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For the reasons given under the subject of drop and other physical tests, the hydraulic method of bending the rail seems to be preferable to the bending of it in the drop machine and the roads should give active consideration to its use.


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2. DUTIES OF INSPECTORS. Baltimore & Ohio.

Inspection staff consists of six men; one in charge supervises mill operations, checks sections and shearing, two drop test men, one day and one night, two make surface inspection on loading beds, one checks drillings, pipes and straightness. Canadian Pacific.

Inspectors supplied by Robert W. Hunt & Co. Day and night inspectors in open-hearth, blooming mill, on section, on drop test and final inspectors. Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific,

Rail inspection done by testing department in charge of Engineer of Tests, who has a Chief Inspector, who in turn has a Chief Rail Inspector. The Chief Inspector checks rail section and weight, two men on drop tests (one day and one night), two men make surface inspection. Delaware, Lackawanna & Western

Inspector in charge, two assistants and two chemists. The inspection starts at the soaking pits and continues through all operations to the loading and shipping. Grand Trunk.

Inspection done by Robt. W. Hunt & Co. Hunt & Co.

A chief inspector at each mill and staff varying according to the output of the mill, sufficient to inspect manufacturing operations from the making of the steel to the loading of the rails. Steel inspectors in openhearth or bessemer plants, blooming mill inspectors, rail mill inspectors, drop test inspectors, final inspectors and a clerk. New York Central.

Force of seven inspectors. Specific duties not assigned to each man but he covers entire process of manufacture, drop testing and final inspection. New York, New Haven & Hartford,

For two shift rolling, staff consists of chief inspector, a day and night inspector of tests and two surface inspectors. For single shift rolling, this may be reduced to chief inspector, one inspector of tests and one (or two) surface inspectors. Norfolk & Western.

Organization consists of men familiar with mill practice and capable of making all tests. Duties consist of making specified tests and recording results, checking section, drilling and straightening and surface inspection.


Force consists of 21 inspectors and 1 clerk who inspect all the various kinds of material ordered for maintenance of way, signal and bridge work. Philadelphia & Reading.

Chief Inspector, three or four assistant inspectors, one chemist and one or two checkers. Chief Inspector follows mill practice and makes drop tests on day turn. One assistant makes drop tests at night and follows mill practice. Other assistant inspectors walk rails making surface inspection. The chemist makes analyses of drillings from finished rail. The checkers record number of rails of each heat loaded into each



Staff of four to six inspectors. Chief Inspector in charge and makes drop tests. One man assigned to night duty making tests and other work. Two to four men on surface inspection, loading, etc.



Mill provides copy of ladle analysis for each heat. Drop test inspector witnesses drilling of test rail from each heat for check analyses. The drilling from each heat, taken transversely through the head of the rail are sent to Baltimore each day to have check analyses run.. Canadian Pacific.

Inspector observes pouring of test ingot. Mill laboratory takes drillings and makes analyses. Own chemist makes occasional check analyses of samples sent him. No analysis of finished rail. Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific.

Test ingot from which mill secures drillings is cut in two and also one-half of drillings which mill takes are submitted. These are sent to Chicago and analyses made in railroad company's laboratory. Delaware, Lackawanna & W'estern.

Ladle test sample is accepted as delivered by the mill to the laboratory. The specimen cut for rail analysis is identified. It is cut from immediately behind the drop test piece, taken from the first ingot of the heat. The Railroad's chemist makes analyses for carbon, phosphorus and manganese in the laboratory of the steel company who furnishes all equipment and chemicals for the purpose. Grand Trunk.

Same practice as Canadian Pacific. Hunt & Co.

At least three times each week inspectors follow the ladle test ingot of a heat to the mills chemical laboratory and obtain a portion of the drillings taken from the mill's work, the purpose being to obtain identity of mill and inspector's samples. The drillings are forwarded to the Chicago laboratory, for analysis. The laboratory follows, in so far as is practicable, the methods prescribed by the A. S. T. M. New York Central.

Drillings are taken from ladle test ingots and analyses are made by mill chemists. Occasional check analyses are made in New York Central laboratories.

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New York, New Haven & Hartford.

Ladle test samples taken by mill and analyses made by mill chemists. For check analyses a short section is cut from a rail bar of cach heat, and drillings are also frequently taken from the broken drop test pieces. All analyses are made in the regular mill laboratory without supervision by railroad inspectors. Vorfolk & Western.

Analyses of ladle test ingots furnished by the mill. In addition drillings are obtained from ladle test ingots of each heat and forwarded to Roanoke where occasional check analyses are made. Pennsylvania.

Analyses of ladle test ingots furnished by the mill. Occasional check analyses on ladle test ingot or rail made at Atloona on samples selected by inspector. Philadelphia & Reading.

Analyses made of finished rail. Drop test piece stamped by inspector and drillings taken from corner of head in his presence. At two mills railroad chemist makes analyses in mill laboratory. At the other mill the procedure is the same except that the mill chemist makes the analysis and check analyses are made at Reading by the Railroad. Southern

Mill furnishes analyses of ladle test ingot and also furnish drillings. Also inspector personally selects drillings from a finished rail from every tenth or twelith heat. All check analyses made by railroad at its own laboratory.


Drop test sample selected from first rail rolled from second, middle and last full ingot. Canadian Pacific.

In addition to the usual three drop tests from a heat, a nick and break test is made of each ingot, of a piece twelve inches long. If the fracture shows pipe or segregation or other interior defects, the upper rail of that ingot is rejected and a fracture test made of the next lower rail. Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific.

Drop tests from second, middle and last full ingot. Tested alternately with head and with base in tension. One specimen of cach heat tested to destruction and taken in rotation from the second, middle and last full ingot of the heat. In case any test piece shows a piped condition, it is re-nicked and broken, and if the fracture shows clear, the rails represented by it are accepted as to fracture. Delaware, Lackawanna & Western.

In most cases select drop test pieces from first, middle and last full ingot. This is optional.

Grand Trunk.

Drop tests and nick and break tests same as described for Canadian

Hunt & Co.

The proper ingots are followed through and the drop test pieces (or other) assured of being cut as prescribed. Pieces for retest are cut only after complete identification.

New York Central.

Test butt taken from the top crop of the second, middle and last full ingot. The exhausted ductility developed in one of the three test butts taken in rotation. New York, New Haven & Hartford.

Drop test pieces cut out at hot saws from top of rail bar of second, middle and last ingot. Re-tests are usually from rear end of rejected rails as representing top ends of rails of next letter. Norfolk & Western.

Test specimens selected from second, middle and last full ingot. Pennsylvania.

Drop test pieces all cut from front end of rail representing top of the ingot. Philadelphia & Reading

Drop test pieces cut from the top of the A rail of the second, middle and last full ingot of each heat. Six inch specimens are also cut from drop test piece from each heat and sent to the railroad laboratory from which tensile test pieces are cut; one from the corner of the head and one from the center of the head. Check analyses are also made or drillings taken from these six inch test pieces. Southern. Drop test samples are selected from the front end of top or A rails.


Three foot straight edge. The scale is laid off in tenths of an inch, and is set in the center and at right angles to the straight edge. Canadian Pacific.

Test specimen placed in the drop machine head up. Deflection is measured by a straight edge having two standards three feet apart, and a scale in the center that works freely through a slot in the straight edge perpendicularly, graduated the deflection measured from the center of the test piece to the bottom of the straight edge. Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific.

The permanent set is measured in a length of three feet, the deflection being measured at the center of a graduated scale. Delaware, Lackawanna & Western.

Instruments used consist of a steel straight edge and a steel gage graduated into hundredths of an inch. Grand Trunk.

The test specimen placed in the drop machine head up, instrument for measuring deflection the same as described for Canadian Pacific. Hunt & Co.

The deflection is measured by specially designed deflection gage which gives a position reading of the actual deflection in three feet. It is laid on the part of the rail, either head or base, that has not been in contact with the tup, and thus the effect of the frequent indentation made by the tup is eliminated.

New York Central.

Rails 80 to 105 lb. per yard tested with supports three feet apart, and 120 lb. rails with 4 foot supports. Deflection measured by a 3 ft. bar which has a vertical movable scale in the center, reading to hundredths of an inch. New York, New Haven & Hartford.

The deflection is measured with a 3 ft. straight edge with a vertical sliding scale graduated to tenths of an inch at its center. Norfolk & Westeru.

Deflections are measured by means of a straight edge 36 inches in length with vertical graduated scale at center. Pennsylvania.

A 3 ft. straight edge with vertical sliding scale in middle is used to measure deflections. Philadelphia & Reading.

Deflection is determined at the center of the test piece after each blow of the drop hammer. The usual straight edge with rule running through it at right angles is used for measuring the deflection. Southern.

Rail deflections are taken by means of a straight edge and steel scale. The rail test sample is drop tested head up and the deflection is taken from the top of the head.


Prick punch marks one inch apart on either head or base for three inches on each side of the center of the rail. Elongation measured with a scale laid off in hundredths of an inch. Canadian Pacific.

Do not use elongation tests. Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific.

Test piece laid off with prick punch marks as per specification and elongation measured with a scale graduated to hundredths of an inch. Delaware, Lackawanna & Western.

Elongation measured with a flexible steel scale graduated in hundredths of an inch. Grand Trunk.

Do not use elongation tests. Hunt & Co.

The l-inch spaces required are punched, generally by gang punches, and the elongation of each measured by a small spring scale laid on the rail surface close to the punch marks. New York Central.

A spacing bar of seven hardened steel points, one inch apart, is applied to the base or head, and then struck with a copper hammer. The stamped portion of the rail is placed midway between supports. The elongation of each inch is measured by a scale reading to hundredths of an inch.

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