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“The Fai of Material Under Repeated Stresses." By H. F. Moore and F. B. Seeley. American Society for Testing Materials, Vol. 15, 1915, p. 437. While not dealing specially with rails, this paper gives a full discussion of the subject of "fatigue" of metals, or fracture in detail under repeated stresses, together with a bibliography of the subject.
"Fissures in Rails.” Railway Review, Vol. 56, p. 562, April 24, 1915. Editorial discussion reviewing various explanations for transverse fissures.
“Gagging Rails and Transverse Fissures.” By A. W. Thompson. Railway Age Gazette, Vol. 59, p. 888, November 12, 1915. Expresses the thought that the elimination of gagging would probably not overcome the transverse fissure.
"Transverse Fissures the Result of Rail Gagging." By P. H. Dudley. Railway Age Gazette, Vol. 59, p. 1001, November 26, 1915. Exhibits two types of interior transverse fissure, the intergranular and coalescent types. The intergranular (or simple transverse) fissure is explained as due to gagging on the base in straightening and the coalescent (or compound) fissure is explained as due to gagging on the head.
National Association of Railway Commissioners, Washington, D. C. Various types of rail failures are discussed, including transverse fissures, in the reports of the Committee on Rails and Equipment for 1912 and succeeding years. This failure is described as a progressive fracture under repeated alternate stresses. The tendency seems to be to ascribe the failure mostly to high wheel loads and hard steel. 1916.
Report of Committee on Rails and Equipment to 1916 Convention of National Association of Railway Commissioners. Abstracted in Railway Age Gazette, March 3, 1916, Vol. 60, p. 387. Ascribes entire responsibility for fissures to overstressing of rail in track.
Development of Rail Manufacture. By Dr. J. C. Unger. Railway Review, July 15, 1916, Vol. 59, p. 72. Expresses opinion that Transverse Fissures are always due to cold rolling in track and excessive vibration, and can be eliminated by providing rail supports secure enough to prevent the vibration.
Same article. Railway Age Gazette, June 2, 1916, Vol. 60. p. 1174.
Discussion by W. C. Cushing, Railway Age Gazette, June 16, 1916, Vol. 60, p. 1319. Calls attention to development of fissures on bridge track where ties are nearly contiguous, referring to records of failures in print in Proceedings of American Railway Engineering Association, Vol. 14 (1913), pp. 414 and 421.
Internal Fissures in Rails. By Rail Sub-Committee, W. C. Cushing, Chairman, Proceeding of the American Railway Engineering Association, Vol. 17 (1916), p. 585. Fissures are divided into three types, the simple transverse, the horizontal and the compound fissure, showing both horizontal and transverse types. A bibliography is given covering the years 1911 to 1915 inclusive. Some results are given indicating that "transverse fissures occur indiscriminately in the several rails of the ingot and that segregation is not an important factor in causing the fissure."
This article is abstracted in Engineering Record, April 8, 1916, Vol. 73, p. 475, and also in Iron Trade Review, March 30, 1916, Vol. 58, p. 706. 1917.
Induced Interior Transverse Fissures in Heads of Two Types. By Dr. P. H. Dudley. Proceedings of the American Railway Engineering Association, Vol. 18 (1917), p. 1055. Interior Transverse Fissures are classified as "intergranular" and "coalescent." They are ascribed as
due to a physically non-ductile core of heterogeneous metal near the center of the head resulting from delayed transformations. Intergranular fissures result from the gagging of a rail coming "low" from the hotbed and the coalescent type result from the gagging on the head of a high rail.
This paper is abstracted and discussed from preprints as follows:
Iron Trade Review, August 17 and October 12, 1916, Vol. 59, pp. 331 and 729.
Railway Age Gazette, January 12, 1917, Vol. 62, p. 55.
Some Transverse Fissure Rails on the Louisville and Nashville Railroad. By M. H. Wickhorst. Proceedings of the American Railway Engineering Association, Vol. 18 (1917), p. 1189. The result of an examination of eleven rails that had failed in service due to interior fissures. Chemically the rails showed a tendency to hardness but were in general free from segregation. Physically the rails showed good properties except in the interior of the head where the metal contained numerous small cracks and was of low ductility.
The Fail Failure Situation. By M. H. Wickhorst. Proceedings of the American Railway Engineering Association, Vol. 18 (1917), D. 1207. Embodied in a discussion of rail failures in general is a discussion of internal fissures. They are classified as simple transverse, simple horizontal and compound. Chemically the rails have been normal with a tendency toward hardness. “Physically the rails have generally shown good physical properties in the different parts of the rail section except in the interior of the head where the ductility has usually been low and frequently entirely absent.” “Fissured rails have also shown numerous small cracks in the interior of the head; that is, the metal in the interior of the head was in a generally torn condition.”
Interstate Commerce Commission Investigation of Galveston, Houston and San Antonio Accident near Iser, Texas. Report by Chief Inspector of Safety Appliances dated February 12, 1917, of accident on January 31, 1916, embodying report by James E. Howard. Mr. Howard believes the service stresses sufficient to account for the development of fissures in normal rail and that mill conditions are not concerned with them
Report is abstracted in Railway Age Gazette, March 23, 1917, Vol. 62, p. 623, and in Engineering News, May 31, 1917, Vol. 78, p. 455.
Discussion of report by John D. Isaacs, Railway Age Gazette, May 25, 1917, Vol. 62, p. 1086. Mr. Isaacs takes strong issue with Mr. Howard's conclusions, and directs attention to the excellent behavior of the rail from certain mills as compared with the product of others under similar service conditions, and also the extremely large number of rails in service for many years without failure whose service stresses have been greater than the comparatively small number that have failed.
Transverse Fissures. By E. F. Given. Railway Age Gazette, August 3, 1917, Vol. 63, p. 177. Mr. Given suggests that intensive studies be made of track and equipment in all cases of failure from fissure.
Transverse Fissures. By Geo. W. Dress. Iron Age, April 19, 1917, Vol. 99, p. 943. Mr. Dress suggests that excessive contact of roll cooling water on the rails may contribute weakness leading to fissure. He also calls attention to danger in charging cold ingots into heating furnaces whose temperature is too high.
Discussion by C. W. Gennett in Iron Age, June 7, 1917, Vol. 99. p. 1390. The possibility of these conditions being contributory to the trouble is questioned. Mr. Gennett suggests that attention be turned to the propriety of making mold additions of aluminum.
Inhibited or Delayed Transformations in Rail Heads. By Dr. P. H. Dudley. Proceedings of American Railway Engineering Association, Vol. 19 (1918), p. 493. Ascribes formation of non-ductile "cores" in the interior of the rail head to delayed transformations on the hot bed. Also suggests greater span of supports for the gag presses.
Transverse Fissures in Steel Rails. By James E. Howard. Transactions American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers, Vol. 58, (1918), p. 597. Develops Mr. Howard's previous conclusions that service stresses are entirely responsible for transverse fissures. Discussion follows by Messrs. Weymouth and Unger supporting his views, and by Messrs. Hibbard, Gennett, Isaacs, Trimble, Dudley, Ray, Gibbs, Wickhorst and Job presenting their confident feeling that the fundamental cause of fissures lies in abnormal mill practice. Excerpts from this paper are quoted as follows: Iron Trade Review, November 15, 1917, Vol. 61, p. 1055. Railway Age, November 30, 1917, Vol. 63, p. 996. Railway Review, November 24, 1917, Vol. 61, p. 644. Mr. Gennett's discussion is reprinted in Railway Age, February 22, 1918, Vol. 64, p. 421.
Interstate Commerce Commission Investigation of Central of Georgia Accident near Juniper, Ga. Report by the Chief of the Bureau of Safety dated May 2, 1918, of accident on October 30, 1917. Embodies report by Mr. Howard ascribing service conditions as entirely responsible for the development of the fissure causing the accident. This report is abstracted in Railway Review, August 31, 1918, Vol. 63, p. 305.
Interstate Commerce Commission Investigation of Long Island Railway Accident near Central Islip, N. Y. Report by the Chief of the Bureau of Safety dated August 5, 1918, of accident on April 15, 1918. Embodies report by Mr. Howard concluding "the investigations have shown conclusively that neither defective metal nor any physical property or characteristic of the rail structure can be assigned as the cause of the formation of transverse fissures." Reprinted and reviewed in Railway Review December 14-21, 1918, Vol. 63, pp. 843 and 871. It is suggested that spongy structure in the head might retard progress of fissure. Also abstracted in Railway Age, December 6, 1918, Vol. 65, p. 1007, and in the Journal of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Vol. 41 (1919), p. 60.
Common Defects in Rail. By C. W. Gennett. Railway Review, October 5, 1918, Vol. 63, p. 498. Discusses Transverse Fissures in connection with other types of failure. Same paper also presented to Roadmasters and Maintenance of Way Convention, 1918. 1919.
Transverse Fissure Fails on Pennsylvania Lines, Heat 31531. By M. H. Wickhorst. Proceedings of the American Railway Engineering Association, Vol. 20 (1919), p. 465. Result of tests of sixty-one rails, all of one heat, several rails of which had failed in track due to transverse fissu res. The carbon was high (.87 per cent.) but there was in general a freedom from chemical segregation. The physical properties were norinal except in the middle of the head, where the ductility was low. To detect this conditions the rails should be tested with the head in tension.
Interior Fissure Rails on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, Heat 5X157. By M. H. Wickhorst. Proceedings of the American Railway Engineering Association, Vol. 20 (1919), p. 485. Result of tests of fifty rails all of one heat. The fissures in these rails were of the compound type with transverse fissures branching off from horizontal ones. The metal showed good tensile properties in a longitudinal direction, but transversely was low in ductility. The interior of the head contained streaks of non-metallic material consisting of sulphides, slag and alumina. These rendered the metal in the head somewhat akin to wrought iron, in that it would stretch well lengthwise but was "crumby" when subjected to cross stretching, breaking along a streak.
Transverse Fissure Rails on Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad. Heat 27314. By M. H. Wickhorst. Proceedings of the American Railway Engineering Association, Vol. 20 (1919), p. 551. A report of the results of test of twenty-five rails all of one heat.
Report on Transverse Fissures. By Dr. P. H. Dudley. Proceedings of the American Railway Engineering Association, Vol. 20 (1919), p. 605. A review and discussion of recent work on transverse fissures is given. Tabulations are presented indicating that fissures are less numerous in rails rolled from reheated blooms than in rails rolled direct from the original heating of the ingot.
Investigation of Transverse Fissures in Failed Rails. By. F. M. Waring. Proceedings of the American Railway Engineering Association, Vol. 20 (1919), p. 614. A report of the result of deep etching with hot hydrochloric and sulphuric acids mixed. This work showed in a remarkable way the condition of shattered steel in the interior of the heads of certain rails, and was the pioneer work in this field with the deep etching method.
Cracks in New Rail. By J. B. Young. Proceedings of the American Railway Engineering Association, Vol. 20 (1919), p. 618. Reports finding cracks in test pieces prepared from new rail.
Rail Investigations During 1918. Review in Engineering NewsRecord, March 27, 1919, Vol. 82, p. 610, of work of Waring, Young and Dudley.
Interior Transverse Fissures in Bessemer Rail Heads. By. Dr. P. H. Dudley. Proceedings of the American Railway Engineering Association, Vol. 20 (1919), p. 629. Illustrates fissures found in old Bessemer rails and gives some discussion on the subject of interior fissures.
Report of the American Railway Engineering Association Joint Committee on Track. Reviewed in Engineering and Contracting, May 21, 1919, Vol. 51, p. 546. Injury to rails due to flat spots on wheels is discussed in connection with the setting of allowable limits to length.
Deep Etching of Rails and Forgings. By F. M. Waring and K. E. Hofammann. Proceedings American Society for Testing Materials, Vol. 19 (1919), Part 2, p. 183. Continuation of the investigation reported to the American Railway Engineering Association on shattered structure in the heads of certain rails, and concluding "the defects appear to be more frequent in rails that have developed a number of transverse fissures than in others which had only a few or no such fissures. They have also been found to exist in new rails which have not been in track." “We are inclined to believe the cause must be sought in the mill during some stage in the process of fabrication of the material.” The paper is discussed by Messrs. J. A. Capps, James E. Howard, W. P. Barba, J. S. Unger, C. B. Bronson, M. H. Wickhorst, H. J. Force, Robert Job, G Aertsen and G. F. Comstock. Mr. Howard suggests that the cracks may he formed in the cooling of the rails at the mills, and that “The manifestations furnish unquestionable evidence of the presence of numerous cracks, any one of which it would seem might be the starting point of a transverse fissure, among those properly oriented." This is perhaps the first indication on the part of representatives of the Bureau of Safety toward tolerance of an idea that anything other than track conditions might be involved in fissures.
Snowflakes and Fissures. Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, Vol. 21 (1919), pp. 216-271-342-478-556. A series of articles and reviews by H. M. Howe, Henry S. Rawdon, C. Y. Clayton, F. B. Foley, F. B. Laney, F. Giolitti, H. Styri, and B. E. Field. Snowflakes, the term commonly applied to the internal ruptures in gun and other forgings, are described in great detail and their origin attributed to a great variety of improper mill practices. In Vol. 22 (1919), p. 145, Mr. E. E. Thum reviews the matter and suggests that oxide films may be the joint origin of flakes in forgings and fissures in rails.
Relationship between Transverse Rail Fissures, Flakes and Defects in Fusion Welds. By S. W. Miller. Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, Vol. 22 (1919), p. 729. Mr. Miller develops the theory that all three are the result of improper metallurgical practice in allowing films of oxide or nitride, probably microscopic, to persist in the product.
Limiting of Transverse Fissures. By Paul Kreuzpointer. Iron Age, August 7, 1919, Vol. 104, p. 360. A plea for better general mill practice, concluding that transverse fissures are the result of combinations of contributory causes, all capable of control by intelligent effort.
A Metallographic Investigation of Transverse Fissure Rails with Special Reference to High Phosphorous Streaks. By G. F. Comstock. Transactions of the American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers, Vol. 62 (1919), p. 703. An investigation of 24 transverse fissure rails and 12 good service rails as to the presence of phosphorous streaks in the zone of fissures. In many instances the nucleus of a fissure seems to be located in a phosphorous streak, and practically all the fissured rails examined contained these streaks. It is also suggested that phosphorus is better diffused in reheated blooms than in the direct rolled product. Discussed by Dr. Dudlev, C. B. Bronson, G. M. Davidson, James E. Howard, and M. H. Wickhorst. Dr. Dudley presents some information as to the better behavior of reheated blooms. Mr. Wickhorst shows typical transverse fissures and deep etchings, and suggests similarity of origin between flakes in forgings and fissures in rails. Mr. Comstock's paper is abstracted in Railway Age, November 29, 1918. Both the paper and discussion are reviewed from reprints in Engineering News-Record, March 13, 1919, Vol. 82, p. 532. Dr. Dudley's discussion is abstracted in Engineering and Contracting, May 21, 1919, Vol. 51, 540.
Microstructural Features of Flaky Steel. By Henry S. Rawdon. Transactions of the American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers, Vol. 62 (1919), p. 246. Mr. Rawdon states that flakes originate as intercrystalline shrinkage cracks in the ingot and persist into the finished product as discontinuities, often associated with slag films. He also believes that the rate and distribution of cooling stresses have an important role in governing the defects.
Flakv and Woody Fractures in Nickel Steel Gun Forgings. By C. Y. Clayton, F. B. Foley, and F. B. Laney. Transactions of the American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers, Vol. 62 (1919), p. 211. The authors attribute flakes to overheating and nonuniformity of heat of the ingot, resulting in the incipient fusion of minute grains of highly segregated structure; the working of the metal Aattens these grains into films. Thorough soaking through the critical range appears to effect decided improvement in physical properties, and reheating through this range resulted in effacing Aakes from material very bad in this respect. These results appear significant in connection with the greater freedom from fissure in rails from reheated blooms and tend to emphasize Mr. Comstock's suggestions regarding the practicability of promoting diffusion of impurities through proper heating. In