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Table XXI shows that 817 stowaways were brought to our ports in the past year. Stowaways are now excluded as such by the new immigration law.
Table XXII is one of the most important statements, for it shows the amount of revenue produced for the Government by the immigration law. Of the 237,021 aliens admitted, 144,578 were subject to head tax, and head tax was covered into the Treasury after being held on special deposit on account of 25,658 aliens admitted as visitors during the preceding year, so that during the year the service collected $1,144,372. Head tax covering 31,881 aliens admitted in transit or for temporary sojourn is held on special deposit at the close of the fiscal year. The conduct of the service has cost about $3,163,000, including disbursements from the passport permit fund.
In Table XXIII there is furnished a comprehensive statement of passengers departed from the United States during the fiscal year.
Tables XXIV to XXVII-A cover immigrant and nonimmigrant arrivals in continental United States from the insular possessions, and also arrivals in the insular possessions themselves, both from continental and insular United States.
Tables XXVIII and XXVIII-A cover cases of hospital treatment. Their showing may be very briefly commented upon. It will be observed that at New York 17 aliens were treated in hospital, against 31 for the preceding year; at Boston 6, against 9 for the preceding year; at San Francisco 91, against 231 for the preceding year; at Seattle 619, against 604 for the preceding year; at Honolulu 13, against 38 for the preceding year; and at Galveston 1, a total at alí ports of 747, compared with 914 treated in 1918.
Tables XXIX, XXIX-A and XXIX-B show interesting information in regard to arriving aliens certified by surgeons of the Public Health Service as physically or mentally defective.
Table XXIX covers the sex, age, class of defect, and disposition by diseases or defects, from which it will be seen that 6,060 aliens were certified, which is 2.6 per cent of the total number applying for admission; 160, or 2 per cent of those certified were for mental defects; 698, or 11 per cent, were for loathsome or dangerous contagious diseases; 3,112, or 51 per cent, were certified for other physical defects which affect aliens' ability to earn a living; and 2,014, or 33 per cent, for physical defects of less degree. About 32 per cent of those certified, 1,961 in number, were 45 years of age and over, although but 11 per cent of the applications for admission were of those ages; 4,487 of those certified, or 74 per cent, were admitted and 1,573, or 26 per cent, were deported.
Table XXIX-B indicates that in 392 cases the defects for which certified affected principally the blood, circulatory and lymphatic systems; in 1,347 cases the aliens suffered from diseases or defects chiefly related to the nervous system and organs of special sense; in 1,538 cases conditions for which certified affected principally the internal organs, including the genito-urinary system; defects of other organs or members, including organs of motion and the skin and appendages, were certified in 1,459 cases, and in 1,316 the defective conditions affected the system generally.
Tables A to F cover certain special data regarding aliens of Japanese nationality. The Japanese Government issues limited passports to
1 141,515 at $8 each and 3,063 (under subdivision 4, rule 1, immigration rules) at $4 each.
its subjects when emigrating. This brings laborers from that country • within the provisions of the law, the President's proclamation, and .rule 11 of the immigration regulations, and creates the necessity for presenting certain special statistics in their cases in addition to including them in the general tables kept in pursuance of the general provisions of law applicable to all aliens.
To make comparison convenient, the plan followed in previous reports in presenting comment on the statistics regarding Japanese immigration is again adopted here.
Table A shows an increase in the number of Japanese admitted to the continent and a decrease in the number admitted to the Territory of Hawaii. However, the figures shown by that table should be compared also with those for 1908, the first year the system under the proclamation and rule 11 of the immigration regulations and the understanding with Japan became operative, in which year 9,544 Japanese were admitted to continental United States and 8,694 to Hawaii, with 643 debarred at ports of the former and 60 at ports of the latter. In 1911 the corresponding figures were 4,282, 2, 159, 46, and 34, while those for 1912 were 5,358, 3,231, 103, and 63, respectively; those for 1913 were 6,771, 4,901, 88, and 180; those for 1914 were 8,462, 4,554, 142, and 131; those for 1915 were 9,029, 3,208, 161, and 49; those for 1916 were 9,100, 3,607, 166, and 43; those for 1917 were 9,159, 4,129, 141, and 155; those for 1918 were 11,143, 3,936, 91, and 110; and those for 1919 were 11,404, 3,500, 62, and 109. Therefore, the number of Japanese admitted to the mainland and Hawaii, respectively, in 1919, was about 2 per cent greater for continental United States and about 11 per cent less for Hawaii then the number shown for 1918.
Table B furnishes a means of comparing the immigration and emigration of Japanese in 1918 with that of the past year, by months.
Table C gives in some detail the occupations of Japanese who have entered and left the country during the year, divided roughly into professional, skilled, miscellaneous (which includes common laborers), and those having no occupation (including women and children). The total admitted to the mainland for each of these classes, respectively, is 746, 733, 5,241, and 4,684; to Hawaii, 594, 617, 5,484, and 1,633.
A comparison of the records of Japanese immigration and emigration kept by the bureau with similar records compiled by the Japanese Government is given in Table D. The variation between this and other tables is partially explained by the fact that this table is compiled from records of embarkation and debarkation, while the others relate to entries and departures recorded at United States ports.
Table E shows that during the past year 11,466 Japanese applied for admission to continental United States, of whom 11,404 were admitted and 62 debarred. Of the total number applying, 11,131 were in possession of proper passports and 335 were not. Of the 11,131 holding proper passports, 11,083 were found on examination to belong to the classes entitled by the understanding to receive passports and the remaining 48 not to fall within such classes. The 11,083 entitled to passports consisted of 4,069 former residents, 5,000 parents, wives, and children of residents, 3 settled agriculturists, and 2,011 new arrivals, who were nonlaborers. The 48 in possession of passports, although apparently not entitled thereto, were found to be laborers and not to be former residents, parents, wives, or children of residents, or settled agriculturists. Of the 11,466 applying for admission, 9,443 were males and 2,023 were females. Of those applying for admission on the claim of relationship, 128 were parents, 1,683 were children, and 3,189 were wives of residents. Of the passports presented, 2,223 gave the holders' occupation as of a nonlaboring character, 653 gave such occupation as laboring, and 8,255 failed to state occupation. This table also furnishes other interesting pertinent details regarding the passports and the aliens presenting them, which it is not necessary to emphasize in the text.
Information similar to the above regarding the Territory of Hawaii is supplied by Table F. During the year 3,609 Japanese applied at Honolulu, 3,500 of whom were admitted and 109 debarred. All but 23 of the 3,609 applicants had passports. Of the 3,586 holding passports, 3,494 were entitled thereto under the definitions set forth in the table and 92 were found upon examination not to fall within such definitions. Of the 3,494 entitled to passports, 1,527 were former residents, and 1,967 were parents, wives, or children of residents. The 92 not entitled to passports consisted of 17 laborers and 75 nonlaborers, who were neither former residents nor parents, wives, or children of residents.
Of the total number of Japanese (14,904) shown by Tables E and F to have been admitted to the country during the year, 10,609 were nonlaborers and 4,295 were laborers.
Tables 1 to 8 supply special data regarding aliens of the Chinese race, the collection of which in addition to data concerning aliens of said race compiled under the general law and included in the regular immigration tables) is made necessary by the fact that there is a special law dealing with aliens of said race.
In Table 1 is presented a comparison of the number of Chinese applying for admission during the years 1914 to 1919, inclusive. In the past year 3,340 Chinese were admitted in addition to 5,041 granted transit privilege, as compared with 3,166 in 1918, 4,744 in 1917, 5,193 in 1916, 5,661 in 1915, and 5,773 in 1914, the admissions for the past year having been 5 per cent greater than in 1918, but 30 per cent less than in 1917, 36 per cent less than in 1916, 41 per cent less than in 1915, and 42 per cent less than in 1914. In the past year 172 Chinese were debarred, as against 308 in the preceding year, 321 in 1917, 437 in 1916, 268 in 1915, and 410 in 1914.
In Table 2 will be found a statement of the disposition, preliminary and final, of every application of a Chinese for admission. New applications to the number of 3,429 (exclusive of transits) were made during the year, and 243 were pending from the previous year, a total of 3,672. Of these, 3,272 were admitted at the ports, 64 by the department on appeal, and 4 by the courts, a total of 3,340, while 151 were debarred, 1 died, 1 escaped, and 179 remain pending. The recapitulation by ports given at the bottom of Table 2 shows that 2,203 arrived at San Francisco, 761 at Seattle, 321 at Honolulu, 74 at New York, and 20 at Boston, the balance being scattering cases at
Of the section 6 exempt class, 602 applied for admission. Of this class only 27 were debarred. The applicants were composed of 147 merchants, 395 students, 13 teachers, and 47 travelers. There were also 138 officials who applied. It is also shown by Table 2 that 529
domiciled merchants applied for admission, 26 cases having been pending from the previous year, making a total of 555, of whom 512 were admitted and 28 debarred, while 15 remain pending. Of those claiming to be “minor children of merchants,” 214 entered and 44 were debarred. Of "wives of merchants," 106 applications were considered, 91 being admitted and 3 debarred, while of wives of natives,” 112 applications were considered, in 91 of which admission was ordered and in 5 deportation effected.
Table 3 contains a special discussion of what generally has been called the United States citizen" class, which falls into three general divisions—those of native birth, those born abroad of native-born parents, and foreign-born wives of citizens. Of these "citizens" there were admitted 1,016 (30 per cent of all Chinese entering), of whom 665 belong to the first, 260 to the second, and 91 to the third. In 1918 the corresponding figures were 603, 331, and 132, respectively. The 665 belonging to the first division are segregated further into 15 of whose claimed departure from the United States there was no record (raw natives) and 650 of whose departure there was a record (returning natives). Of the latter, status had been determined previously in 471 and was determined for the first time in 179 cases. Therefore the number of Chinese adjudicated citizens or admitted for the first time on claims of relationship to alleged American citizens was 545, compared with 574 for the previous year, 1,185 for 1917, 1,065 for 1916, 1,017 for 1915, 1,065 for 1914, 1,094 for 1913, 673 for 1912, 614 for 1911, and 1,405 for 1910. In this connection it should be noted from Table 6 that of the Chinese arrested and brought before courts or court commissioners during the past year 50 were discharged, practically all on the claim of birth in the United States. The corresponding figures for 1918, 1917, 1916, 1915, 1914, 1913, 1912, 1911, and 1910 are 68, 63, 162, 168, 122, 117, 108, 156, and 190, respectively. Adding these several sets of figures relating to admissions as United States citizens and wives and children of citizens, it will be observed that the total is 10,441, or an average of 1,044 per year for the 10 years compared.
Table 4 shows that during the past year 136 appeals of Chinese were considered by the department, in 72 of which the decisions of the officers at the ports were sustained and in 64 overruled.
Table 5 presents a concise summary of the granting of return certificates to Chinese residents of this country who applied for the privilege of going abroad with the assurance of prompt admission on return. Applications for these certificates to the number of 1,279 were accepted, divided into 394 natives, 535 exempts and 350 laborers, of which applications the oflicers at the ports of proposed departure granted 1,187 and denied 92. Of those denied, 36 appealed, 11 of the appeals being sustained and 25 dismissed by the bureau. During the year, therefore, return certificates were refused in 81 cases of which 31 were natives, 40 were exempts, and 10 were laborers) and granted in 1,198 cases (363 natives, 495 exempts, and 340 laborers).
Tables 6 and 7 are compiled from statements furnished by United States marshals. During the year 96 Chinese were arrested on judicial warrants, compared with 104 in 1918, 115 in 1917, 212 in 1916, and 296 in 1915. There remained pending from the previous year 127 cases, so that the total number of cases considered was 223. These were disposed of as follows: In 3, the Chinese died, escaped, or for
feited bail; in 50, the court or commissioner ordered defendants' discharge; in 35, deportation was ordered; and 135 cases remain pending
In connection with these tables attention should be directed to Table XVIII, from which it will be observed that during the last fiscal year 31 aliens of the Chinese race were arrested and deported under the immigration law without resort to the provisions of the exclusion laws. Incidentally, these figures explain why there has been a decrease in arrests of Chinese before United States commissioners from 616 in 1912 to 191 in 1913, 225 in 1914, 296 in 1915, 212 in 1916, 115 in 1917, 104 in 1918, and 96 in 1919.
Table 8 furnishes some interesting items of information that can not be furnished conveniently in the same form in the preceding tables.
Chart 1 shows in graphic form the curve of immigration to the United States since 1820, the figures for each year being given.
In Chart 2 is furnished (also by means of graphic curves) a ready means of comparison between the total immigration for the same period (1820 to 1919) and that from the several countries, both by years and for the entire period. This chart reveals much interesting information, but is entirely self-explanatory and requires no comment. (See also "A Century of Immigration,” p. 38.)