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MEMORANDA ON THE CEREALS.
In 2,280 lbs. of grain of Indian corn (per acre), there are 0:6 lbs. of silica, 2.12 of phosphoric acid, 0-2 of lime, 0:54 of magnesia, 0-2 of peroxyd of iron, 11•2 of potash. In 100 lbs. of wheat (grain) there are 1.67. lbs. of ashes; in wheat straw, 5:10 lbs.; in the grain of barley, 2:34 lbs.; straw of barley, 5:36 lbs.; in grain of oats, 2-90 lbs.; straw of oats, 5.10 lbs.; husks of oats, 6:79 lbs. In 100 lbs. of rye grain, 1.36 lbs. of ashes, and 4:10 lbs. in rye straw. In Indian corn grain, 4:40; in straw of same, 4:10. The seeds of oats, barley, and wheat, will preserve their vitality for three or four years. In 2,240 lbs. of the grain of barley, there are 991 ounces of potash, 104 of soda, 39 of lime, 64 of magnesia, 76 of phos phoric acid, 31 of sulphuric acid, 4 of salt, and 416 of sand.
Average proportion of kernel and husk of beans, 85 of kernel to 15 of husk. Average proportion of straw of peas to grain, 73 to 27. Average proportion of straw to grain of beans, 57 to 43.
Wheat sown to a depth of one inch, came up in twelve days, the whole of these seeds germinating. Dr. Voelcker's experiments on the top-dress ing of wheat, showed amongst other things that nitrate of soda, applied by itself, naturally increased the yield, both of straw and corn; and that this mixture of salt with the nitrate of soda was beneficial.
A writer in the Farmer's Magazine, on the subject of bean sowing, says: "If you practice thin sowing, take care that you have plenty of seed in each row, but let the saving of seed be in having the rows widely apart You thus secure regularity and sufficiency of plants, while great space is provided for their full development." The proportion of straw to grain in oats is as 62 to 38; of rye, as 71 to 29; of peas, 73 to 27. The weight of wheat straw per acre is estimated by Johnson at 3,000 to 3,600 lbs.; of oat, 2,700 to 3,500; of barley, 2,100 to 2,500; of rye, 4,000 to 4,800; of bean, 2,700 to 3,200; of peas, 2,700 lbs. A ton of the grain of beans cod tains 93 lbs. of potash, 13 of soda, 14 of lime, 4} of magnesia, 5% of phos phoric acid, 4 of sulphuric acid, 2 of salt, and 5 of sand.
The average weight per bushel of barley is 50 to 55 lbs.
Wheat sown to a depth of five inches, came up in twenty-two days three-eighths of the seed germinating.
Chloride of lime steep for wheat :-Mix one pound with a gallon of water; allow the mixture to stand for an hour, frequently stirring it. Allow it to settle, and draw off the supernatant liquid. In this steep the seed for two hours, drain and dry it with ashes. An acre of wheat, topdressed, with 180 pounds of nitrate of soda, and 11 cwt. of salt, yielded 2,436 pounds, or 40 6-20th bushels; the money increase in corn over a plot unmanured, being 329. 6d., and the profit 31s. 11d. An acre of wheat, estimated at twenty-five bushels of grain, of sixty pounds to the bushel, gives 1,500 pounds of grain, containing 30 pounds of ash. The weight of straw will be 3,000 pounds, containing 180 of ash.
The weight of grain and straw of wheat as above, yields 210 pounds of ash, which analysis shows to be made up thus :—Potash, 29.59 lbs.; soda, 3:02 ; lime, 12:91; magnesia, 10:52; oxyd of iron, 2 55; phosphoric acid, 20:56; sulphuric acid, 10:56; chlorine, 1.97; silica, 118.29.
Wheat sown to a depth of four inches, came above ground in twentyone days, one-half of the seeds germinating. An acre of wheat, top-dressed, with 18cwt. of nitrate of soda, yielded 2,250 pounds, or 38 bushels; the money increase of corn over a plot unmanured being £2, 17s. 9d., yielding a profit of 25s. 3d. A crop of oats, estimated at 48 bushels, of 42 pounds to the bushel, will weigh 2,016 pounds, containing 60-5 pounds of ash. The weight of the straw will be 3.024 lbs., containing 138:4 lbs of ash. The weight of grain and straw of oats per acre, as above, yields 196:9 lbs. of ash, which analysis shows to be made up thus :-Silica, 96-8 lbs.; phosphoric acid, 22:3; sulphuric acid, 58; lime, 11:0; magnesia, 9:1; peroxyd of iron, 2.7; potash, 36-5; soda, 3:6; chloride of potassium, 38; chloride of sodium, 6:3.
Wheat sown to the depth of six inches, came up in twenty-three days; one-eighth only, however, of the plants came up.
Dr. Voelcker states that wheat, top-dressed with guano at the rate of 21 cwts. per acre, yielded 2,404 lbs., or 40 1.20th bushels, at 60 pounds to the bushel. The increase of produce of the plots manured as in the above paragraph, compared with like plots unmanured, was £3, 8s. 9d. ; the cost of manure, £1, 123. 6d.; the clear profit being £1, 16s. 3d. A writer in the Farmer's Magazine states that he has seen beans in single rows, five feet apart, produce fifty imperial bushels to the acre. of barley carries off the soil 56-3 lbs of inorganic matter in the grain ; in the straw, 157.0; in all, 213-3. The crop in this case is estimated at 48 bushels, at 55 pounds—2,610 pounds; the straw and chaffat 3,300 pounds. Average weight per bushel of wheat, 60 pounds; of barley, 53; of oats, 42, and rye, 54 pounds.
In 100 parts of the ash of oat straw, there are 29 of potash and soda— 19 in the grain.
Table showing the mean Winter and Summer temperatures of the chief corn
producing countries in the world,
Places of Ob
Mean Temperatures of the Winter
and Summer North months. Latitude.
I. England :
Bedford, Southwick, Lyndon and Norwich Malvern, &c. .. 52 23 2. Western England as observed at Penzance,
Helston, Truro, Plymouth, Torquay, Exe-
Penzance, &c. 50 70
below, and the Summer temperature above
Petersburg 55 56 1. Northern Russia.
55 45 Dantzic.
54 20 2. Poland and Baltic Prussia.
52 13 Cracow
50 40 Berlin
52 30 3. Basin of the Elbe...
50 50 4. Holland.
52 23 5. Belgium...
0 51 6. Basin of the Rhine
Frankfort. 50 10
48 50 7. France..
43 36 Augsberg
48 21 Vienna
48 13 8. Basin of the Danube....
46 44 Bucharest. 44 27 Chereon
4638 9. Southern Russia...
Sebastapol 44 36
45 28 10. Basin of the Po......
45 26 Turin..
45 11 11. Basin of the Arno.
43 47 12. Turkey.....
Constantinople. 41 20
Montreal.. 45 31 13. Canada
43 40 Albany
42 39 14. United States......
Council Bluffs. 41 25
Cncionati 39 06
40 25 1. Spain ....
73 43 70 94 77 14 73 83
36 32 Lisbon.
38 42 2. Portugal 3. Southern Italy
38 11 Mean of European countries
AFRICAN. 4. Egypt ...
Cairo...... 30 20
81 14 0 3 0
Table showing the mean relative values of the different kinds of Wheat quoted
in the London Price Currents in the 5 years ending 1860.
Average Importaprices, years tions in the 1:56 to 1860 single year
£. 8. d.
264,850 218,000 265,241
0 6 6
0 4 0
Average superiority of English wheat over wheat from extra Baltic
ports...... American wheat :
English wheat as before
2 13 10
Average price of foreign wheat of all countries combined....
0 11 0
When we direct our attention to a more local branch of this important inquiry, so as to ascertain the matters removed from our cultivated fields by our ordinary crops, and returned to them by the farm-yard manure, then the chemist's aid becomes still more practically useful. Professor Anderson (Transactions Highland Society, 1861, p. 569) has lately endeavored to furnish the agriculturist with an approximate estimate of the various matters abstracted from the soil by the crops of a six-course rotation, and of the amount restored to the land by the ordinary farm-yard manure. The summary he gives of the total substances abstracted, is as follows:The rotation, which is a severe one, being turnips, wheat, hay, oats, and potatoes, (the turnip crop weighing per acre 131 tons; wheat crop, being seed, 28 bushels; the straw, 28 cwt., the hay, 24 tons, the oats, seed, 34 bushels, the straw, one ton, and potatoes three tons).
The quantity of matters removed, observes Professor Anderson, would have been considerably reduced if a second year of grass pasture had been substituted for one of the white crops. It may be noticed also, that as compared with the total quantities of the substances contained in ordinary