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STATISTICS OF IMMIGRATION.

The taoles of immigration statistics here presented are so arranged as to furnish, in convenient form, figures for use by those interested in studying and discussing the statistical side of the immigration problem. The following items of special interest shown by the figures are deserving of particular notice and comment:

In the classification of aliens the terms (1) immigrant and emigrant and (2) nonimmigrant and nonemigrant, respectively, relate (1) to permanent arrivals and departures and (2) to temporary arrivals and departures. In compiling the statistics under this classification the following rule is observed: Arriving aliens whose permanent domicile has been outside the United States who intend to reside permanently in the United States are classed as immigrant aliens; departing aliens whose permanent residence has been in the United States who intend to reside permanently abroad are classed as emigrant aliens; all alien residents of the United States making a temporary trip abroad and all aliens residing abroad making a temporary trip to the United States are classed as nonemigrant aliens on the outward journey and nonimmigrant aliens on the inward.

Table I is a concise statistical summary of the work of the year with the arriving and departing aliens classified in the manner above described and showing also the arriving and departing United States citizens and the number of aliens debarred at the ports and expelled after entering the country. Immigration for the year was 237,021 aliens (141,132 immigrant and 95,889 nonimmigrant), a decrease of 1,166,060 compared with the fiscal year 1914—the immigration for which was 1,403,081, made up of 1,218,480 immigrant and 184,601 nonimmigrant aliens—and an increase of 25,168 as compared with the last fiscal year, when the immigration was 211,853 (110,618 immigrants and 101,235 nonimmigrants). Rejections for the year numbered 8,626 aliens, or 3.5 per cent of the applicants, compared with 7,297, or 3.3 per cent of the applicants, for the preceding year, and with 33,041, or 2.3 per cent of the applicants, for the year 1914. In the past year 3,102 aliens were arrested and expelled from the country, compared with 1,619 for the previous year, an increase of 48 per cent, and with 4,616 for 1914, a decrease of 33 per cent.

cent. But in connection with these figures the showing made in Table XVIII-A for this abnormal year should be considered.

The net increase or decrease of population as the result of immigration and emigration of aliens is shown by Tables II to IV, the fiscal years 1918 and 1919 being compared by months and by countries in Tables II and III and the fiscal year 1918 by races in Table IV. In the past fiscal year 141,132 immigrant aliens and 95,889 nonimmigrant aliens, a total of 237,021, were admitted, and during that period 123,522 emigrant aliens and 92,709 nonemigrant aliens, a total of 216,231, departed from the United States. The net increase in population, therefore, resulting from immigration and emigration of aliens was 20,790 for the year. To make an absolutely correct statement as to increase in population along these lines it is necessary to make a further deduction of 3,574—the number of naturalized

citizens of the l'nited States who emigrated during the year-which leaves an absolute net increase of 17,216. The net increase corresponding with the foregoing for the fiscal year 1918 was 13,965.

Table V furnishes the intended future residence of aliens admitted and the last permanent residence of aliens departed during the fiscal year.

The occupations of aliens entering and leaving the United States are concisely but interestingly presented in Table Vl. Shown separately as immigrant and nonimmigrant, emigrant and nonemigrant aliens, the occupations of those arriving and departing are classified by general divisions-professional, skilled, and miscellaneous. Of common unskilled laborers, 32,284 (18,251 immigrant and 14,033 nonimmigrant) entered and 99,139 (74,114 emigrant and 25,025 nonemigrant) departed. Members of the skilled trades to the number of 46,173 (27,480 immigrant and 18,693 nonimmigrant) arrived and 22,544 (10,990 emigrant and 11,554 nonemigrant) departed. These figures might be compared with those shown in the report for 1918, to wit, 50,232 unskilled laborers arriving (14,659 immigrant and 35,573 nonimmigrant); 75,179 unskilled laborers departing (34,590 emigrant and 40,589 nonemigrant); skilled laborers arriving, 36,035 (21,558 immigrant and 14,477 nonimmigrant); skilled laborers departing, 27,266 (15,939 emigrant and 11,327 nonemigrant). It will be noted that 7,448 "farm laborers" entered in the past year (4,412 immigrant and 3,036 nonimmigrant), and that 1,015 such departed (484 emigrant and 531 nonemigrant), compared with 6,543 (4,538 immigrant and 2,005 nonimmigrant) entering and 1,464 (1,051 emigrant and 413 nonemigrant) departing in the fiscal year 1918.

Tables VII to XII-A are, from a statistical point of view, the most important of all those presented, for they furnish various interesting details concerning immigrant aliens admitted and emigrant aliens departed. In other words, they deal with the true immigrant and the true emigrant. Some of the more important items are deserving of special notice.

Thus, Table VII shows, with respect to the 141,132 immigrant aliens admitted, that 97,341 were between the ages of 16 and 44, 26,373 were under 16; and 17,418 were 45 or over. The corresponding figures for 1918 were 110,618 admitted; 76,098 between 16 and 44; 21,349 under 16; and 13,171 were 45 years of age or over. Of those admitted in 1919, who were 16 or over (of course, under the various special exceptions to the illiteracy test), 2,827 (417 males and 2,410 females) could neither read nor write and 443 (145 males and 298 females) could read but not write, the latter class being admissible under the new law. In the year 1918, 3,512 could neither read nor write, and 260 could read but not write, a total of 3,772, against a total of 3,270 for the past year. In other words, the percentage of immigrant aliens admitted who were unable to read was reduced from 3.2 in 1918 to 2.6 in the past fiscal year.

The total amount of money shown by admitted immigrant aliens to the inspection officers was $15,831,247, or an average of $112 per person. There is of course no way of determining how much of this was money sent to aliens by relatives already located in the United States. Of those admitted, 55,305 showed amounts of less than $50 each, while 68,193 showed $50, or over, each. So that of 123,498 able to demonstrate the possession of funds, over 40 per cent had less than $50 each.

It was claimed by 79,646 of the aliens admitted that they had paid their own passage, while it was conceded by 49,773 that their passage had been paid by relatives, and by 11,713 that theirs had been paid by persons not related to them. These figures, which understate rather than overstate the facts, show that 44 per cent of the aliens admitted were assisted. In 1918 the percentage was 41, in 1917 it was 37, and in 1916 the same figure.

Table VII-A is the counterpart of Table VII. It shows that a total of 123,522 emigrant aliens (101,167 males and 22,355 females) departed during the past year. Of this number 7,352 were less than 16 years old, 86,006 were from 16 to 44, and 30,164 were 45 years of age or over; 60,731 had resided in the United States less than 5 years; 53,579 from 5 to 10 years; 5,610 from 10 to 15 years; 1,677 from 15 to 20 years; and 1,925 over 20 years.

Tables VII-B and VII-o give the conjugal condition of admitted immigrant and departing emigrant aliens, respectively.

Tables VII-D and VII-E relate to departing United States citizens.

Tables VIII to X-A furnish various interesting details regarding immigrant and emigrant aliens and departing citizens. Tables XI and XI-A supply data of interest regarding occupations and States to which going, or from which departing, with respect to immigrant and emigrant aliens, while Table XI-B gives States of destination by ports of admission with respect to immigrant aliens. Tables XII and XII-A present the statistics for the year segregated into different periods. Data of interest regarding nonimmigrant and nonemigrant aliens are supplied in Tables XIII to XIV-A, Tables XV, XV-A, XV-B, XVI, and XVI-A being devoted to comparisons for past years.

The series composed of Tables XVII, XVII-A, XVII-B, and XVIII deals with aliens refused admission and returned from the ports and aliens apprehended within the country and deported. They also deserve detailed comment.

It will be observed from Table XVII that during the year there were turned back at the ports 8,626 aliens, or about 3.5 per cent of the total number applying for admission. The principal grounds on which these rejections occurred are shown in the following comparative statement:

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1 7 29 67

37

4,005

eases

Idiots
16 12 10 18 14 6 5 9

4 Imbeciles.

40 26

44
54
68 27 17 19

5 Feeble-minded persons..

125 126 110 483 995 302 224 224 19 Insanity (including epileptics). 198 144 133 198 197 128 151 146 95 Constitutional psychopathic inferiority;

3 20 Likely to become a public

charge (including paupers,
vagrants, and beggars)... 15,927 12,048 8,182 7,956 15,784 15,596 10,427 7,893 2,836
Afflicted with contagious dis-

3,033 2,735 1,674 2,457 3,143 1,613 1,050 1,383 401
Afflicted with tuberculosis.
95 111 74 107 114 89

106 119 85 Physically or mentally defec

312 3,055 2,288 | 4, 208 6,537 955 | 1,703 | 1,734 315 Chronic alcoholism..

101 24 Criminals

580 644 592 808 755 276 245 257 160 Prostitutes and other immoral aliens..

316 253 263 367 380 291 439 510 161 Procurers of prostitutes.

179 141 192 253

254 192 307 371 88 Contract laborers. 1,786 1,336 1,333 1,6242,793 2,722 2,080

474 Unable to read (over 16 years

391 | 1,598 Alien enemies.

49

331 57

tive

343

10 261

86 46 774

1,116

of age).

1,455

40

Table XVII-A compares, by causes of rejection, aliens debarred during the years 1892 to 1919, inclusive, while Table XVII-B deals with a separate phase of rejections arising from the necessity of sometimes refusing to admit residents of foreign contiguous territory who claim to be coming for temporary purposes, 7,297 such aliens having been excluded in the past year.

Table XVIII covers aliens expelled from the country, divided into the three general classes: “Deportation compulsory within five years,” “Deportation compulsory within three years,” and “Deportation compulsory without time limit.” As no aliens were deported by their own consent during the year under the “three-year clause" of the new immigration act, that heading does not appear in the table. The total number of aliens expelled on departmental warrants was 3,068 compared with 1,569 in 1918. Two thousand five hundred and sixty-one aliens were deported who belonged to the class whose deportation within five years after entry is mandatory, comprised of 2,257 who were members of excluded classes at time of entry, 257 who had become public charges from causes existing prior to entry, and 47 Chinese aliens who were found in the United States in violation of the exclusion laws; of the second class above mentioned, whose deportation within three years after entry may be effected, 183 aliens who had entered the country without inspection were deported; and of the third class, whose deportation is compulsory without time limit, there were expelled 324 aliens, 162 of whom were of the sexually immoral class, 35 were anarchists, and 127 criminals.

Table XVIII-A, the insertion of which in this report is again made necessary by war conditions, shows the number of aliens ordered expelled from the country, a total of 637, whose actual deportation has been deferred until opportunity arises to return them to their former homes under proper circumstances. This table is also classified by races and causes for deportation. From these tables it will be observed that orders of deportation have been issued by the department in 3,705 cases.

Tables XIX and XIX-A show the appeals, applications for admission under bond, applications for hospital treatment, and applications for admission until termination of the war. Appeals from excluding decisions to the number of 4,121 were reviewed by the bureau and submitted to the department for final decision. "Of the aliens involved, 729 were admitted outright, 157 admitted permanently on bonds, and 3,109 ordered deported by affirming the decision of the board of special inquiry. Dissenting board members took 19 appeals from admitting decisions. Of the aliens involved in these, 4 were admitted outright and 15 deported. Direct applications for admission under bond were made in 33 instances, the cases not being technically appealable, 25 of which applications were granted and 8 denied. There were 43 applications for hospital treatment, of which 36 were granted and 7 were refused. Also, there were 3 applications for transit privileges, all of which were granted, 1 applicant, in addition, having been admitted for the duration of the war. One hundred and twenty-six aliens were admitted for temporary purposes, with respect to 77 of whom bonds were required.

Table XX shows the number of alien seamen reported by masters of vessels to have deserted in ports of the United States during the year; 3,388 of such seamen deserted, as compared with 4,756 for the preceding year.

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