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fact it had no more than one-fourth of its cleared lands in crops. From the annexed table it will be seen that the Scioto valley does not equal the Miami in any product, whether considered in the light of absolute quantities, relative product per acre, or relative proportion of the entire State.

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The manifest impression which this table will make when compared with Table No. 2, is that the Scioto Valley is not so fertile as the Miami, but those who have traveled extensively in both are not so ready to concede the superiority of soil to the Miami, but all readily concede that farming seems to be conducted on a much better system in the Miami than in the Scioto Valley. There is undoubtedly less stimulus to cultivate in the Scioto, owing to the want of facilities to export the surplus produce, there being only one mile of railroad to twenty-eight square miles of territory, or about one third of the railroad facilities enjoyed by the Miami Valley. In the year 1863 the Scioto produced just one half the amount of the great staple, wheat, that was produced in the Miami Valley; and upon the whole the system of farming differs from that in the Miami.

From Table No. 5 it will be seen that the farmer in the Scioto Valley having one hundred acres to put into crops, does not follow the precise

0.22

5.00

0.83

proportions which obtain in the Miami—the Scioto farmer puts in less wheat, but more corn; less barley and tobacco, but more meadow. The relative proportion of crops in the Scioto Valley is as follows: Wheat...........25.98 acres. Corn....... 46.95 acres. Tobacco......... 0:14 acres. Rye...... Oats

Sorgho. Barley.. 0.20 Flax, 1.30 Clover...

3.50 Buckwheat....... 0.17 Potatoes.

... 0.91 Meadow... .14.49 This produces for him nearly 203 bushels per acre of grain and root crops, enabling him to keep eleven head of horses, twenty-two head of cattle, sixty-nine sheep, and thirty-six head of swine. The amount of manure produced from the amount of live stock kept on each hundred acres more than is kept in the Miami, should do something towards increasing the fertility of the soil. The following table shows the analysis of the live stock returns in the Scioto Valley:

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TABLE VI.-LIVE STOCK IN THE SCIOTO VALLEY. No. of HORSES . 121,900 No. of SHEEP.....

-756,538 per square mile...... 16.25

per square mile....... 100.87 acres in crops for every horse.. 8.98 acres in crops for every sheep. 1.44 horses for ev'ry 100 ac. in crops 11.13 sheep per 100 acres in crops. 69.44 inhabitants to each horse .... .2.72

to every inhabitant.... 2.28 " horses to every 100 inhab'ts .. 36.76

to every 100 inhabitants 228.00 No. of CATTLE..... .246,775 No. of SWINE.......

.395,058 per square mile

32.90

per square mile....... 52.69 acres in crops for ev'ry head of

acres in crops for each head of
cattle ......

4.43
swine ....

2.76 cattle for every 100 ac. in crops 22.57 swine to each 100 acres in crops 36.23 inhab. to each head of cattle. 1.34

inhabitant ..... 1.19 ". cattle to every 100 inhab'ts... . 74.62

100 inhabitants. 119.00

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From the data contained in the several tables, we deduce the following as the average agronomic condition of each family of five persons in the Scioto Valley, viz: Horses to each family.

1.83 Acres of land in crops to each family.. 16.45 Cattle 3.73 Bushels produced

..272.55 Sheep .11.40 Butter

49.40 Swine 5.95 Maple sugar

12.70 Acres of land to each family... ..67.10 Maple and sorgho syrup

7.45 This shows a much better condition than in the Miami Valley, yet if the population of Cincinnati and Dayton are deducted from the Miami, and Columbus from the Scioto Valley, then the condition of the Miami families will be greatly superior to that of the Scioto. But we have not deemed it proper to deduct the population of either of the cities from the population of the valleys in which they are situated, because the city population is dependent upon and really derives its breadstuffs from the valley in which it is located.

MUSKINGUM VALLEY.

This valley contains nearly one million more acies o taxable lands than the Miami, and embraces the following counties, viz: Ashland, Carroll, Coshocton, Guernsey, Harrison, Holmes, Knox, Licking, Mus. kingum, Morgan, Noble, Richland, Stark, Tuscarawas, Washington, and Wayne. It embraces what was formerly considered the wheat region of the State. With the exception of a few counties, it lies entirely within the coal or carboniferous formation, has abundant lime and sandstone for industrial and economic purposes; is well watered, and as a hydrostatic basin is unequalled in the State for natural drainage. No considerable portion of it is as level as the western part of the Scioto or Muskingum Valleys; the entire valley is a succession of gentle undulations of surface -in some few instances these undulations are tolerably abrupt, yet there is very little land which is not adapted to agricultural purposes, by reason of the "brokenness" of the country. The agronomic condition of this valley is as follows:

TABLE No. VII.

Amount of square miles of area.
Acres of plow or arable land....
Acres of meadow or pasture land.......
Acres of woodland or uncultivated' land....

8,128 2,668,660

553,740 1,953,102

5,175,502

Total acres for taxation....
Amount of acres in crops in 1863, measured by the bushel..
Amount of acres in crops in 1863 bearing other crops

1,011,392

424,660

1,436,072

Total acres in crops in 1863....
Per cent. of the valley in crops in 1863..
Miles of railroad......
Square miles of area for one mile of railroad....
Population in 1860.......
Population per square mile.....
Acres to each inhabitant in 1860...
Acres in crops in 1863 to each inhabitant in 1860
Bushels per acre in 1863.....
Bushels in 1863 to each inhabitant of 1860

27.12

464 15.25 455,276

56 11:37

3:15 17.73 39:39

This valley affords better data for ascertaining the real agricultural condition than either the Scioto or the Miami, because there is no city containing ten thousand inhabitants within its limits, according to the census of 1860. It embraces about one-fifth of the territory of the State, and contains about one-fifth of the population—hence it is not improper to infer that it should produce one-fifth of the gross product of the State In the fifth column of Table No. 8, it will be seen that very few of the crops are under twenty per cent. or one-fifth in quantity of those produced in the entire State. It is further manifest that all the crops returned, except corn and rye, succeeded better in the Muskingum than in the Scioto Valley. So far as wheat is concerned, this valley cultivated about onefifth of the land in wheat in the State, and produced from it about one fifth of the aggregate amount produced. It falls short of its relative proportional quantity in rye, barley, buckwheat, corn, and oats; it exceeds in potatoes and sorgho, and then falls short on tobacco, clover, and meadow. Its railroad facilities are not equal to those of the Miami, but in course of time these facilities will probably exceed those of the latter—when the mineral resources of this valley are onoe fully developed, there is no other portion of the State which will require the same amount of facilities for transportation.

TABLE No. VIIL.

Acros.

Bushels.

Product

per
acre.

Percentage of acres
bearing crops in-

Percentage of crops in
the State grown in

the valley.

Percentage of land in crops in the State

in 1863.

27.81

Wheat....
Rye
Barley..
Buckwheat
Corn
Oats......
Flax....
Potatoes.

399,470 4,295,876

12,274 106,884 18,109 281,238

11,595 99,832
369,8339,102,414
173,039 2,991,304
12,604 80,837
14,468 975,960

10-75
870
16:27

8.61
24.61
17.29
6.41
67.49

1.12

.80
25-76
12:05
0.87
1.00

21.631
33.95
21:29
30-70
16:72
26:34
12:91
17.95

21.88 38.00 24:53 41.83 17.68 30:41 13:23 17.92

1,011,392 17,934,345

17.73

14,700 9,044,329 lbs.

7,7401 638,875 galls.
135,167 88,501 tons.
267,073 229,483 tons.

615.3
82:53
0.65
0.85
0:32
70-55

1:02

:53
9:40
18:59

Tobacco
Sorgho
Clover..
Meadow
Clover seed
Flax fibre.....
Butter.
Cheese...
Maple sugar
Maple syrup

29.88
23:26
34.87
22:30

24:42 27:58 29-63 21:34 28:58 11:30 23:25

2:17 15.50 24.01

7,266,432 lbs.

414,840 lbs. 1,046,103 lbs. 106,807 galls.

.....

..18.59

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From the fourth column in table No. 8, it will be seen that the farmer in the Muskingum Valley having 100 acres to put into crops apportions it as follows, viz: Wheat .27.81 Corn .... ...25.76 Tobacco

1.02 Rye 0.85 Oats .12.05 Sorgho

0.54 Barley 1.13 Flax 0.88 Clover

9.41 Backwheat 0.80 Potatoes....

1. Meadow The grain and root crops yield him 17.73 bushels per acre. In addition to these crops he keeps nearly ten horses, twenty head of cattle, one hundred and twenty head of sheep and nineteen hogs. This valley contains nearly one-third of the aggregate number of sheep in the State, and appears to be admirably adapted for wool growing,

The average agronomic condition of every family of five persons in the Muskingum Valley is as follows: Horses to each family.....

1.54 Acres in crops to each family........ 18.75 Cattle 3.24 Bushels produced

.196.95 Sheep ..19.63 Butter

79.80 Swine 3. Maple sugar

11.45 Acres of land to each family...........56.85 Maple and sorgho syrups in each family. 8.15

It is conceded by every one capable of entertaining an intelligent opinion on the subject, that the Muskingum Valley is not near so fertile as either the Scioto or Miami valleys are, yet the agronomic condition of every family in the latter is superior to that of those in the Miami. The large proportion of stock kept in this valley must furnish sufficient manure, if properly appropriated, not only to maintain its present state, but gradually to increase its fertility. Corn is better adapted to the Scioto and Miami than the Muskingum Valley, and it is by no means improbable that the turnip crop would be more remunerative than corn at twenty-five bushels per acre.

TABLJ No. IX.-LIVE STOCK IN MUBKIXGOM VALLEY. No. of HORSES .141,002 No. of SHEEP...

1,788,270 per square mile........ 17.34

per square mile......

220.01 acres in crops for each horse... 10.18 acres in crops for every sheep 0.80 horses for every 100 acres in

sheep for every 100 acres in
crops ......

9.82
crops

125. inhabitants to each horse.... 3.22

sheep for every inhabitant

3.92 horses to every 100 inhabitants 30.97

100 inhabitants 392.70 No. of CATTLE ...... ...287,650 No. of SWINE....

273,012 per square mile......

35.39
per square mile

33.58 acres in crops for every head of

acres in crops for every
cattle......

4.99
hog.....

0.28 cattle for every 100 acres in

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swine for every 100 acres in
crops.....

20.04
crops....

19. Inhabitants to each head of cattle 1.54

inhabitants to every swine... 1.88 eattle to every 100 inhabitants. 64.93 swine to every 100 inhabitants 60.23

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