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The crops of 1863, as returned to this office, were gathered from about one-half of the "cleared lands” in the State. But it by no means follows that the other half is fallow. In the non-returned half are orchards, vino yards, pastures, and small crops. A portion of it, certainly, is fallow.
The lower portion of this valley rests directly upon the Silurian limostone formation, and the upper portion upon the Corniferous lime-stone. In the immediate vicinity of the Miami and Mad rivers the soil contains the shells of many species of fresh water mollusca in a state of disintegra tion. These shells will furnish lime to the soil for many years to come; the soil is deep, and an additional inch to the usual depth in plowing produces a very marked effect upon the succeeding crops.
The following statement shows the agronomic condition of the valley. Its population per square mile exceeds that of any other valley in the State; but it must not be forgotten that Cincinnati, the Queen City of the West, is situated in it, and in which is concentrated fully one-fourth of the entire population of the valley:
TABLE No. I.
Amount of square miles of area.....
meadow or pasture land......
Total acres for taxation.......
bearing other cropst
Total acres in crops in 1863...
From this it will be seen, that if the entire area of the valley was in a state of cultivation, and estimating to each individual the same number of acres in
* Wheat, rye, barley, buckwheat, corn, oats, flax-seed, and potatoes. + Tobacco, sorgho, clover, and meadow.
crops as in 1863, then the valley could contain 1,772,829 inhabitants and the industrial product per capita remain the same as at present. From the number of miles of railroad in comparison with square miles of area, it will be seen that this valley enjoys more facilities for the shipment of surplus products than any other equal portion of the State.
In the annexed table is a detailed statement of the specific crops returned, together with the acreage, aggregate product, and product per acre. The fourth column shows the per centage or proportion of area in bearing in each particular crop. Thus, it will be observed, that 32.40; or nearly 33 per cent of the entire area in crops was devoted to wheat, nearly 37# per cent. to corn, and less than 10 per cent. was in meadow. From this we naturally infer that comparatively little grazing is done here.
TABLE No. II.-PRODUCTS OF 1863.
Per Per Per centago
the Miami per
bearing the State, Valley, in acro.
crops, in grown in crops, in the
1863. the valley. Statein 1863.
4,195 54,137 29,435 601,624 5,325
118,026 532,513 | 16,049,286 102,918 2,394,233 38,413 257,932 19,283 1,094,175
12.33 12.90 20.45 22.13 30.12 23.27
.29 2.17 0.37 37.65 7.24 2.72 1.36
27.31 17.20 45.55 37.10 29.47 21.16 41.32 20.12
25.24 12.99 39.88 19.25 25.45 18.08 40.31 23.90
1.53 0.46 3.32 9.9
44.18 19.82 15.37 11.78
Tobacco Sorgho Clover.... Meadow Clover Seed. Flax Fiber.. Butter Cheese Maple Sugar Maple Syrup
21,746 18,591,008 lbs. 885.1
6,595 453,477 galls. 68.75 59,559 37,397 tons. 0.62 140,891 136,741
152.7 4,534,470 lbs.
0.49 17.66 29.62
Notwithstanding the fact that this valley, in 1863, produced more than one-half of the tobacco grown in the State, yet it employed no more than 14 per cent of the area in crops, or about one-half of one per cent of the entire area; that is, in other words, about half an acre in one hundred.
This fourth column solves another very important problem, namely, what relative proportions of one hundred acres of cleared and tillable land are put in the several kinds of crops. Whether the farmers in this valley have adopted the system of growing such crops only as are most successt ful on each individual farm; or whether they have by experience learned which is the best relative proportion in which to grow crops; in either event the valley taken as a whole shows that a farmer having one hundred acres to put in crops, divides them as follows, viz:
And the next table will show that, in addition to these crops, nearly 11 head of horses, almost 17 head of cattle, 31 head of sheep, and 31 head of swine are kept on the same 100 acres. The amount of horses is considerably above the normal average, owing to the large number of horses in the city of Cincinnati; probably 4 or 5 horses are as many as really are kept on the farm of one hundred acres of cropping land.
The fifth and sixth columns exhibit respectively the proportion of the entire crop of the State which is grown in the valley, and the proportion of the land in crops in the State in each particular crop in the valley. Thus, the Miami valley produces 27 per cent., or more than one-fourth of all the wheat produced in the State in 1863, on just one-fourth the amount of land in wheat in the State. This proves that the wheat crop in the valley is fully 2 per cent more than an average yielded in other portions of the State. About 40 per cent of the area in barley in the State, is grown in the valley, and yields nearly one half (453 per cent.) of the barley grown; this shows that either the barley crop is well adapted to the soil of the valley, or else the farmers here understand how to grow it sudcessfully-better than their co-laborers elsewhere do. Neither clover nor meadow crops appear to have done as well in the valley as elsewhere, bo cause there is a greater proportion of the area in these crops in proportion to their products than in some other valleys. Corn, rye and tobacco appear to be well adapted to this valley, but potatoes do not do so well; one fourth of the entire area in potatoes in the State was cultivated in this valley, whilst it yielded one-fifth only of the entire product. But the per centage of the yield of buckwheat is just double the per centage of the relative amount of land in this
сгор. . Now, we take it for granted that the crop returns made by the assessors are equally reliable from all portions of the State. Is it then true that the farmers in the Miami valley understand the culture of some crops better, and of others not so well, as farmers of other valleys, or, is the soil in this valley better adapted to the growth of these extra average crops, and not so well adapted to those which fall below the average? We are well aware that the frost in August seriously injured the corn, sorgho, potato and tobacco crops, but that would affect the gross product but not affect the pro rata, from the fact that the frost extended over the entire State.
We have now, including Table No. 3; analyzed the crop and live stock returns of the Miami valley, and from this the agronomic condition of the valley must be apparent to the careful reader.
TABLE No. III.-LIVE STOCK IN THE MIAMI VALLEY.
No. of HORSES
.440,339 per square mile 20.13
per square mile
58.71 acres in crops for each horse. 9.4)
acres in crops for every sheep 3.24 horses per 100 acres in crops. 10.62 sheep for every 100 acres in inhabitants to each horse.... 4
30.86 horses to every 100 inhabit
inhabitants for every sheep..
sheep for every 100 inhabit'nts 73.52 No. of CATTLE .235,768 No. of SWINE....
.447,591 per square mile...... 31.43
per square mile....... 69.67 acres in crops for every head
acres in crops for every head
3.17 cattle per 100 acres in crops.. 16.62 swine for every 100 acres in inhabitants to every head of
31.54 cattle ....
2.57 inhabitants for every head of cattle to every 100 inhabit
38.91 swine for every 100 inhabita'ts 74.81 Now, if we suppose each family to consist of five persons, we have the following as the agronomic condition of each family, including the city of Cincinnati, viz:
Horses to each family....
1.25 Acres in crops to each family....
lbs. 34.15 Maple and sorgho gals. nearly
11.70 216.40 37.35 9.80 5.
From these tables in the aggregate it will be seen that the valley is in a condition to export much of its“ bushel " crops and largely of tobacco, yet it must import much butter, sugar, syrup and hay.
This valley is composed of the counties of Adams, Delaware, Fayette, Franklin, Hardin, Highland, Jackson, Madison, Marion, Morrow, Pike, Pickaway, Ross, Scioto and Union. These counties embrace within their limits all the waters of the Scioto, and form a “valley” of about 160 miles in length, and an average breadth of less than 50 miles. The soil and topography of this valley varies much more than in any other valley in the State. The counties of Jackson and Pickaway contrast strongly in their topography, as well as in their soil and comparative perfection in agricul. ture. The geological formation of the lands west of the right bank of the Scioto differs from that on the east of the left bank. The formation west of the stream does not differ materially from that of the Miami valley, whilst that on the east almost embraces the lower series of the carboniferous formation. On the west of the river the lands are very level, on the east more "rolling," and from Pickaway county to the Ohio river the lands are very “broken,” with many pleasant, fertile and extensive vales intervening.
Amount of acres in crops in 1863, measured by the bushel..
Total acres in crops in 1863...
28 331,728 44.23 13.42
3.29 20.40 54.51
Notwithstanding the fact that the Scioto has nearly half a million more acres of taxable lands than the Miami, it has fully half a million acres more woodland, and in 1863 had 337,459 acres in crops less than its rival. In