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(2) SERVICE TEST RECORDS R. H. HOWARD, Chairman; F. J. ANGIER, E. H. BOWSER, S. D. COOPER,

C. F. FORD, HERMANN VON SCHRENK, Sub-Committee. Instructions:

Make final report, if practicable, on Service Test Records, extending them to include treated timbers in Bridges, Docks and Wharves, and include a study of the records of service given by Zinc Chlorine Treatment. Introduction:

The treatment of cross ties and timber of all kinds with some preservative to prevent decay, is growing more important as the available supply of timber decreases.

There are many different chemical preservatives used, and as creosote oil, zinc chloride, and a mixture of these two, are more widely used than the others, these only will be discussed in this report.

Of these preservatives there is no question about the use of creosote oil being preferable. Zinc chloride and a mixture of zinc chloride and creosote oil are used with much success in certain regions. Treatment:

The attached statement "Exhibit A”, supplied by the Forest Products Laboratory at Madison, Wisconsin, gives the results of all completed tests of cross ties of which we have record. There are other tests under way and the completion of these tests will add valuable data to that given in this exhibit.

The Committee is of the opinion that it will be much more desirable in the future to publish nothing but completed tests. It is considered that this is the best method to be used, as everybody interested will be able to get definite information as to service life secured in all parts of the country from cross ties treated by various methods. Completed tests will be reported each year. Zinc Chloride (Burnettizing) Process:

With the present scarcity of creosote oil resulting in high prices, and the large number of cross ties to be treated, economy demands that some other preservative be used.

For some time there will not be sufficient creosote oil to treat the required number of ties. Therefore, it is imperative that the Burnett Process of treatment be more widely used in order to secure the greatest possible economy in the use of ties.

Below are given the governing features for maximum service life and economy in the use of ties treated by this process. Conditioning required for satisfactory treatment: (1) Preliminary seasoning-Be sure that the ties to be treated

have been thoroughly seasoned and that decay has not already begun.

(2) Proper treatment—To secure this the treatment should be

supervised by a competent Treatment Inspector under the

jurisdiction of the Engineering Department of the Railroad. (3) Subsequent seasoning-Care should be taken to see that the

ties are thoroughly seasoned after treatment. They should be piled in close piles with end ties on edge (as per sketch

below), to prevent excessive checking. (4) All piles should be placed in dry places and kept free from

weeds.

[graphic]

OUTSIDE TIES IN

METHOD OF Piling Ties TREATED BY ZINC CHLORIDE.

Each COURSE LAID ON EDGE.

Maximum service results will be obtained only upon observance of the

following: (1) Drainage-Good drainage of the roadbed is absolutely neces

sary to secure maximum results. (2) Ballast–The ballest should be sufficient and of the best

available materials, and should be kept clean. (3) Tie plates—Tie plates of proper size and thickness should

be used on all treated ties to prevent destruction by mechani

ical wear. (4)

Rail anchors-Use rail anchors where necessary to prevent

creepage of rail, and slewing of ties. (5) Distribution of ties—When practicable use hardwood ties

on curves and softwood ties on tangents. (6) Tie plugs—Whenever it is necessary to re-spike a treated

tie, treated tie plugs should be applied, and when possible

to do so the spike should be redriven into the tie plug. (7) "S” Irons—“S” Irons should be applied to hardwood ties

before treatment, preferably in the woods at time of manu

facture, or, if not then, immediately after the inspection. The following tables taken from “Exhibit A” indicate the life of ties, treated with zinc, zinc creosote and creosote, taking as a base the service life of ties of different kinds of wood in the various sections of the country. Attention is directed to the grouping of these tests. It will be noted that various methods of treatment are grouped according to the geographical location of the test and the kind of treatment given.

A

COMPLETED TESTS FROM THE RECORDS OF THE FOREST PRODUCTS LABORATORY, MADISON, W

Zinc Chloride

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Bayview and St. Leon

Ter.

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10 9 11 4

16

34 32 44 45 30 33 46 37 30 22 200 698 5909 4786 438 275 1000 1048 521 713 100 100

100
242000

46
26
31

9
33

Western Division
Chicago Division
Western Division
Chicago Division..
Western Division
Chicago Division
Western Division

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.26 .35 .35

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4 19 0 15 14 )

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Lines in Wyoming

Kansas
Kansas.
Colorado.
Nebraska

Nebraska
Rowayton Conn.

.40
.40

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55 55 55 55 55 55 .58

40 . 10 40 50

67 14 334 334 333

100 6048 41691 15564

2607 12899 13397 6357

5 36

81 2916

Beaumont. Тех,

10 0 Glidden District..

65 San Antonio

8.2 Del Rio

8.9 Sanderson

6.7
Valentine
El Paso
Newton

Kan. 15034755 TIX.
Norfolk

Neb.
Heavy

10.0

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13.2

8.2 yrs.

Average life for 23 Test Sections in Texas.. 10

• California 12

" Pittsburgh-Chicago. 7

* Connecticut.. 6

• Nebraska

9.9 .9.1 7.2 9 2

COMPLETED TESTS FROM THE RECORDS OF THE FOREST PRODUCTS LABORATORY, MADISON, Wis.

Zinc Creosote

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COMPLETED TESTS FROM THE RECORDS OF THE FOREST PRODUCTS LABORATORY, MADISON, Wis.

Creosote

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1 16 23 30 35 400 25 75

9 2743

90 98 13 6 12.0 10.9 20.0 15.4 20.2 10 0

Hemlock

NÀY, N. H. & H.
Juniper... Norfolk Southerní F. Cell
Oak, Red P. R. R... Reuping ..
Pine, Loblolly..

F. Cell.
Pine, So.Yellow N. Y. N. H.&H.

80
80

Medway, Mass
Norfolk, Va., Division.
Western Division
Wooster, Ohio.
Fair Haven, Conn
Sutton, Kan.

F. Cell. A. T. & S. F Reuping

8-10

20 mil
lion tons

200
500

6.4 11.0 12.0 13.8

4.56

Heavy

From these tables we can estimate the probable length of life of ties manufactured from any wood treated with chloride of zinc for any section of the country. Using this life as a basis the annual cost may be figured from the current prices for materials and labor at any time by the application of the following formula for economic comparison of cross ties of different materials, taken from page 64, 1915 edition of A.R.E.A. Manual:

CR (1+R)n
Formula A (Annual Cost)

(1 + R)-1
C= First cost of tie.
R= Rate of interest.
A = Annual Cost-Amount at compound interest which will provide

for renewal at end of life of tie. n = Life of tie in years.

It will take but a few moments of time to determine just how much one can afford to pay for a tie to be treated with zinc chloride to secure the estimated life. To serve as a guide the following example has been prepared:

Example for comparing the annual cost of untreated white oak tie with zinc treated red oak; zinc creosote treated red oak and creosote treated red oak tie: Untreated white oak tie: White oak tie, grade 3, cost.

.$1.10 Freight and handling

0.50 Insertion in track

0.40

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Cost of tie in track.
Estimated life
Interest rate

Annual cost of application of Formula.
Zinc treated red oak tie:

Red oak tie, grade 3, cost.
Freight and handling.
.5 lb, zinc per cu. ft., 1973 lb. used, at 90.
Cost of treatment
Insertion in track.
Cost of tie in track.
Estimated life
Interest rate

Annual cost by application of Formula.
Zinc creosote treated red oak tie:

Red oak tie, grade 3, cost....
Freight and handling
.5 lb. zinc per cu. ft., 11'3 1b., at 9c.
I gallon creosote oil..
Cost of treatment.
Insertion in track
Cost of tie in track.
Estimated life
Interest rate
Annual cost by application of Formula.

6% $0.29

.$0.90

0.50
0.12
0.12
0.19
0.40

.$2.23 1272 yrs.

6% $0.26

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