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with the work specified. Prior to starting the work the contractor shall notify the railway company's representative a sufficient time in advance so that speed and traffic restrictions in the territory in which the work is to be performed may be arranged with the operating department of the railway company.

(2) The railway company will provide the necessary inspector or inspectors, and the instructions of such inspectors regarding the quality and type of work to be done shall be complied with at all times by the contractor.

(3) The contractor shall supply the necessary foremen and labor to prosecute the work properly and in such numbers as may be required by the Chief Engineer or his authorized representative, and at the request of the Chief Engineer or his representative will remove any foreman or man · employed not satisfactory to the railway company.

(4) The railway company shall provide and the contractor shall pay for competent flagmen during the continuance of this work, to flag in accordance with the rules of the company for the protection of the work and traffic.

(5) Where required, banks shall be widened to the proper width prior to starting ballast work and a sufficient time in advance so that there will be no interference. Such widening of embankments and the proper grading of public or private crossings shall be done by the railway company unless specific instructions are given by the representatives of the railway company to the contractor to do such work.

(Note.-If contractor is to do bank widening work, specifications for such work must be provided.)

(6) Grade stakes will be set to the proper grade by the representative of the railway company before the ballast material has been dumped and spread.

(7) All tile, box or other drains required to take care of water between the tracks shall be placed before the ballast material is unloaded.

(8) The railway company will supply all equipment and train crews required for the loading, transporting, unloading and spreading of the ballast. The contractor shall supply all tools needed in connection with this work. (9)

The railway company shall furnish all ballast as required in its own cars and shall transport and switch such ballast free of cost to the contractor to the point where it is to be applied.

(10) Ballast shall be unloaded by the contractor by dumping or plowing as the means provided by the railway company permit. If the ballast is in center dump cars it shall be unloaded by having one or more cars opened at a time, allowing the required amount of ballast material to flow out as the train is moved along slowly. If the material is on flat or open cars, it shall be plowed off by means of an unloading machine while the train is moving at such a rate of speed as to provide the desired amount of material as uniformly distributed as possible. The unloaded material shall be leveled down by means of a ballast plow or spreader. Care shall be taken not to destroy or disturb the grade stakes.

(11) The preliminary surfacing gang shall follow the unloading as closely as the regularity of the ballast supply will permit. In using jacks, they must be placed close enough together to prevent undue bending of the rail or strain on the joints. Both rails must be raised at one time and as nearly uniformly as possible. The track shall be so lifted that after a period of not less than three days after the last liit it will be necessary to give it a final lift of not less than one inch nor more than two inches to bring it to the grade of the stakes. All ties that are pulled loose or renewed shall be replaced to proper position and must have a bearing against the rail and be fully spiked, with all spikes driven home before tamping. In driving spikes, all spikes shall be started vertically and square with the rail, and so driven that the base of the spikes shall have a full hold on the rail. Spikes must not be straightened while being driven. Ballast shall be well packed or tamped with pick, shovel, tamping bar or tamping machine, as directed, from a point fifteen inches inside of each rail on both sides of the ties to the end of the ties, tamping the outside of the tie first.

(12) When the track has been raised to within one or two inches of the final grade and properly compacted by traffic, a finishing lift shall be made by jacking up the track to the exact height provided for by the grade stakes. All allowance for settlement shall be taken care of in the setting of the stakes and the necessary ballast forked or shoveled in, and then driven to place by tamping machines, tamping picks, bars or shovels, as directed by the proper representative of the railway company. In making the finishing lift the spot board and level board must be used with care and the track brought to as true a surface as possible.

(13) The track shall be placed in good alinement before the finishing lift is made, but a lining gang shall follow one or two days behind the finishing lift and shall spot 11p all places found not to be holding up to proper surface, and shall line the track to as accurate an alinement as possible. Center stakes hall be set for the alinement before the finishing lift is made and the final alinement must conform to the center stakes.

(14) The contractor shall trim the ballast to conform to the standard roadbed section, and the railway company for this purpose shall supply its standard cross-section template. The portion of the sub-grade outside the ballast line shall be left with a full even surface and the shoulder of the embankment properly dressed to the standard roadbed section. The contractor shall dispose of any surplus ballast after trimming the ballast section as directed by the representative of the railway company.

(15) The contractor must restore and secure promptly all stockguards, crossing plank, or other facilities displaced by reason of the ballasting

(16) After ten days' 11e of the track by the railway company the contractor shall go over same and surface and line low joints and spots which may have developed without extra charge to the railway company. (17) The contractor shall remove from the railway company's property all rubbish and waste from any ballast work, or dispose of it as directed by the representative o. the railway company. After completing the work the contractor shall remove from the railway company's property, and from all public and privately-owned property, at his own expense all temporary structures and waste resulting from his camping operations.

(18) In measuring the work, lining, surfacing and trimming turnouts and crossovers shall be considered as main track.

(19) The contractor is to understand that any work not specifically mentioned in the specifications, but which is necessary, either directly or indirectly, for the proper carrying out of the intent thereof, shall be required and applied, and he shall perform all such work just as if it were particularly delineated or described. Unless specifically mentioned above, all work shall conform to the standards of the railway company.

UNIT TRACK WORK SCHEDULE FOR BALLASTING Suggested form for unit track work schedules for ballasting. Where

track is at present ballasted with cinders, granulated slag, or gravel, and is to be renewed with stone ballast, track to be given two raises on stone, tamped with forks, and given a final out-of-face surfacing with picks. Track to be dressed to standard stone ballast section and

to have 12 inches of ballast under the ties. Separate schedules to be used for stripping track, respacing ties and re

newing ties, which work is to be done ahead of the unloading of

stone ballast. The second dumping of ballast to be heavy enough so that after the

second raise the cribs will be only about one-half full. This will allow the final surfacing (with tamping picks) to be done with the minimum amount of labor for cribbing out ballast, and will leave sufficient ballast around the ties to keep them in place until the ballast is dumped for dressing. (Typical figures shown in parenthesis.)

RAISING TRACK

Time Distribution
Minutes Per Foot

of One Track

Operation

First Raise of Six Inches
Running spot board...
Digging jack holes..
Jacking up track..
Running level board..
Tamping (forks)..
Foreman (assume gang of 20 men)..

Second Raise of Six Inches
Running spot board
Digging jack holes.
Jacking up track..
Running level board..
Tamping (forks).
Water boy.....
Foreman (assume gang of 20 men).

(0.07) (0.71 ) (0.70) (0.15) (2.10) (0.20) (0.20)

Water boy...

(0.07) (0.71) (0.85) (0.20 ) (4.10) (0.30) (0.30)

Surface Raise of 0 to 2 inches

Time Distribution

Minutes Per Tie Jacking up track....

(0.40) Running level board.

(0.18) Cribbing out ballast..

(1.50) Tap down spikes...

(0.76) Tamp both ends one tie on both sides

and for 18 in. each side of rail... (13.00) Water boy......

(0.25) Foreman (assume gang of 20 men).

(1.02)

9.33

Total per tie.

17.11
Total surface lift per foot of track.....

DRESSING (Single Track)
Building berms (2)....
Building shoulder lines (2).
Taking ballast from between rails.
Dressing ballast shoulders (2)
Water boy (part time)
Foreman
Flagmen (2) to protect entire organization..
Note:

In dressing double track add to above-
3.3 for ballast from between rails,
0.9 for dressing center ditch,
0.4 for foreman,

(1.40)
(0.60)
(3.30)
(1.60)
(0.40)
(0.70)
(1.86)

Total minutes per foot of track..

29.85 Standard schedule in hours per foot of one track.

0.497 EXAMPLE A gang of 90 men complete 1,676 ft. of track in a ten-hour day and is allowed a 10 per cent detention for going to and from work and getting out of the way of passing trains. Total standard hours -- 1676 X.497 =732.97. Total hours made..

900 Total hours detention..

90

Total actual hours ballasting..
Efficiency = 732.97 + 810=90.4 per cent.

810

SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE STRIPPING OF TRACK, THE

RENEWAL OF TIES AND THE RESPACING OF TIES

(1) The railway company's authorized representative shall arrive at a clear understanding with the contractor as to the force to be employed, the speed with which it is desired to have the work proceed, the source of ballast supply and the general traffic situation in the territory in question, in order that proper plans may be made to proceed economically with the work specified. Prior to starting the work the contractor shall notify the railway company's representative a sufficient time in advance so that speed and traffic restrictions in the territory in which the work is

to be performed may be arranged with the operating department of the railway company.

(2) The railway company shall furnish the ties required for renewal purposes at convenient points along the right-of-way.

(3) The contractor shall supply all tools needed in connection with this work.

(4) The railway company shall provide the necessary inspector or inspectors and the instructions of such inspectors regarding the quality and type of work to be done shall be complied with at all times by the contractor.

(5) The contractor shall supply the necessary foremen and labor to prosecute the work properly and in such numbers as may be required by the Chief Engineer or his authorized representative, and at the request of the Chief Engineer or his representative will remove any foreman or man employed not satisfactory to the railway company.

(6) The track shall be skeletonized not to exceed two days in advance of the unloading of the ballast. Where the old material is suitable for sub-ballast and conditions permit the raising of the track, it will be raised and the old material spread under and between the ties to the proper width as uniformly as practicable. When conditions do not permit the raising of the track, the old material shall be removed to the required depth and disposed of as directed, or where the material is not suitable for sub-ballast, it shall be removed to the plane of the bottom of the ties, or deeper if necessary to preserve the grade line, and shall be placed on the outer shoulder of the roadbed, preferably at such points as will tend to even up the line of the shoulder. Upon the completion of this work the surface of the sub-grade shall be sloped with reasonable uniformity so as to provide proper drainage to the shoulder of the embankment.

(7) Following the skeletonizing of the track, all old ties which are not fit for more than one year in track where gravel or cinder ballast is to be used, or for more than two years in track where stone or hard slag is to be used, shall be removed and new ties inserted in their places. The largest and best ties shall be used at the joints. The heart side of ties should generally be turned down but they should be laid so as to obtain the best bearing. The adzing shall be done carefully and so as to provide full bearing for the tie plate or rail, with the least cutting possible to obtain bearing on solid wood.

(8) On single track ties shall be lined with the line rail on tangents, and with the inside rail on curves. On double track ties shall be lined to the outside of both tracks. Where there are sidetracks on each side of the main track, the side track ties must be lined to the outside of such tracks.

(9) Picks should not be stuck into a tie to drag it into place, nor should ties be struck on the end with a tamping pick or spike maul. Tie tongs should be used to handle all ties.

(10) When old ties are taken from track, all tie plates and spikes

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