER.

THERMOMETER.

RAIN AND SNOW.

PREVAILING

WINDS.

NONTH.

Montbly mean.
Coldest day.
Mean of coldest day.
Warmest day.
Mean of warmest day.
Number days of snow.
Days of rain and snow.
Depth of snow.
Days of rain.
Stormy days.

Maxim m.

Minimum.

Maximum.

Depth of rain and melted snow.

Minimum.

Range.

Mean.

No. of times.

Range.

Dir ection.

Direction,

No. of times.

1862 November.... 29.162 28.199 28.639.963 67. 27. 40. 33.9 23 26.8 158.5 6.. 6.5 8 14 3.129 S. 16'S. W.30

December .... 29.205 28.197 28.683 1.108 58. 9. 49. 33.7 20 13.3 14 55.5 7 110.6 7 13 3.950 S. 15 S. W.29
1863-January ...... 29.165 27.967 28.622 1.19852. 4. 18. 31.317 10. 345.310 33.511 18 5.277 N.W.13 S. W.37 Very wet.

February ..... 29.175 2.034 28.718 1.0852. 3. 46. 25.5 3 5.826* 5.311 217.9 6 15 3.055 S. E 22 S. W.283d. Coldest day of the year.
March..

........ 28.995 23.192 28. .801 55. 7. 9. 32.4 13 14.3 2357.713 315.9 8 19 2.51 S.W. N.W.18 Stormy.
April.. 28.9 27.918 28.693 .972 72. 16. 56. 41.4 42.71165.2 2 1 72. 8 9.738 N. 23 N.W.22 Pleasant.
May
28.936.98.137 28.593 .729.5 40. 43.562.1 1451.322 77.

10 10 1.796 S. W.41 N.W 17 June ......... 28.841 28.224 28.612 .617 89. *3.5 37.503.3 6.33.2 15 75.2

8 1.852 S. W.23 i. 187th. Frost in the morning. July ......... 23.87399.464 33.611 .409 85. 31.5 68.1 16 56.8 3 78.5

8 1.302 S. W.29 N.W. 23 Dry. Variation of barometer slight
August.......
28.95323.400 28.692 .553 89. 9.538.572.4% 52.7 281.3

9 2.759 S. W.46 N. E. 15 2. Hottest day of the year.
September 29.069 28.412 23.792 .657 82.5 39. 43.561. 35 42.2 1772.5

4 2.360 S. W.39 N. 14 20th and 25th. White frost.
October 29.104,98.29498.675 .810 69. 32.5 36.523.42537.8 163.8

9 2.070 S. W.45 N. E. 1923d. Frost killed vines.

Means.....

-8.589

19.1

Totals..

4910 80.696 134 31.262

TABLE IV.-Abstract from Meteorological Journal kept at Kelley's Island, Ohio,

by George C. Huntington. Lat. 41 deg. 35 min. 44 sec. North, Long. 82 deg. 42 min. 32 sec. West. Height of cistern of barometer above tide-water, 587 fi.

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March.....

....

Inch'e 1 h. Inch. In. 1862–December.. 32.74 36.29 34.16 34.39 72 16 56 ... 29.349 29.91 28.911.C) 3 4.71 1863-January

30.64 34.53 31.87 34.63 47 11 36 29.275 29.77 28.701.07 5 3.04 February

25.39 32.29.18 29.00 26 24 29.378 29.79 28.810.98 187 2.62

29.09 35.61 31.2 52.00 51 17 34 29.282 29.64 28.870.77 61 1.51 April

40.40 47.33 41.37 43.03 64 17 47 | 47° 29.312 29.64 28.68 0.96 1.98 May

56.68 66.13 56.97 59.94 84 40 44 620 29.997 29.58 28.87 0.71 .... 2.12

63,70 72.16 63.67 66.511 86 52 34 70° 29.322 29.55 28.94 0.61 Juiy

69.03 76.32 68.5 71.42 88 56 32 74° 29.33129.55 29.150.12 August 70.06 76.81 69.6! 72.16 89 52 37 720 29.396 29.64 29.10),51 1.74

42 September. 59.23 67.73 60.4862.46 85 43

1.29

64" 29.434 29.75 29.100.65 October.... 47.16 51.19 49.CS 50.14 70 39 31 49° 29.376 29.76 28.93 0.83 2.84 November • 40.07 46.60 42.53 43.07 59 19 40 40° 29.308 29.69 28.95 0.74 3.51

333 29.79

June ........

.... 3.00 ... 1.43

48.250

SUMMARY FOR THE YEAR ENDING Nov. 30, 1863.
Mean temperature at 7 A. M.

47.010 Mean temperature at 2 P. M......

53.850 Mean temperature at 9 P. M.......... Mean temperature of the year, from 1,095 observations..

49.700 It is found, from actual observations continued through long periods, that if the temperature is recorded daily at 7 A. M., 2 P. M., and 9 P. M., the resulting mean temperature is nearly identical with that found from observations made every hour during the twenty-four; consequently the mean temperature, as deduced from these three daily observations, is considered sufficiently accurate for all practical purposes.

Highest temperature recorded at regular hour, Aug. 5, 2 P. M., 89 deg.
Lowest temperature at regular hour, Feb. 3, 7 A. M., 2 deg.
Extreme range for the year, 87 deg.
Warmest days, July 3d and August 5-mean temperature, 80.33.
Coldest day, February 3d—mean temperature, 7.33 deg.
Latest frost in spring, April 8.
Earliest frost in autumn to injure vegetation, Nov. 9th.

Barometer Maximum height, Dec. 10th, 11 A, M.

Minimum, April 20, 7 A. M.
Extreme range....

29.91 inches
28.68
1.23

Amount of snow in inches, 334
Amount of water from rain and melted snow, 29.79 inches.

I have, in a former communication, alluded to the very great degree of uniformity in the mean annual temperature of any given place, as found from observations, continued for a long period, in various places, and I now add a few notes from my journal, tending to show, that in this locality the same results are observed in a very marked degree. These notes would be entitled to no particular consideration, if the facts were confined wholly to thiş section of country, but as corroborative of observations made by various individuals, in different and widely distant parts of the country, they may be deemed worthy of a place in this communication.

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Mean temperature of four consecutive years, 49.624-or say...
Coldest year in four-mean temperature....

49.63
49.51

.12

Which is but twelve hundredths of one degree below the mean. Warmest year in four—mean temperature, 49.76—which is but thirteen hundredths of one degree above the mean of four years.

Difference between the coldest and warmest year in four, is twenty-five hundredths

or one-fourth of one degree. Again: If we put it in a different shape, and end the year on the 31st of March, instead of 30th November, we have the following results, viz: Year ending March 31st, 1860—mean temperature...

49.40 deg. March 31st, 1861–

49.38 1 March 31st, 1862

49.60 March 31st, 1863

60.20

4)198.58

...............

Mean temperature of four years ending March 31st, 1868...

49.644 Here we have the same mean temperature within fifteen thousandths of one degree; but the extremes are somewhat different. The coldest year in four is twenty-six hundredths of a degree colder than the mean of four years, and the warmest year is fifty-five hundredths of a degree warmer

than the mean; and the extreme difference between the coldest and the warmest year is eighty-two hundredths of one degree. If we take a period af ten years, instead of four, the result would be found not materially different.

In view of these facts we may assume the mean temperature of any place, as deduced from regular observations continued through ten consecutive years, to be, for all practical purposes, a fixed quantity, and make our estimate accordingly.

But, it may be asked, of what practical importance is it, if these are established facts ? The question is best answered by a practical illustration. We have had for months through the newspapers prophecies to the effect that the coming winter will be one of unusual severity. These prophecies are based upon what are said to be the instincts or intuitions of some sagacious animals, which are said never to fail. We are told that the beaver, the muskrat, and some other animals, have made unusual provision for the coming winter in the building and storing their habitations. Again, it is said by the farmers, that the ears of corn are enveloped in an unusually thick covering of inner husks. This, too, is said to be a never-failing sign of a cold winter.

Now, if these prophecies hold good, they will be at variance with what. we think the legitimate deductions from observed facts. In the first place, we have seen that the mean temperature of this locality will not differ materially from 49.63 deg.; this gives an aggregate of mean, for the twelve months

Of ......

595.56 The aggregate of mean for the eleven months ending with Nov. 30th, is found, by observation, to be..........

562.07

Leaving, for the mean temperature of December, 1863......

33,49 It may be a little above or a little below this; but the difference, whatever it is, will be compensated in a great measure by the first of April, as will be seen when our estimates are completed. For, if we take another view of the case, and end the year with March 31st, instead of November &Oth, we have the following results :

Say aggregate of mean for twelve months ending March 31st....... 595.56 Aggregate of mean of eight months—say from April 1st to December 1st, as obtained from observations....

468.71

Leaving for the aggregate means of Dec., Jan., Feb. and March..... 126.85 a a mean monthly temperature of 31.71.

This does not preclude the possibility of some severe weather, but in this case we shall have warm weather enough to bring the mean very near, I think, to the above figures. It is not pretended that by this method we can always tell exactly what the temperature will be a month in advance, but we can probably make a much nearer approximation to the truth than by any system of blind guessing. There is in this method one chance for error which will readily suggest itself. For instance, in our table of means ending March 31, we find the warmest year in four is fifty-five hundredths of a degree warmer than the mean of four years. Now, if the whole of this difference is thrown into one month, it will make a difference in that month of something over six degrees, which would throw doubts on the reliability of the plan. Although this is possible, it is by no means proba ble; and if we allow one-half of this difference for one month, it will reduce it to about three degrees, as the probable limit of error. In praa tice I have found these estimates, in the great majority of cases, within one or one and a half degrees of the truth-oftentimes less than one degree It is proper to observe, however, that greater accuracy is insured by taking into account the mean temperature of the given month for a number of years-some months being much more variable than others. This may make it necessary to modify somewhat the result of the first calculation

I have extended this communication much beyond the limits I intended; but if it shall have the effect to call the attention of my brother observers to these matters, my object will be attained, and we may, by united action, in time, reduce some of the laws governing temperature to something like science.

GEO. C. HUNTINGTON. KELLEY'S ISLAND, O., Dec. 10, 1863.

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