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Table 1-SIZE OF VEHICLES Data Obtained From Observations Made at the I. C. R. R. South Water

Street Freight Terminal, Chicago, Sept. 14-15, 1921.

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Inbound Ho

Motor Truck Oneida

7.50 5.42 7.00 6.75 6.00 5.42 H 5.50 5.50 6.00 6.00 5.33 6.17

7.33

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24.00 17.25 16.58 22.00 18.58 15.50 14.00 16.83 17.00 18.50 19.83 15.83 22.50 23.17 17.60 21.50 26.00 24.00 25.00 22.50 21.00 24.90 21.60 23.00 24.00 21.00 24.75 22.00 26.00 25.70 26.00 24. 40 25.00 26.00 26.00 26.00 25.50 25.70 24.00 25.50 24.00 25.00 24.60 21.17* 21.00 24.40* 27.00

3.50 3.50 3.87 3.67 3.25 2.50 3.58 3.00 4.17 3.50 3.00 3.33 4.00 3.67 3.50 3.40 3.60 3.40 3.60 3.70 4.00 3.60 4.00 3.60 3.60 3.50 3.50 4.00 3.17 3.00 3.50 3.20 3.40 3.80 3.60 3.20 3.00 3.50 3.70 3.60 3.00 3.40 3.00 3.50 3.50 3.60 4.00

Inbound

7.00 6.30 6.30 5.30 6.70 6.60 7.40 6.40 7.60 7.40 7.30 7.00 7.50 H 7.33 5.75 7.25 7.60 6.60 5.90 H 6.80 6.80 6.50 7.20 H 7.40 6.50 6.20 6.30 6.20 7.00 7.00 5.75 5.83 5.60 H 6.50

2 Horse

2 2

Outbound

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Inbound

Outbound

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47

6.53

3.50

22.48

NOTE: Extreme width, unless otherwise noted, gives width of wagon bed in feet.

H-Indicates width over hub caps in feet.
*Indicates over all length to head of horse in feet.

From this data it may be observed that the average length of all vehicles measured was 22.48 ft. with a maximum of 27 ft., and that the average width of all vehicles measured was 6.53 ft. with a maximum of 7.6 ft.

It may be further observed that the average length and width of horse drawn vehicles is considerably greater than that of motor trucks. Inasmuch as horse drawn vehicles still function to a large degree in the hauling of freight and will probably continue to do so for many years to come, it seems proper that the space provided per vehicle should be somewhat larger than the average vehicle dimensions noted above, and it is suggested that an arbitrary length and width of 25 ft. and 8 ft., respectively, be used in computing the width of roadway required. In the discussion which follows all vehicles will be assumed to occupy a position at right angles to the tailboard. A saw tooth tailboard arrangement wherein the vehicle backs against tailboard at an angle other than 90 degrees has been used at a number of recent freight houses, but will not be included in this discussion owing to lack of data pertaining to definite operating advantages found at these houses as a result of its use.

If the roadway is to serve a house on one side only, it is apparent that after allowing two lanes of travel, each 8 ft. wide and a vehicle space length of 25 ft., that a width of 41 ft. will be required.

If houses on both sides of the roadway are be served there should be provided wherever possible two lanes of travel each 8 ft. wide and a vehicle space length of 25 ft. each for two vehicles placed in juxtaposition, thus giving a roadway 66 ft. wide. While this width cannot always be obtained, a roadway not less than 60 ft. appears to be the minimum which should be provided if local conditions will permit. If the roadway is obstructed by columns a reasonable increase in width should be made.

In support of the above data it is interesting to note that in an investigation of a number of existing freight houses it was found that widths of 27 ft. to 50 ft. have been used for roadways serving houses on one side only. Where houses are served on both sides of the roadway the same investigation shows that widths from 58 ft. to 74 ft. have been used. Width of Occupancy Per Vehicle Against Tailboard.

Table No. 2 gives the result of observations made recently to determine this factor. From this data it may be observed that the average width of occupancy was 8.82 ft. and that 72 per cent of the vehicle groups observed averaged between 8 ft. and 10 st. In an article describing the recent New York Central freight terminal in Cleveland (Engineering News, Vol. 82, pages 508 to 510), it is stated that a door spacing 10 ft. center to center, each door serving one vehicle, was used. Based on the above data and information it would appear that a width of 10 ft. to 12 ft. should be sufficient for this factor.

TABLE 2-WIDTH OF OCCUPANCY PER VEHICLE Data Obtained From Observations Made at I. C. R. R. South Water

Street Freight Terminal, Chicago, September 14-15, 1921

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705.3 Average width of occupancy per vehicle

= 8.82 ft.

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Range: From 7.50 ft. to 10.40 ft.
Between 7 ft. and 8 ft....

3 groups = 12%
Between 8 ft, and 9 ft.

10 groups = 10%} 72% Between 9 ft. and 10 ft.

8 groups

32 10 ft. and over

.4 groups

16%

25 groups 100% Speed of Vehicles Along Roadway.

This information, shown in Table No. 3, is necessary in order to determine the loss of time incident to the travel of a vehicle along the roadway while en route to the tailboard. It is of interest to note that the speed of horse drawn vehicles is almost exactly one-half that of motor trucks. Owing to the increasing preponderance of motor trucks in use for hauling freight, it is felt that a speed somewhat higher than the average of 7.04 M.P.H. might well be adopted and a speed of 8 M.P.H. is suggested. It should be observed that this factor need be considered only in the case of long houses.

TABLE 3-SPEED OF VEHICLES Data Obtained From Observations Made at the I. C. R. R. South Water

Street Freight Terminal, September 15, 1921

Location

Type of
Vehicles

Speed Miles
Per Hour

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8.57 7.50 10.00 9.67 8.11 13.04

8.82 10.00

8.33 13.63 13.04 10.71

6.12 10.33 12.50

9.09 12.50 14.29 12.00 8.11 3.95 3.33 3.22 3.66 3.33 5.00 7.32 3.66 5.88 4.69 6.82 6.38 4.47 3.80 4.47 3.75 3.37 7.32 3.90 3.90 3.62 3.75 3.66

6.67

4.05
6.67
7.50
3.26
5.36
7.14
9.09

Average speed for motor trucks....10.32 miles per hour
Average speed for 3-horse wagon. . 3.95 miles per hour
Average speed for 2-horse wagons.. 4.50 miles per hour
Average speed for 1-horse wagons. . 6.22 miles per hour
Average speed for all vehicles...... 7.04 miles per hour

Average Loading Per Vehicle in Tons.

It has been found that the average loading in tons per vehicle used in hauling inbound freight is not the same as that for outbound freight. Recent observations at a Chicago freight house show the average loading per vehicle to be 1.41 tons at the inbound house and 1.30 tons at the outbound house. These figures are merely submitted as information and direct observation should be made in each particular case, although they probably closely approximate the general average found in large cities where regular transfer companies are established. Average Loading Per Car in Tons.

This factor is subject to such wide variation that the car loading found at one freight house can rarely be used in designing a proposed house. This factor is directly affected by local conditions, classification of freight, car shortage and other items, and should be ascertained by careful study of records in each particular case. Average Time of Loading or Unloading Per Vehicle.

This factor affects the design of both inbound and outbound houses and is largely influenced by operating conditions. Adequate facilities for calling, checking, routing and weighing freight assist materially in a reduction of this factor and should be closely studied in this connection. At one freight house in Chicago, it was found that the average time required to actually load a vehicle at the inbound house is 35 minutes and that the average time required to actually unload a vehicle at the outbound house is 18 minutes. These figures are based on a two-week study and while they probably approximate average conditions, they should not be used without corroboration for actual design purposes. Rate of Turnover of Freight Received in Inbound House and Relation

to Floor Space Required.

So far as known to the Committee, no observations have been made to determine the rate of turnover at inbound houses except those made at the Illinois Central house at South Water Street, Chicago. At this house it was found that the freight moving out of the house by means other than door is subject to a delay of 24 hours or less while freight delivered through door to consignee and connections is subject to an average delay of approximately three days. Obviously it is important to determine what per cent of the total turnover is delivered to consignee direct. In the absence of supporting data, the value given above will be used in what follows as a basis for developing the ratio between turnover and tonnage handled daily subject to delay.

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