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Various authorities are arguing between a standard of 11% threads to the inch and one of 8 threads to the inch. Until something definite is decided, the Committee believes that no definite recommendation should be made for a thread for 1/2" hose.

FIRE HYDRANTS It is the understanding of the Committee that we are only to consider hydrants suitable for railroad yard purposes and not hydrants for uise on streets adjacent to railroad yards, as the latter are usually furnished by the city in accordance with their local standards.

The National Board of Fire Underwriters have made up certain recommendations for fire hydrants and a copy of their revised specifications are attached. Fire hydrants are generally made up by some local manufacturing firm in the vicinity of the railroad which uses them; the result is that while they may conform to a specification there are many minor variations in design.

A hydrant for miscellaneous yards is usually equipped with two 242" hose connections for National standard thread, one 4" steamer connection with thread to fit local city standard. Water supply connection to be at least 6". In location where there is no call for steamer connection it can, of course, be omitted.

The Committee recognizes the fact that in large cities, particularly at docks and large freight terminals, it may be desirable to install larger size hydrants. Each special case of this kind should be treated on its merits, and we believe in general hydrant installed should be one to fit local city standard, as these special points are usually under the jurisdiction of City Department and only city fire hose likely to be used.

For hydrant located inside of buildings, general practice is to use a standpipe composed of standard 3" extra heavy galvanized iron pipe with a 2/2" connection-National standard thread controlled by proper gate valve. Where conditions of water supply, pressure, etc., warrant it, smaller standpipe, say 2" equipped with 1/2" hose connections desirable.

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REPORT OF COMMITTEE XVII-ON WOOD

PRESERVATION C. M. TAYLOR, Chairman;

S. D. COOPER, Vice-Chairman; F. J. ANGIER,

E. B. HILLEGASS, R. S. BELCHER,

R. H. HOWARD, H. C. BELL,

A. B. ILSLEY, E. H. BOWSER,

W. H. KIRKBRIDE, Z. M. BRIGGS,

J. K. MELTON, W. E. BURKHALTER,

J. F. Pinson, H. A. Dixon,

B. H. PRATER, C. F. FORD,

H. VON SCHRENK, ANDREW GIBSON,

W. D. SIMPSON, C. E. GOSLINE,

0. C. STEIN MAYER, W. L. R. HAINES,

J. H. WATERMAN,

Committee. To the American Railway Engineering Association:

Your Committee on Wood Preservation respectfully submits its report on the following subjects:

(1) Revision of the Manual Proposed changes or additions to the Manual are indicated by underscored lines in the appendices.

In Appendices A, F and G the Committee submits changes and additions covering the following items and recommends their adoption under the heading of "Conclusions."

(a) Revised specification for Preservative Treatment of

Wood with Creosote Oil (Empty Cell Process with

Final Vacuum). (b) New specification covering Preservative Treatment to

be used on Piles and Timbers in Land Construction. (c) New specifications covering Methods for Storing Lum

ber and Piling for Air-seasoning Preliminary to Preservative Treatment.

(2) Service Records In Appendix B the Committee submits tables indicating the life of ties treated with zinc, zinc creosote and creosote, taking as a basis the service life of ties of the different kinds of woods in various sections of the country. Also, the Committee makes definite recommendations covering the selection, installation and record of test sections.

(3) Preservative Treatment for Douglas Fir In Appendix C the Committee submits as information the results received to date covering the experimental treatment of Douglas Fir after perforating, and as a result of these experiments the Sub-Committee in charge strongly recommends at this time that ties to be treated with zinc chloride be perforated previous to treatment.

(4) Treatment of Piles and Timbers for Marine Structures

In Appendix D the Committee on Pacific Coast Marine Piling gives the history of the protection that has been used in that territory, and also submits information concerning the biological phases of our problem together with records of some structures that have given excellent service in that district.

In Appendix E the Committee on Research covering Marine Piling gives a full report of the investigations that have been carried out in this country and abroad considering a problem that has come to the attention of Engineers the world wide.

(5) Preservative Treatment for Piles and Timbers in Land

Construction In Appendix F the Committee submits for adoption definite additions to the General Requirements, and which are recommended for adoption as Recommended Practice under the heading of "Conclusions."

(6) Methods for Storing Lumber and Piling In Appendix G the Committee submits additions to the General Requirements and recommends them for adoption as Recommended Practice under the heading of "Conclusions."

CONCLUSIONS Your Committee makes the following recommendations to the Association: For adoption and publication in the Manual: Subject (1) (a) Revise specifications for the Preservative Treatment of

Wood with Creosote Oil (Empty Cell Process with Final

Vacuum). (b) New specification for Preservative Treatment to be used

on Piles and Timbers in Land Construction. (c) New specification covering Methods for Storing Lumber

and Piling for Air-seasoning Preliminary to Preservative

Treatment.
Accept as information:

Subject (2) Report on Service Test Records.
Subject (3) Report on Preservative Treatment for Douglas Fir.
Subject (4) Preservative Treatment of Piles and Timbers in Ma-

rine Construction.

Recommendations for Future Work The Committee recommends for future work continuation of Subjects Nos. (1), (2), (3), (4), and as new subjects: (1) Present a report with reference to the Preservative Treatment

of Groups UA and UB Ties. (2) Prepare a map showing region where zinc chloride can be

economically used. (3) Prepare a report covering the proper preparation of timber

before treatment which will include adzing and boring of ties: (4) Effect of preservatives on inflammability of wood. (5) Consider the desirability of treating bridge caps, stringers,

bridge ties, and other bridge elements, except piling, with zinc

chloride. (6) Develop a proper indicator for determining the penetration of

sodium fluoride in wood. (7) Recommend preservative treatment for wood pipe staves. (8) Recommend preservative treatment for signal trunking and capping Respectfully submitted, The COMMITTEE ON Wood PRESERVATION,

C. M. TAYLOR, Chairman

(1) REVISION OF THE MANUAL

C. M. TAYLOR, Chairman The Committee has revised the specification for the Preservative Treatment of Wood with Creosote Oil (Empty Cell Process with Final Vacuum), as shown on page 332 of the 1920 Proceedings.

The third paragraph of the specification has been changed to read as follows:

"The material shall retain an average of at least 6 pounds of creosote oil per cubic foot which will permeate all of the sapwood and as much of the heartwood as practical,” and no charge shall contain less than 90 per cent nor more than 110 per cent of the quantity per cubic foot that may be specified.

The specifications for creosote oils as now embodied in our Recommended Practice have been subject to some discussion during this past year, and a committee was appointed consisting of R. S. Belcher, H. C. Bell, C. E. Gosline and 0. C. Steinmayer. As a result of an investigation covering forty-two different railroads using creosote oil, it was disclosed that a great many of the railroads are using oils which do not fully comply with our present specifications, and the following statement covering the situation has been approved by the General Committee as an indication of the situation :

“The specific gravities of the fractions are inserted as specified in Section five of the various creosote oil specifications to prevent the admixture of any considerable quantities of water gas tar. The limits had to be placed so high in order to prevent this that, as a general thing, the only oils that would meet the requirements are oils produced from coke oven tars and a few gas house tars that are produced under high temperatures and only moderate sized charges. The Committee now finds that a very considerable amount of creosote oil, that is apparently produced from authentic uncontaminated samples of coal tar, will not meet these gravity requirements. This is particularly so with a number of samples of English oils prepared from horizontal tars operated at moderate temperatures or at high temperatures with very large charges, or when produced from vertical retorts.

Furthermore, the Committee has recently been furnished samples of oil produced from the distillation of a petroleum tar that has gravities considerably in excess of those required. The Committee, however, is not in a position at the present time to recommend any simple test that will on the one hand absolutely prevent the addition of water gas tar and that will, on the other hand, permit the use of creosote oil made from all samples of coal tar.

The Committee, therefore, recommends that until the study now in progress by this Committee is completed and report thereon made that the railroads give greater consideration to the sources of tars used in the manufacture of creosote oil in case the specific gravities of the two fractions in question do not fully comply with our present recommended practice.

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