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soarce a large portion of the remainder is not less certainly, though perhaps less directly, in debted. And yet so unsatisfactory has farming become, that the most enterprising of our young men are continually leaving agriculture for other occupations—& course most detrimental to the general interests of the State. In many European countries agricultural schools bave been established, in which the sciences related to agriculture are taught in a practical manner. The utility of such schools is there unquestioned. Polytechnic schools have also been established, in which many of the sciences are taught in their applications to the various arts of life. These schools are highly beneficial, and have contributed largely to give the manufactures of the countries where they are found their acknowledged preeminence.
Your memorialists would further represent that, as the conditions of the grant require that one or more of the institutions contemplated be established within a period of five years, there appears no sufficient reason for withholding the benefits of such iostitutions beyond the time necessarily required to put them into operation. The financial condition of the State cannot be greatly improved within five years; nor is it probable that the lands granted can be made available except by methods now open to your adoption. But still more, if this form of educa tion can give a better direction to any considerable portion of our industry, under the present burdens of the State, we cannot too soon enjoy its advantages.
Your memorialists are deeply anxious that the noble fund, now intrusted to the State for the purpose of " instruction in agriculture and the mechanic arts," should not be misapplied or perverted to any other use. There are, doubtless, other meritorious objects to which your attention may be directed; but the farmers and mechanics of the State believe they have the right to insist that this grant shall be applied to none other than the purpose specified by Congress, the more especially as this is the first national recognition of the importance of providing technical education for the working classes.
We further pray your Honorable body to give to any and all establishments, under this grant, an organization which will place them to such an extent as you may deem proper, under the direction and management of the industrial interests for whose immediate benefit they were designed, and as far as practicable removed from the influence of political partisanship. And your memorialists, as in daty bound, will ever pray.
N. S. TOWNSHEND,
President of Board.
CONVENTION OF PRESIDENTS OF COUNTY BOARDS
The society convened in the Senate Chamber at 10 o'clock, A. M., January 6th, and was called to order by the President, Hon. Norton S. Townshend.
On motion, the Secretary called the roll of counties, and the following delegates presented their credentials :
COUNTY. Ashland Ashtabula Athens Belmont Brown... Butler Champaign Clark .... Clermont. Clinton .. Coshoctoa Cuyaboga Delaware Fairfield Franklin Geauga Green Hamilton. Hardin...... Harrison. Haron .... Jackson. Kdox.. Lake.. Licking. Logan... Lorain. Lucas
XAME. .W. B. McCarty. ..Abner Kellogg.. .Geo. Putnam ..J. A. Rinker .Jackson Dugin... .Fergus Anderson .N. H. Harr..... .Alex. Waddle.... .Shadrach Dial ... Linton ..... Wo. Batchelor.. .E. S. Willard ... Robert McKinney .Virgil E. Shaw..
Jared Foresman ...Delos Williams
.J. R. Nash .John K. Green.. .I. C. Stevens... . Eli Peacock .Giles Boalt .J. Tripp .C. Delano... ..Geo. Anderson .James Pittsford. Jas. M. Kauffman .N. B. Gates..... .Wm. C. Earl
Ross. ... Westville, .. South Charleston. .. Amelia.
...Canton. Summit .H. P. Canon....
GENTLEMEN-I have been absent from Ohio for nearly the whole of the past year, and, therefore, am not prepared to make a minute or accurate statement of the present condition of the agriculture of the State. For the same reason I will not attempt to indicate the topics which should occupy the attention of the Convention; these matters I may safely leave to other members of the Board who have been able to bestow more thought upon them. I will content myself with offering you, in view of our national struggle, my congratulations on the fact of our meeting, and the favorable circumstances in which we meet.
Happily for us the founders of our State government laid its foundations in justice. Those honest men accepted as true the maxim that a fair day's labor is entitled to a fair day's wages--that "the laborer is worthy of his hire”—and that for securing profitable labor compensation is better than coercion. The institutions of the State reared on such a basis proved attractive to the industrious, the intelligent and enterprising people of older States and countries, and consequently, Ohio has now a large and compar: atively homogeneous population—peaceful, prosperous and happy. The
States on the South side of the Ohio river, in their beginnings, adopted the policy of obtaining labor by coercion rather than by compensation, and thus unwittingly doomed one portion of their people to idleness and its attendants and the other portion to ignorance and its evils, and made industry, enterprise and thrift impossible. : To-day we can see the opposite results of these different systems, for those that sowed the good seeds of truth and justice have harvested peace and plenty, while those that sowed the wind have reaped the whirlwind. In Ohio our barns are full and our homes are secure-our little children go to the district school and return as merrily as ever, and fathers and mothers pursue their ordinary avocations without fear or molestation. But in the States that adopted coercion there is now famine and terror; their once fruitful fields are uncultivated and their once pleasant homes are desolate, and the people by thousands are fleeing for their lives. I think, impossible for those who have not seen, to conceive how terrible is the ruin that slavery and treason have wrought.
Allow me to congratulate you, then, on the prosperous and happy condition of our State, and upon the peace and security which make such a meeting as this possible. In comparison with the people of many States we enjoy much for which it certainly becomes us to be deeply thankful.
Upon the conclusion of Mr. Townshend's remarks, Mr. Klippart stated that two reports had been submitted from Ashland county-one from Hayesville and the other from Ashland—and asked which he should receive.
Mr. Waddle moved that the papers be referred to a committee of three appointed by the Chair.
The Chairman announced Messrs. Kauffman, McClung and Welch, as said committee.
Judge Jones then spoke as follows:
As there seems to be no business before the Convention claiming immediate attention, I beg leave to say a word or two in regard to the operations of the State Board last year, the present conditions and prospects, and especially in regard to County Societies, upon which this organization depends for its existence.
Four years ago, in obedience to a resolution passed by this Convention, the State Board adopted the system of holding the Fair two years in one place. That was carried out at Dayton, where it was held two years, and subsequently at Cleveland. It had been supposed by this Convention, in passing that resolution of instruction to the Board, that in this way a portion of the expense in fitting up the grounds would be saved and its condition improved. And so it has turned out. Why, at the end of the first year, at Dayton, there was no surplus in our Treasury; but at the end of the second year, with a much smaller attendance-for that was the year memorable for the breaking out of the present war-we had still a surplus in the Treasury. So at Cleveland, a larger surplus has been realized than the Board ever had; as the President said in his opening remarks, it is in the neighborhood of $9,000. But it must be observed that that sum represents all we have. This success in holding the Fairs during the past four years has proved a strong argument in favor of making the system less migratory than before. Now, having this money in the Treasury for the first time since the organization, the question has occurred to the Boardwhat shall we do beside that which we have been accustomed to do annoally? What else can we do towards increasing the efficiency of these organizations—County and State ?
We have had under consideration the matter of enlarging the Library. It already contains a large number of volumes, embracing every department of agriculture, and the Board will probably increase the number by some two hundred volumes. We have been corresponding with the Secretaries of other Societies for the purpose of exchanging reports, with a view to their distribution to the County Societies of our State, and in this way suggesting to these Societies the propriety of establishing county libraries for the use of their own members. In this manner the farmers will acquire much valuable information accessible in no other way.
We have proposed, also, that County Societies shall make some provision for the payment of the expenses of the delegates to these Conventions. A few have been in the habit of providing for such expense, but some do not. We should have men come up here annually who will stay and consult and deliberate upon the important questions that come up for consideration. In the State of Maine, poor in its soil and its resources, the members of the Agricultural Society consult together for two weeks, and their expenses are paid by the State out of the public Treasury. There are farmers in this State capable of imparting much valuable information and advice upon questions in which the welfare of the State is deeply concerned, and which come up for legislative action. As it now is, gentlemen are in the habit of coming up here year after year, meeting in the morning to hear the preliminary reports, and, without having time to consider any of the questions of vital importance, are off for home in the evening. Take, for instance, the question presented this morning in the Ashland county case—why, before the committee can decide upon that, this Convention will be ready to adjourn. Now, gentlemen, no Society in the United States has so little influence, considering the number of members, and