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does it affect the amendments to the liability law of the State incorporated in the same chapter. A proposition looking toward an amendment to the State constitution, authorizing a compulsory compensation law, was under consideration by the legislature as this article was concluded.

Following are the laws, bills, and drafts discussed above and not previously reproduced:

TEXT OF LAWS.

CALIFORNIA.

ACT APPROVED APRIL 8, 1911.

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SECTION 1. In any action to recover damages for a personal injury sustained within this State by an employee while engaged in the line of his duty or the course of his employment as such, or for death resulting from perso al injury so sustained, in which recovery is sought upon the ground of want of ordinary or reasonable care of the employer, or of any officer, agent or servant of the employer, the fact that such employee may have been guilty of contributory negligence shall not bar a recovery therein where his contributory negligence was slight and that of the employer was gross, in comparison, but the damages may be diminished by the jury in proportion to the amount of negligence attributable to such employee, and it shall be conclusively presumed that such employee was not guilty of contributory negligence in any case where the violation of any statute enacted for the safety of employees contributed to such employee's injury; and it shall not be a defense:

(1) That the employee either expressly or impliedly assumed the risk of the hazard complained of.

(2) That the injury or death was caused in whole or in part by the want of ordinary or reasonable care of a fellow servant.

Sec. 2. No contract, rule or regulation, shall exempt the employer from any of the provisions of the preceding section of this act.

Sec. 3. Liability for the compensation hereinafter provided for, in lieu of any other liability whatsoever, shall, without regard to negligence, exist against an employer for any personal injury accidentally sustained by his employees, and for his death if the injury shall approximately cause death, in those cases where the following conditions of compensation concur:

(1) Where, at the time of the accident, both the employer and employee are subject to the provisions of this act according to the succeeding sections hereof,

(2) Where, at the time of the accident, the employee is performing service growing out of and incidental to his employment and is acting within the line of his duty or course of his employment as such.

(3) Where the injury is approximately caused by accident, either with or without negligence, and is not so caused by the willful misconduct of the employee.

And where such conditions of compensation exist for any personal injury or death, the right to the recovery of such compensation pursuant to the provisions of this act, and acts amendatory thereof, shall be the exclusive remedy against the employer for such injury or death, except that when the injury was caused by the personal gross negligence or willful personal misconduct of the employer, or by reason of his violation of any statute designed for the protection of employees from bodily injury, the employee may, at his option, either claim compensation under this act, or maintain an action for damages therefor; in all other cases the liability of the employer shall be the same as if this and the succeeding sections of this act had not been passed, but shall be subject to the provisions, of the preceding sections of this act.

Sec. 4. The following shall constitute employers subject to the provisions of this act within the meaning of the preceding section:

(1) The State, and each county, city and county, city, town, village and school districts and all public corporations, every person, firm, and private corporation, (including any public service corporation) who has any person in service under any contract of hire, express or implied, oral or written, and who, at or prior to the time of the accident to the employee for which compensation under this act may be claimed, shall, in the manner provided in the next section, have elected to become subject to the provisions of this act, and who shall not, at the time of such accident, have withdrawn such election, in the manner provided in the next section.

SEC. 5. Such election on the part of the employer shall be made by filing with the industrial accident board, hereinafter provided for a written statement to the effect that he accepts the provisions of this act, the filing of which statement shall operate, within the meaning of section three of this act, to subject such employer to the provisions of this act and all acts amendatory thereof for the term of one year from the date of the filing of such statement, and thereafter, without further act on his part, for succesive terms of one year cach, unless such employer shall, at least sixty days prior to the expiration of such first or any succeeding year, file in the office of said board a notice in writing to the effect that he withdraws his election to be subject to the provisions of the act.

Sec. 6. The term "employee" as used in section three of this act shall be construed to mean:

(1) Every person in the service of the State, or any county, city and county, city, town, village or school district therein, and all public corporations, under any appointment or contract of hire, express or implied, oral or written, except any official of the State, or of any county, city and county, city, town, village or school district therein or any public corporation, who shall have been elected or appointed for a regular term of one or more years, or to complete the unexpired portion of any such regular term.

(2) Every person in the service of another under any contrart of hire, express or implied, oral or written, including aliens, and also including minors who are legally permitted to work under the laws of the State, (who, for the purposes of the next section of this act, shall be considered the same and shall have the same power of contracting as adult employees), but not including any person whose employment is but casual and not in the usual course of the trade, business, profession or occupation of his employer.

Sec. 7. Any employee as defined in subsection (1) of the preceding section shall be subject to the provisions of this act and of any act amendatory thereof. Any employee as defined in subsection (2) of the preceding section shall be deemed to have accepted and shall, within the meaning of section 3 of this act be subject to the

pro visions of this act and of any act amendatory thereof, if, at the time of the accident upon which liability is claimed:

(1) The employer charged with such liability is subject to the provisions of this act, whether the employee has actual notice thereof or not; and

(2) At the time of entering into his contract of hire, express or implied, with such employer, such employee shall not have given to his employer notice in writing that he elects not to be subject to the provisions of this act, or, in the event that such contract of hire was made in advance of such employer becoming subject to the provisions of the act, such employee shall, without giving such notice, remain in the service of such employer for thirty days after the employer has filed with said board an election to be subject to the terms of this act.

Sec. 8. Where liability for compensation under this act exists the same shall be as provided in the following schedule:

(1) Such medical and surgical treatment, medicines, medical and surgical supplies, crutches and apparatus, as may be reasonably required at the time of the injury and thereafter during the disability, but not exceeding ninety days, to cure and relieve from the effect of the injury, the same to be provided by the employer, and in case of his neglect or refusal seasonably to do so, the employer to be liable for the reasonable expense incurred by or on behalf of the employee in providing the same: Provided, however, That the total liability under this subdivision shall not exceed the sum of $100.

(2) If the accident causes disability, an indemnity which shall be payable as wages on the eighth day after the injured employee leaves work as the result of the injury, and weekly thereafter, which weekly indemnity shall be as follows:

(a) If the accident causes total disability, sixty-five per cent of the average weekly earnings during the period of such total disability: Provided, That if the disability is such as not only to render the injured employee entirely incapable of work, but also so helpless as to require the assistance of a purse, the weekly indemnity during the period of such assistance shall be increased to one hundred per cent of the average weekly earnings.

(b) If the accident causes partial disability, sixty-five per cent of the weekly loss in wages during the period of such partial disability.

(c) If the disability caused by the accident is at times total and at times partial, the weekly indemnity during the periods of each such total or partial disability shall be in accordance with said subsections (a) and (b) respectively. (d) Said subsections (a), (b) and (c) shall be subject to the following limitations:

Aggregato disability indemnity for a single injury shall not exceed three times the average annual earnings of the employee.

If the period of disability does not last more than one week from the day the employee leaves work as the result of the accident no indemnity whatever shall be recoverable.

If the period of disability lasts more than one week from the day the employee leaves work as the result of the accident, no indemnity shall be recoverable for the first week of the period of such disability.

The aggregate disability period shall not, in any event extend beyond fifteen years from the date of the accident.

(3) The death of the injured employee shall not affect the obligation of the employer under subsections (1) and (2) of this section, so far as his liability shall have accrued and become payable at the time of the death, but the death shall be deemed the termination of disability, and the employer shall thereupon be liable for the following death benefits in lieu of any further disability benefits: Provided, That such death was approximately caused by the accident causing such disability:

(a) In case the deceased employee leaves a person or persons wholly dependent upon him for support, the death benefit shall be a sum sufficient when added to the benefits which shall, at the time of death, have accrued and become payable under the provisions of subsection (2) of this section to make the total compensation for the injury and death, (exclusive of the benefit provided for in subsection (1), equal to three times his annual average earnings, not less than $1,000 nor more than $5,000, the same to be payable, unless and until the industrial accident board shall otherwise direct, in weekly installments corresponding in amount to the weekly earnings of the employee.

(b) In case the deceased employee leaves no one wholly dependent on him for support, but one or more persons partially dependent therefor, the death benefit shall be such percentage of three times such average annual earnings of the employee as the annual amount devoted by the deceased to the support of the person or persons 80 partially dependent upon him for support bears to such average earnings, the same to be payable, unless and until the industrial accident board shall otherwise direct, in weekly installments corresponding to the weekly earnings of the employee: Provided, That the total compensation for the injury and death, (exclusive of the benefit provided for in said subsection (1) shall not exceed three times such average annual earnings.

(c) In the event that the accident shall have approximately caused permanent disability, either total or partial, and the employee shall die within fifteen years after the date of the accident, liability for the death benefits provided for in said subsections (a) and (b) respectively shall exist only where the accident was the approximate cause of death within said period of fifteen years.

(d) If the deceased employee leaves no person dependent upon him for support, and the accident approximately causes death, the death benefit shall consist of the reasonable expenses of his burial not exceeding $100.

Sec. 9. (1) The weekly earning (s) referred to in section (8) shall be one fifty-second of the average annual earnings of the employee; average annual earnings shall not be taken at less than $333.33, nor more than $1,666.66, and between said limits shall be arrived at as follows:

(a) If the injured employee has worked in such employment, whether for the same employer or not, during substantially the whole of the year immediately preceding his injury, his average annual earnings shall consist of three hundred times the average daily wage or salary which he has earned as such employee during the days when so employed.

(b) If the injured employee has not so worked in such employment during substantially the whole of such immediately preceding year, his average annual earnings shall consist of three hundred times the average daily wage or salary which an employee of the same class working substantially the whole of such immediately preceding year in the same or a similar employment in the same or a neighboring place shall have earned during the days when so employed.

(c) In cases where the foregoing methods of arriving at the average annual earnings of the injured employee can not reasonably and fairly be applied, such annual earnings shall be taken at such sum as having regard to the previous earnings of the injured employee, and of other employees of the same or most similar class, working in the same or most similar employment in the same or neighboring locality, shall reasonably represent the average earning capacity of the injured employee at the time of the injury in the employment in which he was working at such time.

(d) The fact that an employee has suffered a previous disability, or received compensation therefor, shall not preclude him from compensation for a later injury, or for death resulting therefrom, but in determining compensation for the later injury, or death resulting therefrom, his average annual earnings shall be such sum as will

reasonably represent his annual earning capacity at the time of the later injury, and shall be arrived at according to the previous provisions of this section.

(2) The weekly loss in wages referred to in section 8, shall consist of the difference between the average weekly earnings of the injured employee, computed according to the provisions of this section, and the weekly amount which the injured employee, in the exercise of reasonable diligence, will probably be able to earn, the same to be fixed as of the time of the accident, but to be determined in view of the nature and extent of the injury.

(3) The following shall be conclusively presumed to be solely and wholly dependent for support upon a deceased employee:

(a) A wife upon a husband.

(b) A husband upon a wife upon whose earnings he is partially or wholly dependent at the time of her death.

(c) A child or children under the age of eighteen years (or over said age, but physically or mentally incapacitated from earning), upon the parent with whom he or they are living at the time of the death of such parent, there being no surviving dependent parent. `In case there is more than one child thus dependent, the death benefit shall be divided equally among them. In all other cases questions of entire or partial dependency shall be determined in accordance with the fact, as the fact may be at the time of the death of the employee, and in such other cases if there is more than one person wholly dependent, the death benefit shall be divided equally among them and persons partially dependent, if any, shall receive no part thereof, and if there is more than one person partially dependent, the death benefit shall be divided among them according to the relative extent of their dependency.

(4) Questions as to who constitute dependents and the extent of their dependency shall be determined as of the date of the death of the employee, and their right to any death benefit shall become fixed as of such time, irrespective of any subsequent change in conditions, and the death benefit shall be directly recoverable by and payable to the dependent or dependents entitled thereto or their legal guardians or trustees.

Sec. 10. No claim to recover compensation under this act shall be maintained unless within thirty days after the occurrence of the accident which is claimed to have caused the injury or death, notice in writing, stating the name and the address of the person injured, the time and the place where the accident occurred, and the nature of the injury, and signed by the person injured or someone in his behalf, or in case of his death, by a dependent or someone in his behalf, shall be served upon the employer by delivering to and leaving with him a copy of such notice or by mailing to him by registered mail a copy thereof in a sealed and posted envelope addressed to him at his last known place of business or residence. Such mailing shall constitute complete service: Provided, however, That any payment of compensation under this act, in whole or in part, made by the employer before the expiration of said thirty days shall be equivalent to the notice herein required: And provided further, That the failure to give any such notice, or any defect or inaccuracy therein, shall not be a bar to recovery under this act if it is found as a fact in the proceedings for collections of the claim that there was no intention to mislead the employer, and that he was not in fact misled thereby: And provided further, That if no such notice is given and no payment of compensation made, within one year from the date of the accident, the right to compensation therefor shall be wholly barred.

Sec. 11. Wherever in case of injury the right to compensation under this act would exist in favor of any employee, he shall, upon the written request of his employer, submit from time to time to examination by a regular practicing physician, who shalí be provided and paid for by the employer, and shall likewise submit to examination from time to time by any regular physician selected by said industrial accident board, or any member or examiner thereof. The employee shall be entitled to have a physician provided and paid for by himself present at any such examination. So long as the employee, after such written request of the employer, shall refuse to submit to such examination, or shall in any way obstruct the same, his right to begin or maintain any proceeding for the collection of compensation shall be suspended, and if he shall refuse to submit to such examination after direction by the board, or any member or examiner thereof, or shall in any way obstruct the same, his right to the weekly indemnity which shall accrue and become payable during the period of such refusal or obstruction, shall be barred. Any physician who shall make or be present at any such examination may be required to testify as to the results thereof.

Sec. 12. Any dispute or controversy concerning compensation under this act, including any in which the State may be a party, shall be submitted to a board consisting of three members, which shall be known as the industrial accident board. Within thirty days before this act shall take effect, the governor, by and with the advice and consent of the senate, shall appoint a member who shall serve two years, and another who shall serve three years, and another who shall serve four years. Thereafter such three members shall be appointed and confirmed for terms of four years each. Vacancies shall be filled in the same manner for the unexpired term. Each member of the board, before entering upon the duties of his office, shall take the oath prescribed by the constitution. A majority of the board shall constitute a quorum for the exercise of any of the powers or authority conferred by this act, and an award by the majority shall be valid. In case of a vacancy, the remaining two members of the board shall exercise all the powers and authority of the board until such vacancy is filled. Each member of the board shall receive an annual salary of three thousand six hundred dollars.

Sec. 13. The board shall organize by choosing one of its members as chairman. Subject to the provisions of this act, it may adopt its own rules of procedure and may change the same from time to time in its discretion. The board, when it shall deem it necessary to expedite its business, may from time to time employ one or more expert examiners for such length of time as may be required. It may also appoint a secretary and such clerical help as it may deem necessary. "It shall fix the compensation of all assistants so appointed.

Sec. 14. The board shall keep its office at the city of San Francisco, and shall be provided by the secretary of state with a suitable room or rooms, necessary office furniture, stationery, and other supplies. The members of the board and its assistants, shall be entitled to receive from the State their actual and necessary expenses while traveling on the business of the board, but such expenses shall be sworn to by the person who incurred the same, and be approved by the chairman of the board, before payment is made. All salaries and expenses authorized by this act shall be audited and paid out of the general funds of the State the same as other general State expenses are audited and paid.

Sec. 15. Upon the filing with the board by any party in interest of an application in writing stating the general nature of any dispute or controversy concerning compensation under this act, it shall fix a time for the hearing thereof, which shall not be more than forty days after the filing of such application. The board shall cause notice of such hearing to be given to each party interested by service of such notice on him personally or by mailing a copy thereof to him at his last known post-office address at least ten days before such hearing. Such hearing may be adjourned from time to time in the discretion of the board, and hearings shall be held at such places as the board shall designate. Either party shall have the right to be present at any hearing, in person or by attorney or any other agent, and to present such testimony as shall be pertinent to the controversy before the board, but the board may, with or without notice to either party, cause testimony to be taken, or inspection of the premises where the injury occurred to be had, or the time books and pay roll of the employer to be examined by any member of the board or any examiner appointed by it, and may from time to time, direct any employee claiming compensation to be examined by a regular physician; the testimony so taken and the results of any such inspection or examination, to be reported to the board for its consideration upon final hearing. The board, or any member thereof, or any examiner appointed thereby shall have power and authority to issue subpoenas to compel the attendance of witnesses or parties, and the production of books, papers, or records, and to administer oaths. Obedience to such subpænas shall be enforced by the superior court of any county, or city and county.

SEC. 16. After final hearing by said board, it shall make and file (1) its findings upon all facts involved in the controversy, and (2) its award, which shall state its determination as to the rights of the party.

Sec. 17. Either party may present à certified copy of the award to the superior court for any county or city and county, whereupon said court shall, without notice, render a judgment in accordance therewith, which judgment, until and unless set aside as hereinafter provided, shall have the same effect as though duly rendered in an action duly tried and determined by said court, and shall, with the like effect, be entered and docketed.

Sec. 18. The findings of fact made by the board acting within its powers, shall, in the absence of fraud, be conclusive, and the award, whether judgment has been rendered thereon or not, shall be subject to review only in the manner and upon the grounds following: Within thirty days from the date of the award, any party aggrieved thereby may file with the board an application in writing for a review of such award, stating generally the grounds upon which such review is sought; within thirty days thereafter the board shall cause all documents and papers on file in the matter, and a transcript of all testimony which may have been taken therein, to be transmitted with their findings and award to the clerk of the superior court of that county or city

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