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STRIKES, ESTABLISHMENTS AFFECTED, AND STRIKERS, BY RESULTS, AND WORK.

ING-DAYS LOST, FOR EACH GROUP OF INDUSTRIES, 1908-Concluded.

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I Based on the census of 1901.
2 Included in building trades (stone and earth work).
3 Including building trades (woodwork).

+ Based on the total number of industrial working people in France in 1901. Of the 17 groups of industries above shown, building trades (stone and earth work) and textiles together furnished 52 per cent of the total number of strikes during the year; with regard to the number of strikers, these 2 groups furnished 45.9 per cent.

The principal data as to strikes are shown, by causes, in the table following: STRIKES, ESTABLISHMENTS AFFECTED, AND STRIKERS, BY RESULTS, AND WORK.

ING-DAYS LOST, FOR EACH CAUSE, 1908. [Strikes due to two or more causes have been tabulated under each cause; hence the totals for this table,

is computed, would not agree with those for preceding tables.)

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For increase of wages...
Against reduction of wages.
For reduction of hours, with present

or increased wages.
Relating to time, method, etc., of

wage payments.. For or against modification of condi

tions of work. Against piecework.. For or against modification of shop

rules. For abolition or reduction of fines. Against discharge or for reinstate

ment of workmen, foremen, or superintendents.... For discharge of workmen, forernen,

or superintendents For discharge of female employees... For limitation of number of appren

tices... Relating to deductions from wages for

support of insurance and aid funds. Other causes.

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STRIKES, ESTABLISHMENTS AFFECTED, AND STRIKERS, BY RESULTS, AND WORK.

ING-DAYS LOST, FOR EACH CAUSE, 1908-Concluded.

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The most frequent cause of strikes during the year was wage disputes, the demands for increased wages, alone or in conjunction with other demands, having figured in 628 strikes, or 58.5 per cent of the total number of strikes for the year, involving 62,557 strikers, or 63.2 per cent of the total number of strikers, and causing a loss of 266,748 working-days, including days lost by persons other than strikers who were thrown out of employment on account of strikes. Of these demands 119 were successful for 13,594 strikers, 211 partly successful for 32,116 strikers, and 298, involving 16,847 strikers, failed. The next two tables show, for both strikes and strikers, the results of strikes by duration and the results and duration of strikes by number of strikers involved.

STRIKES AND STRIKERS, BY DURATION AND RESULTS, 1908.

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STRIKES, BY NUMBER OF STRIKERS INVOLVED, RESULTS, AND DURATION, 1908.

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Considered by their duration, the largest per cent of successful strikes was found in strikes which lasted 7 days and under. In strikes of this class 19.8 per cent were successful, while of those which continued for more than 7 days only 12.4 per cent terminated favorably to the strikers. In the classes 8 to 15 days and 16 to 30 days the percent of successful strikes were 12.8 and 15, respectively. Of strikes lasting 31 to 100 days 11.6 per cent were successful, while of the 15 strikes lasting 101 and more days none were successful.

The following table gives a summary of the most important strike statistics for each of the years 1894 to 1908. The figures for the years 1894 to 1907 have been compiled from previous reports and those for 1908 from the present report.

STRIKES AND STRIKERS, BY RESULTS, ESTABLISHMENTS AFFECTED, AND

WORKING-DAYS LOST, FOR EACH YEAR, 1894 TO 1908.

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The number of strikes, establishments affected, strikers, and aggregate working-days lost during 1908 show a considerable decrease as compared with the figures for 1907.

CONCILIATION AND ARBITRATION.—During the year recourse to the law of December 27, 1892, relating to the conciliation and arbitration' of labor disputes, was had in 182 disputes. In 20 cases recourse was had to the law before entire cessation of work had occurred. In 4 of these 20 cases the demands of the employees were granted, in 1 case a compromise was effected, and in 5 cases the employees receded from their demands, although in 1 of these cases the employer refused to agree to the proposition of conciliation. In 4 cases upon the refusal of the employers to participate in conciliation proceedings, strikes were declared; in 2 of these strikes a compromise was reached, and 2 failed. In 1 case the employees refused to agree to the proposition of conciliation and the establishment was closed for some days, though later a compromise was reached. In 1 case neither the employers nor employees presented themselves, and the strike failed. In 4 other cases a committee of conciliation was formed, but, following a disagreement among the members of the committee, strikes followed; 2 of these disputes were settled by compromise after other meetings of the committee, and 2 by agreement.

The number of disputes in which application of the law was requested in 1908 is equal to 16.96 per cent of the number of strikes that actually occurred during the year. During the preceding 15-year period such recourse was had in 2,450 disputes, or 23.87 per cent of the total strikes for the period. Of the 182 cases in which recourse was had during 1908, requests for the application of the law were made by employees in 75 disputes, by employers in 4 disputes, and by both employees and employers in 8 disputes, 87 cases in all; in the other 95 disputes in which recourse was had to the law, the initiative was taken by the justice of the peace.

As to results, it was found that 12 of the disputes had terminated by direct agreement between employers and employees before committees of conciliation were formed. The offer of conciliation was rejected in 69 of the 170 remaining disputes, the rejection coming from employers in 53 cases, from employees in 5 cases, and from both employees and employers in 11 cases. In 15 of the 69 cases in which conciliation was rejected the disputes were terminated by agreement between employees and employers in 7 cases, and in 8 cases the employees withdrew their demands. In the other 54 cases strikes were declared or continued.

Committees of conciliation were constituted for the settlement of the remaining 101 disputes; 49 of these disputes were settled directly

1 For the provisions of this law see Bulletin of the Department of Labor, No. 25, pp. 854–856.

by such committees, 4 indirectly by committees, and in 48 cases strikes were declared or continued, after failure of conciliation and arbitration.

The following is a summary statement in regard to disputes in which recourse was had to the law concerning conciliation and arbitration during 1908 and for the preceding 15 years taken collectively:

SUMMARY OF CASES IN WHICH RECOURSE WAS HAD TO THE LAW CONCERNING CON

CILIATION AND ARBITRATION, 1893 TO 1907, AND 1908.

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Total number of strikes....
Disputes in which recourse was had to the law of 1892.
Disputes settled:

Before the creation of committees of conciliation.....
After creation but before assembling of committees of conciliation.
After refusal of request for conciliation.
Directly by committees of conciliation.
By arbitration..
Directly by the parties, after having had recourse to conciliation.

Total cases settled through the application of the law.
Strikes resulting or continuing:

After refusal of request for conciliation.
After failure of recourse to conciliation and arbitration..

Total cases of failure after application of the law..

118

4 104 743 87 67

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The above summary shows that of 182 disputes considered in 1908, 80 were settled directly or indirectly through the application of the law of 1892, and in 102 cases the recourse to the law proved fruitless. Of the 80 disputes settled, 13 were favorable to the demands of the employees, 49 succeeded partly, and 18 were favorable to employers. In the 102 disputes which continued after the failure of attempts at conciliation and arbitration the employees succeeded in 5, partly succeeded in 46, and failed in 51 cases.

LOCKOUTS IN 1908.-During the year there were 31 lockouts reported, involving 306 establishments. These establishments (not including one dispute in which 18,000 persons were locked out) employed 11,181 persons, of this number 6,817 were locked out, making the total number of persons locked out 24,817. As a result of these lockouts 586,377 working-days were lost by the employees locked out. Considered from the employers' point of view, 7 lockouts were successful, 12 partially successful, and 12 failed.

GERMANY.

Streiks und Aussperrungen im Jahre 1908. Bearbeitet im Kaiserlichen Statistichen Amt. 64 pp.

(Statistik des Deutschen Reichs, Band 230.)

This is the tenth annual report on strikes and lockouts issued by the Imperial Statistical Office of Germany. The report contains analyses and summaries of the data relating to strikes and lockouts

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