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When cost is not separated into straight line and curved line costs the coefficient of CV is taken as the weighted average, the weights being the percentages of straight and curved line. Thus: If 60 per cent of the line is straight and 40 per cent is curved we have for passenger trains and ties

(6 x .0011 + 4 X .0150) = 103.00666 and for freight trains and ties

(6 X .0014 + 4 X .0180) = 103.00804

2. Cost of transportation will vary materially with variation in speed but it is not possible to determine in general a most economical speed expressed in miles per hour. The effect of variations of speed will depend on the characteristics of the division under consideration, on the wage system, on the character of the traffic, and on commercial considerations.

a. Since varying speed affects the load that can be hauled, the eftect of speed cannot be considered apart from the train load. Provided there. are no pusher grades, and that the wage system is a straight hourly pay system, traffic that does not require quick movement is moved most economically in maximum trains, defined to be those that can be handled at minimum practicable speed on the de facto ruling grade of the division. Under these conditions the most economical speed for the maximum train is the fastest speed that can be made safely over the division. If there are pusher grades or if the wage system calls for extra pay for all time over a standard day, then each division must be worked out for itself by experiment or as is outlined in pages 773-791 of the Proceedings of 1921.

b. Subject to the limiting effect of pusher grades and wage system it may be said that with a given weight of train the most economical speed is the fastest that can be made safely over a division.

c. The operating cost is a minimum under conditions "a" and "b" when the resulting speed is the one which permits the locomotive to be operated at the most economical rate of power production.

3. No data have been found that will throw any light on the relation of speed to cost of maintenance of equipment. It is believed that owing chiefly to the effect of impact and braking there will be a slight variation in the cost of maintenance of equipment with variations in speed that are not great enough to require change in character of equipment. When the speed becomes higher than that for which the locomotive is designed the cost is believed to increase rapidly with increase in speed.

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METHODS FOR ANALYZING COSTS

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Louis Y AGER, Chairman, W. G. ARN,

E. G. ALLEN, MAURICE COBURN,

J. F. PRINGLE, F. H. MCGUIGAN, Jr.,

H. A. ROBERTS, The Committee on Economics of Railroad Operation is interested ir. a great variety of transportation subjects in which various unit costs play very important parts. As the investigations of the Committee progress, many important problems will no doubt present themselves for economic comparisons, so that we feel that the assignment could not be properly completed until the scope of the Committee's investigations is more clearly outlined.

The Committee has already made some investigations and has others in progress in which the train-mile cost unit is an important consideration in the economic comparisons which are being studied, so that we have undertaken the study of analyzing freight and passenger train-mile costs as influenced by changes in locomotives, grades, operating methods, etc. This investigation is now in progress.

Subject No. 7, “Begin the study of methods for determination of proper allowances for maintenance of way expenses, due to increased use and increased investment, collaborating with the Committee on Records and Accounts.”

The studies and discussions to date have covered the field of previous investigations on this subject more or less closely related to rate litigations in various parts of the country. Detailed reference has been made to the more recent developments brought about by the activities of committees working on related phases of the subject for the Railroad Administration and Corporate Associations during and subsequent to Federal Control. It is agreed that some of the facts and conclusions developed in these investigations would be helpful in the study of our assignment, which we consider is intended to cover a broader and more comprehensive view of the maintenance field than that which prompted the investigations referred to.

The selection or development of a suitable transportation unit as a measure of "use” is considered the first step in the study. It was decided that the "use" unit should be related in as definite a way as possible to the two general classes of traffic which are in general distinguished by differences in speed of movement and total gross weight. These two factors in some manner directly influence the necessity for maintenance reparation. The following transportation units, train-mile, engine-mile, net ton-mile, gross ton-mile, car-miles, engine ton-miles and tractive power-mile, were studied and compared with the tentative requirements of the unit and were all rejected because they singly are not sufficiently inclusive to cover the variations in traffic.

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It was tentatively concluded that some form of equated transportation units would have to be used to relate and measure the effects of passenger and freight service to maintenance requirements, until such time as maintenance and accounting science should develop a accurate measure. The availability of the transportation units selected is given consideration. The necessity of having a maintenance "unit" related to a "use” unit was also developed.

The experience of the joint meeting with the Records and Accounts Committee indicated clearly the advisability of having the two SubCommittees act essentially as a single committee in the study of the subject up to the point where appropriate units can be established so that the special function of the Records and Accounts Sub-Committee in developing the accounting and record phases of the subject may become active. (6) THE ECONOMICAL OPERATION OF TRAINS AGAINST THE CURRENT OF TRAFFIC ON MULTIPLE

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TRACK RAILWAYS J. M. Brown, Chairman;

L. S. Rose, E. T. Howson,

H. B. GRIMSHAW, R. T. SCHOLES,

Sub-Committee. A questionnaire was sent to the chief operating officers of 48 roads whom it was thought might able to present information on the subject assigned the Committee. A copy of the questionnaire is attached as Exhibit A.

From the roads addressed, the Committee was pleased to receive 33 replies, for which it desires to express its appreciation.

Eighteen roads replied they were not operating against the current, except in emergency. These were the

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, Grand Trunk,
Boston & Albany,

Lehigh Valley,
Boston & Maine,

Michigan Central, Bessemer & Lake Erie,

New York, Chicago & St. Louis,
Canadian Pacific,

Philadelphia & Reading,
Central Railroad of New Jersey, Richmond, Fredericksburg, &
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul, Potomac,
Chicago & North Western, Southern Pacific,
Delaware, Lackawanna & West- Toledo & Ohio Central,
ern,

Union Pacific.
One road declined to furnish the information for economic reasons.

Fourteen roads replied they were operating against the current of traffic in the regular course of business. The replies of the 14 covered over 4,000 miles of multiple tracks.

These roads are:
Atlantic Coast Line,

Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago &
Baltimore & Ohio,

St. Louis,
Chesapeake & Ohio,

Erie,

Great Northern,
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy. Hocking Valley,
Chicago & Eastern Illinois,

Illinois Central,
Chicago Great Western. New York, New Haven & Hartford,
Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, Northern Pacific.

The replies in each individual case are so varied and so interesting that it is the thought that the experience of each road should be given to bring out more effectively the excellent results secured.

Atlantic Coast Line This company operates a double track line against the current of traffic at one location for a distance of 1.1 miles. The average daily movement is 60 trains, consisting normally of 36 passenger and 19 freight trains. The maximum, however, is 70 trains per day, including 45 passenger and 25 freight trains. The average daily movement against the current is 30 trains. The normal movements are 18 passenger trains and 10 freight trains per day, but the maximum is 32 passenger trains and 13 freight trains.

The track is controlled by manual lock and block and by automatic block signals in both directions. All facing point switches are interlocked and the movements are made at any time of day with absolute safety. The extra cost for signaling approximated $29,900, but the building of a third track was avoided.

Baltimore & Ohio The practice of operating trains against the current of traffic on multiple tracks without the use of train orders was first considered by the Baltimore & Ohio about 1911, when a third or center track was built on certain sections of the east end of the Cumberland Division. Towers were established at intervals of about five miles and also block signals installed to protect and permit trains to occupy the center track, moving either eastbound or westbound without train orders.

Prior to the construction of this center track and the installation of Automatic and Manual Block Signals, it was the practice of the Baltimore & Ohio to operate trains against the current of traffic on double or multiple tracks only under train orders.

The center track between the following points is operated under the Controlled Manual Block System, which admits traffic being moved in either direction by signal indications: Miller to Hancock

8.40 miles Sir Johns Run to Orleans Road

10.30 miles Okonoko to Patterson Creek

.11.70 miles

30.40 while the eastbound freight track between Hancock and Sir Johns Run, 5.62 miles, is so equipped.

This method saves much time by eliminating the use of train orders and the capacity of the railroad is increased materially. In fact, a threetrack railroad thus operated will handle almost the traffic of a four-track railroad and in this particular case the cost of constructing a fourth track was avoided.

The normal traffic is 24 passenger trains and 56 freight trains daily. The maximum is 30 passenger and 68 freight trains daily.

The movements against the current of traffic between the points mentioned below are normal:

Miller and Orleans Road... 7 passenger and 50 freight trains

Okonoko and Patterson's Creek. .14 passenger and 35 freight trains · Marimum.

Miller and Orleans Road.. . 10 passenger and 60 freight trains

Okonoko and Patterson's Creek.. 16 passenger and 40 freight trains the operation being from 12 to 24 miles against the current.

The term “Controlled Manual Block" infers that there is continuous track circuit throughout; the signals governing thereto are not only controlled by the track circuit, but are also under the control of a signalman. The principle on which all controlled manual block systems are based is that before a signal can be changed to indicate “Proceed," and a train is admitted into a block, the co-operation of two persons, one located at each end of the block, is necessary.

The Controlled Manual Block System and the Automatic Block System in use on the Baltimore & Ohio single track or multiple (third center) track operation is one hundred per cent safe. We have no record of accident caused by failure of the signal system on these sections of single or multiple tracks.

The extra cost of signals was about $2,800 per mile (1921 prices).

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