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Job 6.-Rock-8-In. Raise

Work Train
Track Dug
Ballast Distributed
First Raise
Final Raise
Line and finish.
Spacing Ties

.$ 368

392 137 515 478 506 371



TO STANDARD SECTION STONE BALLASTED TRACK 1. Stripping Track. 2. Unloading Ballast (Various Types of Cars). 3. Raising Track on New Ballast (1 or 2 Lifts). 4. Dressing Ballast. (1) Stripping Track. (a) Object-To remove existing gravel or cinder ballast to the bot

tom of the ties in cribs, center-ditch and shoulder. Old material to be

cast over the bank on fill and removed by work train from cuts. (b) Organization-16 men, 1 foreman. Gang should be kept one

or two days' work ahead of ballasting gang to allow room for unloading ballast cars. Each man carries a pick, No. 2 shovel and scoop shovel.

Each man in gang is assigned one-half rail length of track to strip. Upon completion he moves to the first one-half rail length ahead of the leading man. Thus the men are all one-half rail length

apart. The gang of 16 men being spread out over 8 rail lengths. (c) Method-Shoveling should start at the shoulder and work toward

the center-ditch, first loosening the crib with pick if necessary. When working the cribs each man uses his No. 2 shovel on account of the narrow space, but the material in shoulder and center ditch should be

handled with scoop shovel. (d) Cost-The cost of this work, expressed in payroll hours, has

been determined very closely by time-studies of actual performance. Several studies were made on different gangs engaged in this work, and the results consolidated into a schedule of performance which has been called a standard of 100 per cent efficiency, as shown below.

Time required to remove one cubic yard of material (including foreman's time):

Time Required
Material removed --

45 minutes 5.75 hours Centerditch

26 minutes = .433 hours Shoulders

.26 minutes =.433 hours Hours required per linear foot of double track (13 ft. centers)..0.230 Hour required per linear foot of single track...

....0.101 In arriving at these figures the following cubical contents were used: 1 linear ft. of double track (13 ft. centers)....9.77 c. f.=.36 cub. yds. 1 linear ft. of single track..

.3.99 c. f.=.15 cub. yds.

[blocks in formation]

From this schedule the cost of stripping one mile of track with
a gang working at 100 per cent efficient would be as follows:
Double Track (13 ft. centers)...5280 X 0.230 = 1214.40 payroll hours
Single Track

..5280 X 0.101 =

= 533.28 payroll hours Since, however, experience shows that track gangs do not often work at 100 per cent efficiency, but as a general rule have averaged nearer 80 per cent and are detained by passing trains and other causes to the amount of 10 per cent, the foregoing cost hours are increased to the following: Double Track (13 ft. centers)......5280 X 0.316 = 1667 payroll hours Single Track

..5280 X 0.139 = 732 payroll hours (2) Unloading Ballast. (A) Object-To drop sufficient ballast along the stripped track to

replace all old ballast removed and give standard ballast sections

when dressed. (B) Organization—The ballast unloading, gang will, of course, vary

with the different kinds of cars in which the ballast is delivered. In this connection, it is, of course, most economical to use an approved type of specially constructed ballast car, such, for instance, as the Roger Ballast Car, which will drop the stone either between or outside the rails. The gang required when special ballast car is used is 2 men and 1 foreman. The foreman releases pockets and the two men handle tie and shoes and jar ballast down. When using 100,000-1b, hopper cars, 8 men and i foreman are required. Foreman and 4 men stay on ground to place shoes and ties, open the pockets and jar ballast down. The other four men stay on the car and shovel the ballast down. The same size gang is also required to unload 100,000-1b. drop-bottom gondolas. In this case the foreman and four men remain on the ground to place shoes and tie, and open pockets. When all is ready for plowing the four men on ground get into the car and assist the other four men in shoveling the ballast down

through the pockets. (C) Method-Special ballast cars can be unloaded in strings of as

high as 10 at one time and the flow of the ballast through pockets can easily be regulated. A cross-tie is placed in front of rear truck and shoes placed behind it, on which the wheels mount and slide shoe and tie along rail, plowing the ballast off to level of top of rail. Foreman personally attends to lowering of the pockets and has sufficient men on the ground to handle tie and shoes and jar ballast down, and sufficient men in the car to keep ballast moving to the pockets. Each gang has two wrenches and two wooden mauls to hammer the sides of hoppers and gondolas to jar down the ballast.

Car pockets must always be closed before foreman releases train. (D) Cost-From a large number of time studies on different gangs

the following schedule was arrived at and called a 100 per cent performance:

(Time required)

100.000-1b. 100,000-1b. Roger Operation

Gondolas Hopper Ballast Cars
Placing shoes


4 minutes Removing shoes from empty. 4


4 Waiting to release bottoms.. 16


Placing ties


Removing tie from empty. 4


3 Placing stay-post

4 Releasing drop bottoms.


3 Winding up drop bottoms. 12


3 Jarring and shoveling down. .264


6 Foreman's time

6 Total minutes for one car. .352


Hours per car..


Load of each car in cubic yards. 35


Cubic yards to the mile required:
Double Track (13-ft. centers).

.36 X 5280 = 1900.8 cu. yds. Single Track

.15 X 5280 = 792.0 cu. yds.




Thus the cost in payroll hours of unloading ballast for 1 mile of
track based on 100 per cent efficiency would be:
Double Single

Double Single Type of Car Cars per Mile Cost per Car Cost per Mile 100,000-1b. Gondolas.


335 135 100,000-1b. Hoppers.. 57 23


63 25 Roger Ballast

68 28


37 16 Assuming an average performance of 80 per cent and adding 10 per cent for lost time or detention: The foregoing costs become Cost per Mile Double

Single 100,000-1b. Gondola..460 +6.4 days W. T. serv. = 186 + 2.6 W. T, serv. 100,000-1b. Hopper... 87 + 1.2 days W. T. sery. = 34 + 0.5 W. T. serv. Roger Ballast 51 + 1.9 days W. T. sery. = 22 + 0.8 W. T. serv.

This operation to be followed by raising the track on the new ballast in either one or two lifts, according to the depth of ballast desired under the ties. If one lift only is made, the unloading cost must be doubled. If two lifts are made, ballast will have to be dragged three times, and since the amount dropped in such dragging is very nearly the same, the cost will be three times the figures shown

above. (3) Raising Track (One or Two Lifts). (A) Object-To lift the track (4" to 6" per lift) and fork the ballast

in cribs, shoulder and center-ditch under the ties, using all new ballast available to get as good a raise as possible. Height of raise and number of lifts depend, of course, on depth of ballast desired under

ties. (B) Organization-A good and well balanced gang for this work

includes 1 foreman and 20 men. One man flags in each direction, 6 men handle jacks (three men per jack) and tamp joint and center ties. One jack man runs level board, and one forks ballast under ties for tamping. Ten men follow the jack men, completing tamping.

On double track two such units may be worked side by side. (C) Method—When work is started a flagman is sent out in either

direction. Two men work ahead of gang and dig jack holes at joints and centers and run spot-board. Two men with each jack assisted by one man forking ballast under ties for tamping. One of the jack men also runs the level-board to assure correct cross level. The other ten men follow, tamping with forks inside and outside of rail (tamp

18 in. from gauge line inside). (D) Cost-The cost, in payroll hours, of one raise of four to six

inches, tamping with forks only, to be followed immediately by an-
other raise and retamping, is expressed in the following schedule,
based on a 20-man gang performing at 100 per cent efficiency.
First Raise

Minutes per Foot

of One Track Running spot-board

0.07 Digging jack holes.

0.71 Jacking up track...

0.68 Running level board.

0.09 Tamping, outside of rail only.

2.10 Waterboy

0.18 Two fagmen

0.36 Foreman's time


Minutes per ft. of 1 track.
Hours per ft. of 1 track.

4.37 0.072

Assuming an 80 per cent performance for this gang and allowing 10 per cent for detention and lost time, the cost per ft. of one track becomes : Hours per ft. of one track...

.0.090 plus 10% = 0.099

Second Raise

Running spot-board
Digging jack holes
Jacking up track
Running level-board
Tamping inside and outside of rail.
Water boy
Two flagmen

Minutes per Foot of One Track

0.07 0.71 0.85 0.20 4.10 0.30 0.60 0.30

Minutes per foot of one track...

7.13 Hours per foot of one track.

0.119 At 80 per cent efficient performance and 10 per cent detention, the cost per foot of one track becomes : Hours per foot of one track...

.0.149 plus 10% = 0.164 Where only one raise is made the cost shown under "second raise" should be used, as more careful and complete tamping is done.

Cost per mile of one track: 1 Raise

.0.164 X 5280 = 866 Payroll Hours 2 Raise

.0.263 X 5280 = 1389 Payroll Hours (4) Dressing Ballast. (A) Object–To fork excess stone from between the rails, build

standard shoulder and level the stone in center-ditch, to give the

standard ballast section. (B) Organization-1 foreman and 9 men make a well-balanced gang

for this work. Two men leveling berme, two men building stone line, two men forking stone from between rails, two men dressing shoul

der and one man leveling center-ditch. (C) Method-Two men keep ahead straightening and leveling up

the berme. Immediately behind the berme-builders one man forks stone from between rails while another uses template and ballastboard on shoulder, drawing stone down to board-line with fork in sufficient quantity to properly define the stone-line. These men are followed by others, working in pairs, one forking from between rails and the other dressing up shoulder or center-ditch. Proper distribu

tion of ballast by work train is essential to economical results. (D) Cost—The following schedule, based on many time studies,

represents a 100 per cent performance for a gang of 9 men and foremen :

Total Time Required Operation

per Ft. Double Track Building berme

1.4 minutes Building stone lines

0.6 Forking ballast from between rails.

6.6 Dressing shoulders

1.6 Dressing center-ditch

0.9 Foreman's time

1.1 Minutes per ft. of double track.

12.2 Hours per ft. of double track..

.203 Hours per ft. of single track.


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Assuming a performance of 80 per cent and adding 10 per cent for
lost time or detention, these figures become:
Hours per ft. of double track...,

.278 Hours per ft. of single track..

.232 Cost per mile then would be: Double track

.5280 X .278 = 1468 payroll hours Single track

..5280 X .232 = 1225 payroll hours

Recapitulation Cost per mile of single and double track. (1) One raise, giving from four to six inches of ballast under ties. Ballast 100,000-1b. 100,000-lb.

Roger Deivered in

Gondolas Hoppers Ballast Car Item

Single Double Single Double Single Double Stripping track...


1667 732 1667 732 1667 1-Unloading ballast. 186 460 34

22 51 Raising track

866 1732 866 1732 866 1732 2–Unloading ballast.... 186 460

34 87

22 51 Dressing ballast. .1225 1468 1225 1468 1225 1468 Total .3195 5787 2891 5041 2867


Payroll Hours
Plus W. T. Service
in 8-hr. days...... 5.2 12.8 1.0

2.4 1.6

3.8 Cost per mile of single track and double track. (One) Two raises, giving from 10 to 12 inches of ballast under ties. Ballast

100,000-1b. 100,000-1b. Roger Delivered in

Gondolas Hoppers Ballast Cars

Single Double Single Double Single Double Stripping track 732 1667 732 1667 732 1-Unloading ballast.. 186 460 34 87 22 51 1-Raising track 523 1045 523 1045 523

1045 2_Unloading ballast. 186 460

34 87 22

51 2-Raising track

866 1732 866 1732 866 1732 3—Unloading ballast.. . . 186 460

34 87

22 51 Dressing ballast ...1225 1468 1225 1468 1225 1468


.3904 7292

3448 6173 3412 6065

Payroll Hours
Plus W. T. Service
in 8-hr. days.... 7.8 19.2 1.5


2.4 5.7 The Costs of Ballasting, as given above, are the bona fide figures presented by representative railways of the United States of America and of Canada, and are offered to the Association as information.

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