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Eight of the ties have thus far been removed account of loosening of the bands and decay. The ties are beyond a doubt proving very unsatisfactory. Duluth & Iron Range.

Reported by-W. A. Clark, Chief Engineer.

Date-July 19, 1921. During 1917-1918 all of the ties in mile 79 were removed because of damage due to derailments at that point. In 1920 eighteen ties on mile 96

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were removed because of crushing down of the web. Of 2,000 ties installed in 1905, the number now in service is as follows:

At Two Harbors, with experimental patent fastenings.... 28
On Mile 96....

600 On mile X-11/2.

56 On mile X-134.

575 Total

.1,259 A few of the above are more or less damaged and will need to be removed before another year. Duluth, Missabe & Northern.

Kind-Carnegie, Kimball.
Reported by-W. H. Hoyt, Chief Engineer.

Date-July 29, 1921. Carnegie Steel Ties: Of the 22,380 ties installed in 1908 and 1909, there have been removed 10 in 1918, 64 in 1919, 121 in 1920, or a total of 195, leaving 22,185 still in track.

Kimball Steel Ties: The 30 ties installed in 1914 are still in track. Elgin, Joliet and Eastern.

Kind-Bates, Carnegie.
Reported by-Arthur Montzheimer, Chief Engineer.

Date-September 9, 1921.
Bates Ties: No change since report for 1920.

Carnegie Ties: We have installed 14,962 Carnegie Steel cross ties at various times, beginning in 1909, of which 1,624 were removed, leaving 13,338 still in track. The number removed is as follows: 1916, 50; 1917, 260; 1918, 182; 1919, 453; 1920, 306; 1921, 373; total, 1,624. Florida East Coast.

Reported by-H. N. Rodenbaugh, Chief Engineer.

Date-July 13, 1921. Percival Concrete Ties: All of the ties installed at St. Augustine in March, 1906, were removed from track in December, 1920, on account of changing of 70-1b, rail to 90-1b. rail. This was due to the inflexible method of fastening rail to ties. The condition of the ties at time of removal was perfectly satisfactory, and they, no doubt, would have been good for several years' further service under normal conditions. Lake Erie & Western.

Reported by-J. K. Conner, Chief Engineer.

Date- July 2, 1921.
No change to report. Still have five Buhrer concrete ties in track
at Tipton, Ind., installed in August, 1903.
Long Island.

Kind-Carnegie, Combination Concrete and Steel.
Reported by-J. R. Savage, General Superintendent.
Date- July 16, 1921.

Carnegie Ties: Of the 30 ties installed at Hicksville in May, 1909, there are 18 remaining. Six were removed on July 5, 1921, due to their inability to hold track in proper alignment.

Combination Concrete and Steel: Of the 34 ties installed at Long Island City, 8 are still in service but in poor condition, and it is expected it will be necessary to remove them within a short time. If they had been installed at any other point they should long since have been removed, but they are safe for the very slow movement made over the track in which they are installed. Los Angeles Railway.

Reported by—B. H. Eaton, Engineer Way and Structures.

Date-July 25, 1921. Of the 4,323 ties installed at Los Angeles in July, 1911, 4,283 are still in service. Forty ties were removed on Broadway at Tenth Street on account of new construction. New York Central.

Reported by—Francis Boardman, Division Engineer.

Date-September 13, 1921. Five of these ties were placed in No. 8 main track of the New York Central at Spuyten Duyvil, New York City, in July, 1918. These ties are made of cast steel covered and filled with concrete. Wooden blocks are placed between the rail and the metal part of the tie and the bolts. holding the rail on these wooden blocks are insulated. Figs. 2 and 3 fully illustrate the construction of this tie.

The ties are still in service. The concrete on the outside of the steel frame is cracked in a number of places and has partially fallen off. The track is located next to the Hudson River and normal corrosion has taken place on the steel bolts and other exposed metal parts of the tie. The ties are subject to a slow speed freight traffic only, about fifteen trains, or an average of six hundred seventy-five cars pass over them daily. Pennsylvania System-Eastern Region.

Kind-Champion, Maryland, Standard.
Reported by—W. G. Coughlin, Chief Engineer M. W.

Date-August 22, 1921. CHAMPION: Of 995 ties installed at Lenover, Pa., in June, 1920, all are in good condition.

MARYLAND—Lenover, Pa.-All removed August, 1920. Too weak for the traffic. Broke under the rail. Original installation September, 1919, was 25 ties. These ties were described and illustrated on page 369 of A.R.E.A. Bulletin No. 232, December, 1920.

STANDARD STEEL TIES–Lenover, Pa.-All removed June 30, 1921. Too weak for the traffic. Ends bent upwards and split through the bottom. The to-inch ties lost 37 per cent. and the 38-inch ties 14 per cent. by corrosion. Original installation June, 1915, 100 Pe-inch ties and 400 38-inch ties.

Pennsylvania System-Central Region

Kind-Carnegie Steel Switch Ties, Mechling and Smith Steel Ties,

Riegler Concrete Steel Ties, Snyder Composite Ties.
Reported by-W. D. Wiggins, Chief Engineer M. of W.

Date-November 21, 1921. CARNEGIE Switch Ties–Eight sets put in, October, 1911, in Pitcairn Yard. Prior to 1921, 90 per cent. were removed due to being damaged by derailments. In 1921 the remaining 10 per cent. were removed due to being badly corroded and bent.

MECHLING AND SMITH STEEL TIES—100 put in track October, 1910, in Wilkinsburg Yard. Twenty removed in 1915 due to bad condition of wood blocks, 11 removed in 1919 due to being damaged by a derailment, 8 removed in 1920 due to poor condition of wood blocks, 46 removed in 1921 due to condition of wood blocks being so bad that gauge could not be maintained, 15 still in track and in poor condition.

RIEGLER CONCRETE STEEL Ties—15 put in track May, 1908, in No. 1 westward passenger track, west of Emsworth, Pa., transferred to No. 3 eastward freight track in December, 1914. June 7, 1921, two were removed due to concrete being crushed under rail. These ties have been repaired and will be put back in track. An inspection was made September 20, 1921. In three additional ties the concrete was found to be crushing under the rail. A derailed car has damaged a number of bolts used for holding the rail, which bolts will be renewed soon.

SNYDER COMPOSITE TIFS-821 put in track October, 1907, in Derry Yard and none have been removed to date. 1,600 put in track October, 1907, in Conemaugh Yard. Between 1914 and 1916, 280 were removed on account of being damaged by derailments and on account of extension to interlocking. In 1921, 223 were removed due to clips and bolts being so badly rusted that the fastenings could not be tightened. At both locations the ties and fastenings are rusting badly and as the bolts become very loose the ties are removed. Pere Marquette.

Reported by-A. L. Grandy, Chief Engineer.

Date-August 20, 1921. These ties have given very satisfactory service since they were installed in 1901 or 1902. They consist of two concrete blocks under the rails and connected with each other with two 3-inch channels and all bedded in the concrete foundation of the street and track. There is a 3-in.x12-in.x15in. hardwood plank interposed between the concrete block and the rail base for a cushion and for spiking. Seventy-five-pound rail was laid in this track when it was built in 1902, and was replaced with 90-1b. rail in about 1914. The same ties were retained, but possibly 50 per cent. of the blocks were removed at that time. The pavement was also relaid. The track is now in good condition.

The traffic is confined to passenger trains running not to exceed 10 miles per hour. Fig. 4 illustrates this tie. About 3,400 feet of track is laid with these ties, including the concrete sub-base. Pittsburgh & Lake Erie.

Kind-Atwood, Standard.
Reported by-A. R. Raymer, Chief Engineer.

Date-August 10, 1921.
ATWOOD CONCRETE Ties—The five ties placed in No. 4 main track at
McKees Rocks are still in place and giving good service, except for the
fastenings, which will soon have to be replaced or the ties removed.

STANDARD STEEL TIES_Of the twenty ties installed in westward main track at Glassport, Pa., on May 4, 1914, all are still in place. They are located on a tangent and are giving satisfactory service. The steel portion appears to be in good condition, and shows no signs of bulging or flattening out. It will be necessary to renew the wood block fillers soon. Pittsburg, Shawmut & Northern.

Reported by–J. N. Thompson, Superintendent M. of W.

Date-July 21, 1921. Of the original installation of 795 ties, 155 remain in track. Since the last report, it has been necessary to remove 395 ties due to web crushing. They are failing fast now and it is probable all will have been removed within one more year. Riverside, Rialto & Pacific.

Reported by-Arthur McGuire, Ass't Chief Engineer.

Date July 15, 1921. No change from report of 1920. The ties are installed at Riverside, California, and are not subject to heavy traffic. Only about twenty-nine street cars and two switch engines with trains of not more than twenty cars pass over them daily. Southern Pacific.

Reported by-W. H. Kirkbride, Engineer M. of W. & S.

Date-September 3, 1921. Of twenty-seven of these ties installed in 1917, only six remain in track; twenty-one were removed on July 22, 1921, because they were in such a broken and cracked condition that they would not hold gauge of track. Of the six remaining in track, two will have to be removed soon. Southern Pacific Lines in Louisiana.

Kind-Percival, Moore Concrete.
Reported by-R. M. Glover, Superintendent.

Date-July 7, 1921. Percival CONCRETE Ties-Of 100 ties installed in track at Bayou Sale in January, 1910, 26 were removed prior to 1919 in connection with track changes, one for inspection purposes and one because of having cracked at


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