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color were concerned. Fuchs himself communicates the following: In the years 1830-40 while I was Veterinarian in the veterinary circuit of Schleiden, Malmedy, and Montjoie, I was consulted by a community in regard to an unpleasant occurrence among them. This community preferred the uniformly brown color in cattle to any other color, and yet it happened that the rubican offspring increased in numbers. Upon inquiry I learned that some years previous a rubican bull had been kept in the herd, but as soon as the rubican offspring appeared, he had been removed and supplanted by another entirely brown one. Nevertheless it was observed that uniformly brown cows covered by this bull brought forth rubican calves. Although similar cases may not be known, yet these undeniable experiences of unprejudiced breeders ought to caution against suffering cows of pure races to be covered, even transiently, by bulls of other races, for otherwise the surety of their hereditary transmission will be impaired. We will yet add the remark, that hunters have long since known the in. fection of bitches, for the designation of which the term " back breeding" is used in the sporting language."
REFRESHING OF BLOOD. By refreshing or revival of blood we understand the bringing together of new pairs of female with new male animals of the same tribe and breed with which either in-and-in breeding was commenced, or a cross instituted in a staple or breed of cattle not long established by crossing. This is necessary whenever a decrease in the size or the beauty of form is noticed, or a breeding back or a degeneration is observed.
The greater the distance of the districts whence the animals are brought for forming a new staple or breed, and the less the conditions under which they are to live at their new home-feeding, keeping, use and climate do agree with them, (animals brought from moist and fertile districts into dry regions producing less fodder,) the more difficult it will be for them to become acclimated, whereby even their productiveness may be more or less impaired, and the sooner a renewal of blood will become necessary in such case. Likewise the refreshing of blood will be inevitable sooner or later, under such unfavorable circumstances as those just described, to which attention must be paid in the one case as well as in the other; for, otherwise serious disappointment will occur, or the newly created breeds of cattle will be abandoned in the belief that they cannot be preserved while they might have been brought to the former desirable condition by a subsequent renewal of blood and be perpetuated.
But if several renewals can not consolidate a live stock newly introduced or formed by crosses, then these breeds ought not to be kept, but sup. planted by others.
Yet in the history of cattle breeding there have been cases where it was deemed advisable for certain reasons to have renewal of blood in tribes formed by crosses which after some length of time had been developed into constant breeds or tribes. But it was not always found advantageous to introduce male breeders of the same races or tribes with which the tribe had originally been formed. Such a tribe produced by in-and-in breeding or crossing is after a long series of years oftentimes somewhat changed by specialities in feeding, by the use to which the animals are devoted, and by climatic influences, so that their further improvement can not be accom. plished by the blood originally used for this purpose, but by the introduction of another race, or by a careful selection of the animals breeding in. and in.
DEEINITIONS AND EXPERIENCES IN BREEDING.
Original animals. All those descending directly from a known race, breed, or family, either born, or at least conceived in their original native country, are called original animals. Instance : Durham cattle born in their native district, or conceived there and born and reared with us; but by original descent is understood the descent from animals conceived and born by original animals without their native country.
Bastards are the descendants from pairings of common with generally acknowledged improved animals; but mongrels are the production by the two animals neither of which belonging to any acknowledged improved race.
Breeding back, in general, are called those descendants in families or breeds formed by crossing, which show the nature and properties of the common ancestors on the mother's side used for forming the new breed.
Breeding back and degeneration are here fully synonymous. But in purely bred breeds or tribes degeneration designates that state of individual descendants bearing the characteristics not of their immediate parents, but of their grand or great grand parents; this degeneration consists mostly in the color, but degenerations in the other sense of the term may also occur. Degeneration generally reaches back no farther than to the fourth or fifth generation. (In man, degeneration after the grand parents is called ativism.)
Blood and race are synonymous terms in breeding.
By constancy is designated the ability in animals of transmitting surely and fully all the internal and external qualities peculiar to their tribe or breed to their descendants, which ability may have originated from the long continued and constant pairing of animals of the same or of different breeds, even if they were crosses produced through several generations.
The sure hereditary transmission of the character of the race is mostly founded in the established purity of the race, tribe, breed or family; a less reliable constancy, therefore is found in the first and second generation of
It was and is still of the greatest importance to the breeder to know at what time constancy may be established in animals of new breeds produced by crossing, in order to ascertain when he may commence and continue a system of in-and-in breeding, the animals bred by himself, without apprehending a more general degeneration in the descendants. As to cattle, the general opinion is that, if all the necessary considerations in crossing have received proper attention, constancy will be established in the fourth, fifth, or, at most, sixth generation; but the communications by Scottish breeders, referred to on a previous page, seem to show that constancy is not fully established (consolidated) in the sixth, and not even in the eighth generation.
In order to give in figures a general view of the constancy of the hereditary transmission of qualities, calculations have long ago been made in the following manner:
The prominent qualities of the animal selected to effect improvement are denoted by 100, but the deviating condition of the animal to be im. proved, by 0. According to the supposition that both parents transmit their peculiarities in equal proportions the result of the first crossing is represented as follows: I. Generation.....
Then, if the crossing is continued in this way, that the female bastards of each consecutive generations are always paired again with male animals of the same race selected to effect the improvement, the proportions of this progressive improvement are as follows: II. Generation.
..100+50 =150 =75 blood).
100+75 =175 =874 ( 7 blood).
The quotients from 50 to 997; represent only the possible progress of improvement, and the example shows that by further progressive generations there remains always a small fraction by which the cross is inferior to the pure
animal. From the circumstances above mentioned which have a favorable or unfavorable influeuence upon the success of the crossing, it is
apparent that the success of improvement cannot always be calculated according to this scheme, but it may be obstructed and interrupted in various ways, so that perfect constancy may be established only at a still more remote point of time. Thus, the above calculation is not a fixed rule; but only an approximation.
Generation.—The definition of generation is as follows: All the young of one mother together form one (the first) generation ; if these young again become parents, their offspring represent the second generation, &c., &c.
CATTLE BREEDING AND MANAGEMENT.
BY THOMAS C. JONES, OF DELAWARE, OHIO. If an accurate estimate could be made of the amount annually lost by the farmers of Ohio on account of breeding inferior animals, and neglect in their management, it is believed that the sum would be so large as to induce instant and general efforts at improvement.
The loss resulting to wool growers from the depredations of dogs, while regarded quite serious by sheep breeders, was not supposed to be of sufficient magnitude to require legislative protection, until by the returns of the assessors the enormous aggregate was presented to the public. The intense indignation of the wool-growers on this subject may be attributed to the fact that, as dogs were regarded as worthless, the immense loss was suffered without cause and without the slightest benefit resulting to any one. But the loss thus sustained is as nothing when compared to the amount thrown away upon badly managed, inferior 'stock. And the millions of money that are thus annually lost by the farmars of Ohio, are just as causlessly lost as in the case of loss by sheep killing dogs.
The farmer's occupation is subject to vicissitudes, resulting in losses which cannot be guarded against; such as injury to growing crops by insects, unfavorable seasons, etc., and the loss of domestic animals by disease or accident; but it is believed that the losses from all these causes, large as they sometimes are, do not in the aggregate compare with those resulting from bad management in breeding domestic animals.
The agriculturists of Ohio, while exhibiting much less skill and care
in the management of all farm stocks than we should expect from their general intelligence and enterprise, are more particularly so in reference to cattle. This neglect, and the consequent inferior quality of this stock, appear the more remarkable when we reflect that it is comparatively so easy to improve it and to maintain its excellence. Animals from well established breeds, nearly perfect in all useful characteristics, can now be had at prices so moderate, that there is no excuse for using inferior "scrubs” for breeding purposes; and to maintain this excellence, nothing is required but the observance of a few well tested rules, and liberal keeping.
SELECTION OF BREEDING ANIMALS. This paper being designed chiefly for those farmers who breed cattle for the common purposes of producing beef or milk; it may be observed that for those purposes the most obvious, as well as the most economical, method to improve our stock, is to begin with producing a good bull. The first requisite here, is blood; that is an established uniformity in the family or race to which the family belongs. It is, of course, important that we have a good animal, but individual excellence will be of little value and we cannot expect that it will be transmitted to the offspring, unless it be established in the family from which he descended.
If a well shaped calf should be bred from ill-shaped and inferior ancestry, we should regard such excellence as entirely accidental, and should not expect its manifestation in the progeny. And it is for this reason that pedigree is important; so important indeed that it may be safely asserted that no people in any country, have ever been successful in producing superior stock who have not carefully preserved their pedigrees.
The bull should, therefore be of pure blood, and the only reliable evi. dence of this, is the pedigree, in such perfect form as would be required for insertion in the Herd Books. Good breeders record the pedigrees of their cattle in these books, and when they are found there, it is generally to be inferred that the animal is thoroughbred; the breeders who neglect this safe and convenient method of preserving the genealogy of their herds, may be presumed to be either so negligent in their management as not really to know their pedigrees, or to have impure blood. Next to purity of blood, compactness of form, may be regarded as the most valuable point. In size, he should be equal to the full average of the breed, but not too large or overgrown; should be short in the leg, round and deep in the chest, round and broad back, deep flank, hips of moderate length and breadth; the hind legs stand square under the animal, appearing straight when viewed from the rear, but a slight angle appearing at the hock, from a side view, is not objectionable even in the best short horns.