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trains are used as a means of handling freight to the cars, the width of house will be determined by its plan and the proposed method of operation. In such cases a width of 40 to 60 ft. appears desirable. If part of the outbound freight is handled on separate transfer platform adjacent to the outbound setting a platform width of not less than 20 ft. for hand trucking and 30 ft. for motor operation appear desirable.

k. If the conditions are as outlined in this study 1.2 tons per linear ft. as the average daily capacity of the Inbound holise tailboard for freight houses located in large cities may be used. Modify, if necessary, on the basis of data obtained under items f and h.

1. If the conditions are as outlined in this study, 1.25 tons per linear ft. of tailboard at the outbound house may be used. Modify according to items f and h if revision is indicated by local condition.

Tailboard frontage per car for either Inbound or Outbound house is not generally a limiting factor, although special cases may arise requiring a consideration of this factor.

Provide an adequate number of scales in the Inbound house to properly handle such reweighing as in the judgment of operating officials is necessary. There can be no argument that some reweighing is necessary and a check of shipments for a short period, say one week, at the existing facility or one of similar character will serve as an excellent guide in determining the number of scales required. At the Outbound house, one scale every forty-four (44) ft. appears to give satisfactory operation.

0. Generally speaking, limit the length of house for hand trucking to 500 ft. and for motor train operation to 1,200 st. The proposed method of operation should be closely studied in this connection.

p. Minimum floor liveloads in large cities are generally controlled by municipal regulations, but it will be frequently found that the minimum floor load specified is inadequate. Unless the class of freight handled dictates otherwise, the floor load recommended in this report may be used as a basis for design.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY OF ARTICLES ON FREIGHT TERMINALS TAKEN FROM YARDS AND TERMINALS COMMITTEE

REPORT VOLUME 22—PAGES 895-898

Engineering News-Record 1. Ocean Freight Terminal on Staten Island, New York. Private plant. Covered piers and seven-story concrete building, with no walls around first floor. January 17 and February 28, 1918, pages 120 and 426.

2. Produce Market and Warehouse at Los Angeles. Two-story and six-story buildings. January 24, 1918, page 167.

3. Freight Station of Central Manufacturing District, Chicago; L. C. L. freight handled by tractors and trucks; tunnels for trucking to industries. February 28, 1918, page 405.

4. Warehouse at Buffalo, N. Y. Conveyor systems used and upper floor cantilevered over tracks. February 28, 1918, page 411.

5. Freight Piers at Norfolk, Va.; Norfolk & Western Ry. Hinged ramps with conveyor chains for loading and unloading vessels. May 16, 1918, page 940.

page 156.

page 901.

6. Ocean Pier and Warehouse at Houston, Texas. Ramps at wharf; elevators and overhead traveling crane into warehouse. July 24, 1919,

7. Freight Terminal Design as Work of Engineers. September 18, 1919, page 540.

8. Freight Handling at the Brooklyn Army Base U. S. A. Doubledeck piers, nine-story warehouses, electric tractors hauling trains of trucks under control of dispatcher system. September 18, 1919, page 555.

9. Ocean Pier and Terminal at Seattle. Freight-handling methods. November 13, 1919, page 855; January 1 and June 3, 1920, pages 37 and 1107.

10. Transfer of L. C. L. Freight at Cincinnati. Motor truck service between all freight stations. Freight loaded into large wagon bodies, which are sealed; bodies placed on and taken off trucks by overhead cranes. March 11, 1920, page 508.

11. Railway Terminals in Relation to City Planning. May 6, 1920,

12. Ocean Terminal at New York, Lehigh Valley R. R. Long piers; warehouses. May 13, 1920, page 970.

13. Municipal Ocean Terminal on Staten Island, New York. Long, narrow piers. May 27, 1920, page 1047.

14. Width of Steamship Piers. Provision for cargo storage, railway tracks and mechanical handling. July 22, 1920, page 160.

15. Freight Yard of Denver & Rio Grande R. R. at Soldier Summit. Operating conditions; Alat switching. May 27 and June 10, 1920, pages 1069 and 1159.

16. · Freight Yard of Michigan Central R. R. at Niles, Michigan. Hump switching. January 8, 1920, page 81.

17. Freight Yard of Illinois Central R. R. at Chicago. Main line and local transfer business. Hump switching. August 5, 1918, page 313.

18. Trainshed of Indianapolis Union Station. August 19, 1920,

19. Development of Grand Central Station, New York. Lofty buildings erected over track space of electrically operated terminal. September 9, 1920, page 496.

20. Improved Freight Yard at Lincoln, Nebraska, for Chicago, Burlington & Quincy R. R. November 18, 1920, page 996.

21. Operation of Car-Float Transfer Yards. December 16, 1920, page 1186.

Railway Age.

page 350.

1. Terminal Ten-Story Warehouse at Cleveland; Big Four. June 29, 1917.

2. Freight Terminal at Vancouver; Canadian Northern Railway Herringbone tracks in team yard. November 23, 1917,

3. Electric tractors at Pier 4, New York. August 3. 1917, page 199.

4. Pennsylvania Hump Yard at Indianapolis. October 26, 1917, page 735.

5. Electric trucks for Handling Freight. December 7, 1917, page 1039.

6. Union Package Termi A proposed new package freight terminal at Jersey City. March 1, 1918, page 445.

7. Illinois Central Markham Yard and N. Y. N. H & H. New Haven Freight Terminals Compared. May 10, 1918, page 1164.

8. New Passenger Station of R. F. & P. at Richmond, Va. February 14, 1919, page 401. 9. An Analysis of the Locomotive Terminal Problem.

March 7, 1919, page 538.

page 843.

10. Modern Tendencies in the Design of Roundhouses. March 14, 1919, page 587.

11. British Railway Improvements at Glasgow. March 28, 1919,

12. Reinforced Concrete Roundhouse Layout for T. & 0. C. at Columbus. April 18, 1919, page 994.

13. Some Modern Tendencies in Roundhouse Design. May 16, 1919, 14. Illinois Central Projected Terminal at Chicago. July 11, 1919,

page 1199

Page 51.

page 608.

page 1285.

page 1442.

15. Michigan Central Classification Yard at Niles, Mich. January 23, 1920, page 287.

16. Modernizing Freight Car Repair Facilities. February 27, 1920,

17. Handling L. C. L. freight in Interchange by Motor Trucks at Cincinnati. March 5, 1920, page 681, and August 6, 1920, page 219.

18. D. & R. G. Freight Terminal at Soldier Summit, Utah. March 26, 1920, page 1025.

19. Relation of Railroad Terminals to City Plan. April 30, 1920, 20. First Unit of St. Paul Union Station Completed. May 21, 1920,

21. Unit Construction Enginehouse. A standard design of unit construction for enginehouses on the Pennsylvania. June 11, 1920, page 1663.

22. Report of Committee of American Railway Association, Section IL-Mechinical (Master Car Builders) on Repair Shop Layouts. June 20, 1920, page 1801.

23. A. C. & 0. Enginehouse for Mallet Compound Locomotives. June 25, 1920, page 1975.

24. N. Y N. H. & H. Freight Terminal at Cedar Hill (New Haven), Conn. July 30, 1920, page 179.

25. The Claremont Terminal of the Lehigh Vallev in Lower New York Harbor. October 8, 1920, page 599.

Railway Review. 1. Freight Station and Warehouse at Pittsburgh (Federal Street), Pennsylvania System. December 15, 1917.

Appendix E

STANDARDIZATION

R. V. REAMER,

G. A. Rodman, Chairman;
F. M. DAVISON,

Sub-Committee.

WINDOW GLASS SIZES Replies to questionnaires sent out would indicate very little has been done on many of the railroads in regard to standardization of window glass sizes.

Two or three roads have adopted one standard for all purposesthis being a light 10 in. by 16 in, in size. A few additional roads have adopted a standard for some of the minor types of buildings.

It is the opinion of the Committee that it would be a practical impossibility to adopt one size of window glass which would answer for all types of buildings and for all sections of the country, but we do believe that standard size can be adopted for all roads for such buildings as shops, engine houses, yard buildings, minor passenger stations and freight houses; also all of the small miscellaneous buildings on the railroad. When it comes to elaborate city stations, general office buildings, and the larger city freight offices, it is desirable, for architectural effects, to use larger sizes of glass. Further, in the second story of signal towers it is practically necessary to put in larger lights so as to give an unobstructed view of the tracks.

The question of sizes and prices was taken up with window glass manufacturers and they recommended, first, all fractional sizes to be eliminated-this will save the fractional cutting charge. They further recommend that as far as possible small sized glass be used, as this tends to reduce the cost per square foot of glass. At the present time a 10 in. by 16 in. light costs about twelve cents (12c), and as the size increases the price per square foot increases, so that when we get to 20 in. by 32 in.—which is four times as large, the price is five times the cost of 10 in. by 16 in.--or an increase of 25 per cent.

In view of these facts it would seem desirable to adopt a light 10x16, or about that size, for all miscellaneous purposes, including shops, engine houses and country passenger stations. For the more elaborate buildings, usually designed by an architect or where it is advantageous to put in larger lights, to adopt certain standard sizes which best suit the conditions of the railroad. These sizes, so far as possible, to be multiples of 10x16. The number of sizes used to be reduced to a minimum to effect saving in the Stores Department stock and also the confusion arising from repairmen having to carry a number of different sizes of glassalso to avoid errors in taking measurements.

STANDARD FIRE HOSE It seems to be a pretty general practice on the railroads of the country to use a 21/2" hose, and most of the roads use double jacket cotton hose, rubber lined, for outdoor purposes.

This would seem to answer all requirements for outdoor use, as well as interior rooms which are not heated. Where rooms are artificially heated, rubber hose is not satisfactory, and unlined linen hose should be used. At points where there is only one man on duty at night, such as freight houses, shops, etc., and where the water pressure is high, it is desirable to have a small hose which can be handled by one man and for these points 1/2" unlined linen hose is generally used.

NOZZLES No particular type of nozzle seems to be common in the various parts of the country. It seems unwise to adopt one standard, as these nozzles are oftentimes made by local manufacturing concerns and of slightly varying dimensions and design.

The National Board of Fire Underwriters have a specification for nozzles as follows:

“(a) A11 21/2-inch fire hose should be provided with approved play pipes having a nozzle with 1%8-inch discharge orifice. The play pipe should be attached to the hose and ready for use.

“(b) All 114 and 1/2-inch fire hose should be provided with approved play pipes having a discharge orifice not less than 12-inch nor more than 14-inch in diameter. Play pipes to be at least 8 inches in length, tapered, finished smooth on the interior and provided with a heavy outside bead at the discharge tip. They should be attached and ready for use."

If each railroad would adopt a standard for use, in general conforming to the Underwriters' specifications, to be made of brass for inside of office buildings, stations, etc., or of cast iron for outdoor use, such as freight es, shops, and other exposed points, it would seem to be a satisfactory solution.

HOSE THREADS The National standard thread for 2/2" hose is 31/16" outside diameter male thread, 71/2 threads to the inch. This standard is being adopted by many cities all over the country, and is also used by the majority of railroads, and the Committee feels that this will soon be a standard for all purposes.

The old threads, which are not standard, can be either re-cut or replaced as soon as convenient, and where the local fire department has a different standard, the hydrant may be equipped with adapters; male thread to fit the local City standard, female thread to fit the National standard on the hydrant.

For 19" hose there is no authorized standard at the present time, although the National Board of Fire Underwriters is working for a standard.

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