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GREAT BRITAIN.

Reports on Strikes and Lockouts and on Conciliation and Arbitration

Boards in the United Kingdom in 1908 and in 1909. 1908. 175 pp. 1909. 136 pp. (Published by the Labor Department of the British Board of Trade.)

These two reports are the twenty-first and twenty-second of a series of annual reports, begun in 1888, on strikes and lockouts. They present statistics of strikes and lockouts beginning in the years 1908 and 1909 and of trade disputes settled by conciliation or arbitration boards. Summary tables are also given in the report, making general comparisons of results in each of the years 1908 and 1909, with the results for each of the nine preceding years.

Figures are given showing, by industries, causes, and results, the number of strikes and lockouts, persons directly and indirectly involved, and days lost. A list of trade disputes (involving cessation of work) settled in the years 1908 and 1909 by conciliation or arbitration is given, and tables are presented summarizing, by industries, the work of the permanent and district conciliation and arbitration boards.

Strikes and lockouts in which the number of persons involved was less than 10 or which lasted less than 1 day, unless the aggregate days lost exceeded 100 days, are not included.

Appendixes show the method used in classifying causes of trade disputes; trade-dispute statistics for each year from 1893 to the year of the report; great labor disputes, 1888 to 1907; and specimen forms of inquiry used.

STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN 1908 AND 1909.—As in previous years, so in each of the years 1908 and 1909 disputes relative to wages were the most numerous, forming 62.4 per cent of all disputes in the year 1908 and 58.7 per cent of all disputes in the year 1909, and involving each year, respectively, 78.5 per cent and 24.7 per cent of all striking and locked-out employees.

In 1908, of the 249 disputes of this class, 13.6 per cent resulted in favor of employees and 42.2 per cent in favor of employers; 43 per cent were compromised, and 1.2 per cent had no definite results. Of the total employees engaged in wage disputes, 2 per cent were in disputes settled in favor of the employees, 19.9 per cent in those settled in favor of the employers, 77.4 per cent in those that were compromised, and 0.7 per cent in those where the results were indefinite or unsettled. Of the 14 disputes relative to hours of labor, 35.7 per cent were settled in favor of the employees, 42.9 per cent in favor of the employers, and 21.4 per cent were compromised. Of the 83 disputes relative to trade-unionism and employment of particular classes or persons, 30.1 per cent were settled in favor of employees

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and 43.4 per cent in favor of employers; 24.1 per cent were compromised, and in 2.4 per cent the results were indefinite or unsettled. Fifty-two per cent of the employees directly involved in these 83 disputes were in disputes settled in favor of employees, 17.5 per cent in those settled in favor of the employers, 29 per cent in those that were compromised, and 1.5 per cent in those where the results were indefinite or unsettled. Considering all disputes for the year, 19.8 per cent were settled in favor of the employees and 42.9 per cent in favor of the employers; 36.1 per cent were compromised, and 1.2 per cent were indefinite or unsettled.

There were 399 strikes and lockouts which began in 1908, affecting 295,507 persons and entailing an aggregate loss of 10,632,638 work‘ing-days. The working-days lost in 1908 in disputes begun in preceding years numbered 201,551. The number of disputes is less, while the number of persons involved and the number of workingdays lost are greater than the averages for the 5-year period, 1903 to 1907.

In 1909, of the 256 disputes relating to wages, 17.2 per cent resulted in favor of employees and 39.4 per cent in favor of employers; 41.8 per cent were compromised and 1.6 per cent were in results indefinite or unsettled. Of the 27 disputes relative to hours of labor, 11.1 per cent were settled in favor of the employees and 37 per cent in favor of the employers; 51.9 per cent were compromised. Of the 94 disputes relative to trade-unionism and employment of particular classes or persons, 23.4 per cent were settled in favor of employees and 55.3 per cent in favor of employers; 21.3 per cent were compromised. Forty-eight per cent of the employees directly involved in these 94 disputes were in disputes settled in favor of employees, 26.9 per cent in those settled in favor of the employers, and 25.1 per cent in those that were compromised. Considering all disputes for the year, 18.1 per cent were settled in favor of the employees and 45.6 per cent in favor of the employers; 35.1 per cent were compromised and 1.2 per cent were indefinite or unsettled.

There were 436 strikes and lockouts which began in 1909, affecting 300,819 persons and entailing an aggregate loss of 2,560,425 workingdays. The working-days lost in 1909 in disputes begun in preceding years numbered 213,561. The number of disputes and the number of working-days lost are both less than the averages (440 and 3,995,913, respectively) for the 5-year period 1904 to 1908, while the number of persons involved is nearly double the average (168,298) for the same period.

The following tables show the number of strikes and lockouts, the number of strikers and persons locked out and of other persons thrown out of work by reason of strikes and lockouts in each of the years 1908 and 1909, and the number of working-days lost by all employees thrown out of work, classified according to principal causes and by results:

STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS, BY CAUSES AND RESULTS, AND AGGREGATE WORKING

DAYS LOST. ["Aggregate working-days lost by all employees thrown out of work” include aggregate duration in specified

years of disputes which began in preceding years, and excludes duration in the following year of disputes which began in the specified year.)

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STRIKERS AND EMPLOYEES LOCKED OUT, BY CAUSES AND RESULTS, AND OTHER

EMPLOYEES THROWN OUT OF WORK.

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In 1908, of all employees directly affected by labor disputes, 8.6 per cent were engaged in disputes settled in favor of the employees; 25.2 per cent in those settled in favor of the employers; 65.6 per cent in those that were compromised; and 0.6 per cent in those the results of which were indefinite or unsettled. In 1909, the corresponding percentages are 11.2, 22.2, 66, and 0.6.

The following table shows the number of strikes and lockouts, employees thrown out of work, and working-days lost, according to classified number of employees thrown out of work: STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS, EMPLOYEES THROWN OUT OF WORK, AND WORKING

DAYS LOST, BY CLASSIFIED NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES THROWN OUT OF WORK. (“Aggregate working-days lost by all employees thrown out of work” refers exclusively to disputes which began in the specified year, and includes working-days lost in the following year due to disputes which extended beyond the specified year.)

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1 Disputes involving fewer than 10 work people and those which lasted less than 1 day have been omitted, except when the aggregate duration exceeded 100 working-days.

In 1908 there were 6 and in 1909 there were 5 disputes in which the number of employees involved was 5,000 and over; in 1907 there was only 1 dispute of like magnitude. The disputes affecting 500 employees and over in 1908 were but 17.5 per cent of the total number of disputes, while these disputes affected 86.9 per cent of all employees thrown out of work. The disputes affecting 500 employees and over in 1909 were 26.8 per cent of the total number of disputes, and involved 88.2 per cent of all employees thrown out of work.

In the following table are given the number of strikes and lockouts, employees thrown out of work, and working-days lost, classified according to duration of the disputes:

STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS, EMPLOYEES THROWN OUT OF WORK, AND WORKING

DAYS LOST, BY DURATION. ["Aggregate working-days lost by all employees thrown out of work” refers exclusively to disputes which

began in the specified year, and includes working-days lost in the following year due to disputes which extended beyond the specified year.)

1908.

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In 1908 the number of strikes and lockouts which lasted under 2 weeks formed 49.6 per cent of all disputes, and the number of persons thrown out of work in these two groups formed 26 per cent of all persons thrown out of work by strikes and lockouts. The strikes and lockouts which lasted 6 weeks and under 8 formed only 6.8 per cent of all strikes and lockouts during the year, yet involved 42.2 per cent of all employees thrown out of work and 46.1 per cent of the total working-days lost during the year.

There were 21 disputes, or 5.3 per cent of all disputes, which had a duration of 25 weeks and over. While the number of employees involved in disputes in this group formed but 5 per cent of all employees affected by strikes and lockouts, yet the aggregate days lost by strikers and locked-out employees was 20 per cent of the aggregate working-days lost by all employees engaged in disputes of the year.

In 1909 the number of strikes and lockouts which lasted under 2 weeks formed 57.8 per cent of all disputes, and the number of

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