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9. Relative position of telephone and telegraph circuits and trans
mission circuits. 10. Co-ordinated transposition of power and telephone circuits. 11. Avoidance of common ground connections for power and communication circuits.
SECTION III 12. High speed circuit breakers and relays in power circuits. 13. Current limiting reactors and resistances. 14. Design, construction and arrangement of apparatus in high ten
sion lines. 15. Operation and maintenance of high tension lines.
Recommendations The Committee recommends that the subject be continued with the view of establishing, if possible, recommended remedial measures.
ITEM (3) WATER POWER
W. L. Morse, Chairman;
The Committee was instructed to continue the subject and report on the utilization of water power for railroad electric operation, coöperating, if desirable, with the United States Geological Survey in its Super Power Survey. The report of the Super Power Survey was not available until shortly prior to the conclusion of this report and the Committee therefore was not afforded opportunity to give it the compreliensive study that the importance of the subject deserves.
The following report deals specifically with sources oi electric power available for the operation of railroads, within econonical reach of the Niagara and St. Lawrence Rivers and tributaries of the St. Lawrence River.
(1) Niagara River Water Available: The Niagara River is the outlet of Lake Erie, conducting the waters from the immense storage basin of the four upper lakes, located on a plateau above elevation 573 above sea level, into Lake Ontario, at elevation 246 above sea level. Through this river there passes an approximate average of 220,000 cubic feet of water per second. Could all of this water be utilized for the full head of 327 feet, more than seven million horse-power would be developed. However, the fall in the river between the cities of Buffalo and Niagara Falls reduces the head to about 314 feet, which includes the rapids immediately above the falls, the cataract itself and the rapids below. Out of this head at least 300 feet can be obtained as useful in power development, and with all of the water from the river being utilized would produce approximately 6,600,000 potential horsepower. The river being a boundary stream, the water is naturally divided between Canada and the United States, or, the Province of Ontario and the state of New York. Assuming the division of water between the two countries to be equal, each country would then have approximately 3,300,000 potential horse-power.
However, some waters are diverted from the Niagara River for navigation and drainage purposes; for those remaining there are two functions to be performed, namely, the continuation of remarkable scenic spectacles in the falls and rapids, and the production of energy for industrial purposes. A division of the waters for these two uses exists today and will undoubtedly continue to exist, but the actual use for power development may tend to increase until further development would impait the scenic grandeur.
Diversion of water at Niagara Falls is now made under a treaty between Great Britain and the United States and is restricted to a total of 56,000 cubic feet per second, divided 36,000 on the Canadian and 20,000 on the American side. (Each country is entitled to 50 per cent of the waters diverted along the international boundary; the above division is governed by the amount of water taken at other points.)
Colonel J. G. Warren, reporting under instructions from the Chief of Engineers in pursuance to Public Resolution No. 8, 65th Congress, recommends that, after certain remedial works for the purpose of preserving the natural scenery, in so far as is justifiable, have been consummated, a total diversion of 80,000 cubic feet of water per second, 40,000 on the Canadian and 40,000 on the American side, be allowed; 40,000 cubic feet per second of this to be returned to the Maid-of-the-Mist Pool for protection of scenic beauty and ice discharging capacity of the river below the falls, and 40,000 allowed to be used below the lower rapids where the maximum head may be obtained.
The opinion has been expressed that the scenic effect of the water would not be seriously changed by the construction of a submerged dam or weir in the center of the rapids above the crest of the Horseshoe Falls, which would spread the waters from the center of the falls toward the ends, making a more even distribution. This Committee is not in full accord with this opinion, but if done it would doubtless be advantageous in checking erosion to divert more water around the falls; such water would be made available for generating power and is that contained in the 80,000 cubic feet per second referred to above. This diversion is acquiesced in by the Board of Engineers for Rivers and Harbors who believe that the scenic beauty can be maintained with an ultimate diversion of from 100,000 to 110,000 cubic feet of water per second.
From the above it will be noted that Government Engineers are of the opinion that water sufficient to produce approximately 2,000,000 horsepower, 800,000 at plants to discharge into the Maid-of-the-Mist Pool and 1,200,000 at plants below the lower rapids, may be diverted at Niagara; and it is not improbable that a further change may be made in the division between the aesthetic and the commercial and that in time 3,000,000 horse-power may be there developed.
There are now developed on the American side approximately 300,000 horse-power. This will be increased upon the completion of construction work now under way to 400,000 horse-power. There, therefore, remains 600,000 horse-power to be developed on the American side to equal the amount set by Government Engineers at the present limit.
Transmission: Electric power is now being transmitted approximately 250 miles from Niagara Falls and tentative designs and estimates made by the Niagara Falls Power Company indicate that power could be transmitted in large quantities under present conditions to New York City for approximately one cent per kilowatt hour, including generation as well as transmission.
Stability and Continuity: The Niagara River constitutes the outflow from a very large drainage area and lake system which gives it an almost constant flow, slight Auctuations only being caused by weather conditions on Lake Erie which tend to increase or decrease the flow but temporarily. It is doubtful if there exists a more constant and reliable source of energy elsewhere on Earth than that obtained by the development of the waters of Niagara River.
American Side: The present development on the American side at two plants is as follows: Effective
Usual Head Using Cu. Installed Average Location
Linear Ft. Ft. Per Sec. Capacity H. P. H.P. Niagara Plant
90,000 Hydraulic Plant ...212
19,500 373,500 300,000 These plants belong to the Niagara Falls Power Company. This company is now constructing a 32-foot tunnel to the Hydraulic Plant for the purpose of re-developing the water now going to the Niagara Plant. This water will be used to drive three 70,000 horse-power units, which will add 210,000 horse-power installed capacity to the system and place Niagara Plant in reserve. The development on the American side will then be as follows: Effective
Usual Head Using Cu. Installed Average Location
Linear Ft. Ft. Per Sec. Capacity H. P. HP
210,000 Extension to Original Installation .......215
Total for continuous use.... 19,500 Niagara Plant (hold in reserve).
Total installed capacity....
.583,500 During the hours of peak loads, the Niagara Plant will be brought into commission and will also be used as a standby in case of repairs or shut down at the Hydraulic Plant.
In addition to the above plants, the Niagara Falls Power Company owns the stock of the Canadian Niagara Power Company; the plant is located on the Canadian side of the river, with an installed capacity of 112,500 horse-power and normal output of 100,000 horse-power. The combined American and Canadian plants of the Niagara Falls Power Company will, therefore, have, under present treaty conditions, the following development:
Installed Average Location
Capacity H.P. H.P. American Side
.583,500 400,000 Canadian Side
Power from the Canadian side is transmitted to the American side, tied in with the current from the American plants and distributed to American industries. From the 696,000 installed capacity it is believed 100,000 horse-power would be available for railroad electrification.
The specific recommendation of the Government Engineers is that the treaty be modified to allow an increased diversion of 20,000 cubic feet more water per second on the American side. This will develop 600,000 horse-power, a large part of which could be made available for railroad electrification. The enlargement of treaty permits for increased diversion of water is now being considered by both the United States and Canada and will undoubtedly be made by the time that there is a demand for the additional power which such additional diversion will make possible.
Beyond the specific recommendation of the Government Engineers is a further tentative expression of conclusions from their investigations which indicates that the final division allowance on the American side may be at least 15,000 cubic feet of water per second in excess of the specific recommendation already made. This further amount of water would add approximately 450,000 horse-power, making a possible ulti. mate total on the American side of 1,628,500 horse-power.
Canadian Side: In Canada there are three complete plants in operation, namely:
H. P. Toronto Power Company.
.125,000 Ontario Power Company.
.200,000 Canadian Niagara Power Company.
.437,500 The Ontario Power Company is now owned by the Hydro-Electric Power Commission. This Commission also has in the course of construction the Chippawa-Queenston Canal project, the plant for which will be located below the lower rapids. The canal is approximately fourteen miles long Starting from the Niagara River at the mouth of the Welland River, it follows the course of the latter, for which the flow has been reversed, for a distance of five miles and thence by open cut around the city of Niagara Falls, Ontario, northerly and northeasterly to an immense forebay that is within one mile of the plateau's edge at Brock's Monument. At the foot of the cliff, immediately below this forebay and on the river's edge, the power plant will be located. In this plant nine 50,000 horse-power units are to be installed. This plant is being constructed from funds subscribed by the various municipalities located within the Province of Ontario, bonds for which are guaranteed by the Province. Each municipality will be allotted its quota according to the horse-power it requires and for which it has subscribed. Its current, therefore, like that from the Toronto Power Company, will be used for the benefit of the Canadian public.