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fort sufficient to protect the settlement; all of which the company proposed, and prepared to do at once, and sent to London for a cargo suited to the Indian trade, which was to come out so as to arrive in November, 1749. This grant was to be taken principally on the south side of the Ohio river, between the Monongahela and Kanawha rivers.

In the autumn of 1750, the agents of the Ohio Company employed Christopher Gist, a land surveyor and familiar with the woods, to explore their contemplated possessions on the Ohio River, as well as the adjacent country. He kept a journal of his proceedings, which was published, and is entitled : “ A journal of Christopher Gist's journey, began from Colonel Cresap’s, at the old town on the Potomac River, Maryland, October 31, 1750, continued down the Ohio within fifteen miles of the falls thereof; and from thence to Roanoke River in North Carolina, where he arrived in May, 1751.95 Mr. Craig, in his notes on the early history of Pittsburgh, thinks, from what he can ascertain, that he ascended the Juniata, after crossing over from the Potomac, and descended the Kiskeminetas to the Alleghany, which stream he crossed about four miles above Pittsburgh, and passed on to the Ohio. From the mouth of Beaver creek he passed over to the Tuscarawas, or Muskingum River, called by him and by the Indians Elk Eye creek; striking it on the 5th of December, or thirty-five days after leaving the Potomac, at a point about fifty miles above the present town of Coshocton, probably within the county of Stark. On the 7th, he crossed over the Elk Eye to a small village of Ottawas, who were in the French interest. He speaks of the land as broken, and the bottoms rather narrow on this stream. On the 14th December he reached an Indian town, a few miles above the mouth of Whitewoman creek, called Muskingum, inhabited by Wyandots, who, he says, are half of them attached to the French and half to the English, containing about one hundred families. “When we came in sight of it, we perceived English colors hoisted on the King's house and at George Croghan's. Upon inquiring the reason, I was informed that the French had lately taken several English traders, and that Mr. Croghan had ordered all the white men to come into this town, and had sent expresses to the traders of the lower towns, and among the Piquatiners, and that the Indians had sent to their people to come to council about it."

4) Perkins' Writings, ii, 191. Sparks Washington, ii, 478.

5) S. P. Hildreth's Pioneer History, 26-a valuable publication of the Ohio Historical Society.

From this passage, it is evident that the Pennsylvania traders had traversed the Indian villages, and obtained the good will of their inhabitants in a considerable degree. George Croghan was apparently at the head of a trading party, and he and Andrew Montour accompanied Gist in his further exploration. The latter, who acted as interpreter, and was influential among the Delawares and Shawanese, was a son of the famous Canadian half breed, Catharine Montour, whose residence was at the head of Seneca Lake, in New York. Catharine had two sons, Andrew and Henry, who were three-fourths of Indian blood. The late James H. Perkins supposed that the companion of Gist was Henry, who was a chief among the Six Nations, and says that Andrew had been taken by the French in 1749. But Gist gives the name of his interpreter and companion as “ Andrew," and it is unreasonable to suppose him mistaken. It is more likely that Andrew Montour had escaped from his Canadian captors, and was ready to make reprisals on them. Besides Croghan and Montour, Gist was accompanied by Robert Kalender during the latter portion of his journey. We resume the diary of Gist :

6) Of this woman W. L. Stone (Life of Brant, i, 340) says: "She was a native of Canada, a half-breed, her father having been one of the early French governors-probably Count Frontenac, as he must have been in the government of that country at about the time of her birth. During the wars between the Six Nations and the French and Hurons, Catharine, when about ten years of age, was made a captive, taken into the Seneca country, adopted and reared as one of their own children. When arrived at a suitable age, she was married to one of the distinguished chiefs of her tribe, who signalized himself in the wars of the Six Nations against the Catawbas, then a great nation living southwestward of Virginia. She had several children by this chieftain, who fell in battle about the year 1750, after which she did not marry again. She is said to have been a handsome woman when young, genteel, and of polite address, notwithstanding her Indian associations. It was frequently her lot to accompany the chiefs of the Six Nations to Philadelphia, and other places in Pennsylvania, where treaties were holden; and, from her character and manners, she was greatly caressed by the American ladies-particularly in Philadelphia, where she was invited by the ladies of the best circles, and entertained at their houses. Her residence was at the head of Seneca Lake.” This account is mostly derived from Witham Marshe's Journal of a Treaty with the Six Nations, held at Lancaster in 1744, where Madame Montour (as Marshe calls her) was.

“ Monday, 17th December, 1750. Two traders belonging to Mr. Croghan came into town and informed us that two of his people had been taken by forty Frenchmen and twenty Indians, who had carried them with seven horse loads of skins to a new fort the French were building on one of the branches of Lake Erie."

This we claim to have been Fort Sandusky. Bancroft recognizes no doubt on the point, but quotes Gist as stating that the captives were “carried to the new fort at Sandusky.? There was certainly no other fort or station on any branch of Lake Erie at the close of 1750. Two years afterwards, or early in 1753, twelve hundred men from Montreal built a fort at Presque Isle, now Erie, and crossing thence to the waters flowing south, they established posts at La Boeuf and Venango, the one on French creek, the other on the main stream of the Alleghany. All accounts concur in fixing this date for the posts at Erie, Waterford and Venango. Du Quesne, afterwards Fort Pitt and now Pittsburgh, was occupied in 1754. It is true that Niagara and Detroit commanded the extremities of Lake Erie, but in 1750–1, the only French fort on a branch of the lake was Sandusky. This will appear more distinctly as we proceed with Gist’s diary.

7) History of the United States, iv, 77.

“ Tuesday, 18th December. I acquainted Mr. Croghan and Mr. Montour with my business with the Indians, and talked much of a regulation of trade, with which they were pleased, and treated me well.”

“ Tuesday, 25th. This being Christmas day, I intended to read prayers, but after inviting some of the white men, they informed each other of my intentions, and being of several persuasions and few of them inclined to hear any good, they refused to come ; but one Thomas Barney, a blacksmith, who is settled there, went about and talked to them, and then several of the well disposed Indians came freely, being invited by Andrew Montour." Mr. Gist delivered a discourse, which was interpreted to the Indians, and read the English church service. He then says: “ The Indians seem to be well pleased, and came up to me and returned me their thanks and then invited me to live among them,” &c.

“Friday, 4th January, 1751. One Taaf, an Indian trader, came to town from near Lake Erie, and informed us that the Wyandots had advised him to keep clear of the Ottawas, (a nation firmly attached to the French, living near the lakes,) and told him that the branches of the lakes were claimed by the French, but that all the branches of the Ohio belonged to them and their brothers, the English, and that the French had no business there, and that it was expected that the other part of the Wyandots would desert the French and come over to the English interest, and join their brethren on the Elk Eye creek, and build a strong fort and town there."

“ Wednesday, 9th. This day came into town two traders from among the Piquatiners (a tribe of the Tawightees) and brought news that another English trader was taken prisoner by the French, and that three French soldiers had deserted and come over to the English, and surrendered themselves to some of the traders of the Picktown, and that the Indians would have put them to death to revenge the taking of our traders; but as the French had surrendered themselves to the English, they would not let the Indians hurt them, but had ordered them to be sent under the care of three of our traders, and delivered at this town to George Croghan."

“Saturday, 12th. Proposed a council-postponed-Indians drunk.

“ Monday, 14th. This day George Croghan, by the assistance of Andrew Montour, acquainted the King and council of this nation (presenting them with four strings of wampum) that their Roggony (father] had sent, under care of the Governor of Virginia, their brother, a large present of goods, which were now safe landed in Virginia, and that the governor had sent me to invite them to come and see him, and partake of their father's charity to all his children on the branches of the Ohio. In answer to which, one of the chiefs stood up and said that their King and all of them thanked their brother, the governor of Virginia, for his care, and me for bringing them the news; but that they could not give an answer until they had a full and general council of the several nations of Indians, which could not be

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