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AND COMPENSATED FOR THE FIRST TIME IN 1907 AND IN 1897, CLASSIFIED BY SUSTAINED_Concluded.

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LENGTH OF TIME THE INJURED PERSON WAS EMPLOYED IN THE ESTAB

LISHMENT AND IN THE OCCUPATION.

For the first time information is available as to the length of time the injured person had been employed in the establishment and in the occupation previous to receiving the injury; in addition, data showing the number of hours the injured person had been at work on the day the accident occurred have been collected.

The assumption underlying this phase of the study of accidents is that each establishment has special working conditions, special apparatus, special features of the plant, etc., with which a new workman must familiarize himself, and until this is done he is probably exposed to a higher risk of accident than a workman who has been employed for some time. The study of the length of time employed in an occupation before the accident occurred is made for the purpose of ascertaining the influence of a new occupation on a workman's risk of accident as contrasted with an occupatior in which he has been engaged for some time; in Table 9 the occupation may have been in the same or in different establishments. In order to show the effect of fatigue, lessening of caution, etc., Table 10 shows the number of hours the workman had been employed on the day (or in the shift) that the accident occurred.

To make an accurate presentation of these three facts, it would be necessary to have the total number of workmen employed during the various periods of time in order to compute a rate which the number who were injured during that period bore to such number; but as it was impossible to classify the workmen into such groups, the three tables dealing with this information show only the number of injured workmen and the length of time they had been employed in the establishment, in the occupation, and in the specified number of hours on the day the accident occurred.

The grand total in the first line of figures of Table 8 shows that 3.07 per cent of the injured workmen had been employed in the establishment less than three days when the accident occurred, 1.89 per cent had been employed three days but less than one week, 8.36 per cent had been employed one week but less than one month, 11.94 per cent had been employed one month but less than three months, 9.99 per cent had been employed three months but less than six months, 10.82 per cent had been employed six months but less than one year, and 53.85 per cent had been employed one year and over. The casual workers, presumably meaning those who are employed at odd jobs for not more than one day, formed 0.08 per cent of the injured persons.

The first line of figures in Table 9 shows that 2.99 per cent of the injured workmen had been employed in the occupation less than three days when the accident occurred, 1.37 per cent from three days up to one week, 5.61 per cent from one week up to one month, 7.80

per

cent from one month to three months, 6.66 per cent from three months to six months, 7.46 per cent from six months to one year, and 67.57 per cent one year or more. Those engaged as casual workers in the occupation formed 0.54 per cent of the total number of injured persons.

In each of the two preceding cases it is noteworthy that the workmen employed less than three days in an establishment or in an occupation had formed a much higher proportion of the injured persons than those employed from three days to one week; thus in the establishment figures, 3.07 per cent had been employed less than three days, while 1.89 per cent had been employed from three days to one week; in the occupation figures, 2.99 per cent had been employed less than three days, while 1.37 per cent had been employed from three days to one week.

Considering the various groups of industries, the data for the length of time employed in the establishment show that in the case of the injured employees of the public authorities 73.55 per cent had been employed in the establishments one year and over, while only 52.73 per cent of the injured employees of private establishments (not including the institutes) had been employed one year and over. The difference is most probably due to the greater continuity of employment in the establishments conducted by the Government authorities. Four of the industry groups had approximately 70 per cent and over of their injured employees engaged in the establishment for one year and over. These industries are blacksmithing (association 66) with 79.87 per cent, private railways (association 56) with 73.21 per cent, mining (association 1) with 69.68 per cent, and silk (association 27) with 69.59 per cent. Two of the accident associations engaged in transportation service, viz, express and storage (association 58) with 7.28 per cent, and livery, drayage, cartage (association 59) with 9.10 per cent, had the highest proportion of their injured persons consisting of those employed less than three days. Some of the industry groups, such as mining (association 1) with 0.62 per cent, street and small railroads (association 57) with 0.42 per cent, show an unusually small proportion of the injured persons to have been newcomers in the establishment.

The total line of figures giving the percentages for the public authorities and for the private establishments show that these groups had 66.54 per cent and 67.64 per cent, respectively, of their injured persons employed one year and over in the occupation at which they were engaged at the time of the accident. There is therefore but little difference between the Government and the private estab

85048°-Bull. 92–11-4

lishments in this respect. Among the different industries there is a marked difference in the proportion of injured persons who had been engaged in the occupation more than one year. The least favorable showing in this respect was that of the paper products group (association 29) with only 37.70 per cent of its injured persons in the oneyear class, while the most favorable showing was that of the blacksmithing, etc., group (association 66) with 88.27 per cent in the oneyear class. In all, five groups of industries had over 80 per cent of their injured persons in the class employed one year and over. These groups were blacksmithing (association 66) with 88.27 per cent, meat products (association 65) with 86.11 per cent, chimney sweeping (association 42) with 85.29 per cent, marine navigation (association 63) with 84.65 per cent, and express and storage (association 58) with 81.75 per cent. Taking the other extreme, the proportion of injured persons who had been employed in the occupation for less than three days when the accident occurred was 2.80 per cent in the private establishments and 4.14 per cent in the Government establishments. Four of the groups of industries had over 5 per cent of their injured persons disabled during the first three days of their employment at the occupation--clothing (association 41) with 7.26 per cent, sugar (association 37) with 6.72 per cent, metal working (associations 12 and 13) with 5.68 per cent, and chemicals (association 18) with 5.23 per cent.

TABLE 8.-LENGTH OF TIME EMPLOYED IN THE ESTABLISHMENT: PER CENT OF
PERSONS KILLED OR INJURED, BY DURATION OF EMPLOYMENT IN THE ESTAB.
LISHMENT PREVIOUS TO THE ACCIDENT.
(Source: Amtliche Nachrichten des Reichs-Versicherungsamts, 1910. I Beiheft, I Teil. Gewerbe-Unfall-

statistik für das Jahr 1907, pp. 328 to 337.)

Per cent of injured persons who had been at work,

Asso

ciation number.

Industry, etc.

Total

At

tem-
report-

Less
3

3

6 1
1 week 1 month
ро-
îng.
than days

months

mos.

year rary

to 1 to 3 3 to 1

to 6

to 1

and
em-

month. months.
days. week.
ploy-

months. year. (over.
ment.

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8. 63

10. 02
6. 17

12. 02
3. 01

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3. 86
& 93
8 32
& 37
9. 65
&00
4. 90
5. 56
9. 53
9.04
7. 13
6. 07
7.53

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2,036

7. 24 7. 82 12. 40 5. 98 9.07 9. 25 9.00 9. 65

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58. 46 59. 60 39. 80 60. 37 49. 70 55. 21 46. 26 56. 69

A. TOTALS.
Grand total.

80, 692 0.08 3.07 1. 89
Industrial accident associa-

tions (not including insti-
tutes)

75,070

.06 2.98 1. 89
Subsidiary institutes of
building trades, engineer-

ing, and navigation asso-
ciations.

1,098 13. 48 6. 19 Public authorities..

4,524

2. 03 . 97
B. GROUPS OF ASSOCIATIONS.
1 Mining

11,355

78 2 Quarrying.

2,664 .04 2. 18

1. 31 3 Fine mechanical products. 1, 479 20 1. 76 2. 10 +11 Iron and steel...

14,041

2. 68 1. 80 12, 13 Metal working..

1,533

2. 61 2. 94 14 Musical Instruments.

225

3. 11 | 2.23 15 Glass.....

347

1. 44 . 58 16 Pottery..

306

1. 31 .65 17 Brick and tlle making.

1,931

. 47 3. 21 1. 14 18 Chemicals...

15 2. 70 2. 31 19 Gas and water works.

435

1. 38 1. 38 20 Linen...

280 . 37 1. 43 2. 50 27 Silk.

93

1. 07 20-27 Textiles (including linen and silk).

2,735

07 84 1. 28 28 Paper making.

792

51

.. 76
29
Paper products.

500

2. 40

1. 80 30 Leather

535

1. 31

1. 50 31-34 Woodworking

5,272 .09 3. 41 2. 26 35 Flour inilling

1,027

. 39 2. 82 1. 17 36 Food products.

789 . 38 1. 90 1. 52 37 Sugar.

508

2.3 1. 57
38 Dairying, distilling, and
starch

409

1. 96 2. 69 39 Brewing and malting.

1,602

3. 06 2. 05 40 Tobacco....

81 1. 24 1. 24 1. 23 41 Clothing

676

2. 07 1. 78 42 Chimney sweeping.

34

2. 94 43-54 Building trades (not includ. ing institutes).

10,945

3. 69 2. 65 55 Printing and publishing. 425

1. 42 2. 35 56 Private railways..

168

1. 19 1. 19 57 Street and small railroads. 485

42 2. 06 58 Express and storage..

3,927 17 7. 28 2. 52
59 Livery, drayage, cartage, etc. 2, 497 .08 9. 10 2. 16
60-62 Inland 'navigation..

721 42 4. 72 3. 33
63 Marine navigation (not in-
cluding institute).

405

3. 70 2. 23
64 Engineering, excavating,

etc. (not including insti-
tute).....

2,136

5. 43 3. 79 65 Meat products..

1,120

6. 07 2. 06 66 Blacksmithing, etc..

929

1. 08 1. 18
C. PUBLIC AUTHORITIES.
Establishments of the naval
administration

105
Establishments of the mill-
tary administration

156

2. 56 1. 92
Postal and telegraph admin-
Istration..

122

1.64 82 Railway administration.. 3,315

.57
Dredging, towing, etc.

79 50.63 | 1. 27
Building operations (States
and Empire).

246 40 3. 25 1. 22
Marine navigation...

1 Building operations of local governments.

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44. 05 56. 47 73. 21 65. 98 49. 94 41. 29 50.90

15. 06

22. 47

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13. 06 9. 65
13. 66 | 13. 48
4. 31 5. 92

22. 24 39. 91 79. 87

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500 2. 40

4. 60

3. 40

7. 80

7. 60

8. 60

6. 40

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