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some cases its interpretation is doubtful.15 The memory of Congress may thus be practically perverted.

On larger lines one rather feels that, with the possible exception of party matters, there has not been sufficient appreciation of the evolution of things. Had Congress possessed a knowledge of the scope of regulatory acts and discussions prior to the act of 1887 it might have acted with more assurance and effectiveness. When it was remarked above that fragmentary regulation prepared the way for the general, no close connection between the two was meant. Congressmen did not-perhaps could notbring together, analyze, and synthetize all action pertaining to the subject.

It is believed that Congress has worked with fair consistency in the railway field; simply history shows that there is danger of forgetting, of losing the light of the past, and it should be the duty of congressmen to familiarize themselves with the earlier developments in the more important lines of legislation with which they are dealing. This is surely essential to the most efficient legislation, and here lies a practical reason for a congressional history of railways.

15 Above, e. g., p. 36.

GENERAL INDEX

Accessory Transit Co., 145.

Congress, Efficient of its railway control,
Accidents, 314 f.

325.
Accounts, Auditor of, 105.

Continuous line, 111, 284, 289.
Adams, C. F., cited, 256 ; quoted, 315. Contract, Inviolability of, 101, 131, 216,
Aid. (See Government Aid.)

277.
Anthracite coal industry, discrimination Construction companies prevented, 123.
in, 287.

Cooke, Jay, 144.
Anti-monopoly Party, 26.

Corporations, 18, 19, 21, 25, 29, 40, 57,
Ashmun, Geo., 41.

100, 176, 197, 242, 246, 258, 324.
Asia, Trade with, 150, 153.

Corruption, 18, 131, 241.
Attorneys, Bills to prohibit congressmen Courts vs. commission, 292, 307 f.
acting as railway, 154 note.

Credit Mobilier, 88.
Auditor of railway accounts, 105.

Crisis of 1857, 17, 18 and note, 60.
Crises and depressions, 17, 39, 60, 118,

119, 126, 149, 283.
Barry, Postmaster-general, 201.

Cruelty to Animals, Act to prevent, 264
Bessemer process, 45.

note.
Boody, Azariah, 41.

Cullom Bill, 290 f.
Boutwell, 87.
Brakes, 315, 316.

Davis, Jefferson, 56.
Bridges, Chap. xviii; construction regu- Davis, The Union Pacific Railway, cited,
lated, 232; toll regulated, 234.

83.
Buchanan, Pres., 59.

Deeds of cession, 15.
Bureau of national railways, 162.

Delano, Secretary, 31.
Democratic party, 18, 21, 57, 58, 197,

278.
Canals, 241, 249. (See Waterways.) Dewey, D. R., cited, 171.
Case, S. P., 160.

Discrimination, 109 f., 234, 241, 283,
Charter:

285 f., 305.
Digest of Pacific railway, 152 ;

District of Columbia, Regulation in,
Text of Southern Pacific, 134; of 192 ff.

Union Pacific, 65 ;
Meaning of "alter, amend, or repeal,"
97, 100, 131, 197, 216.

Eads, Mr., 148.
Civil War, 81, 151, 156, 230, 240.

Eastern States, 209. (See West, The.)
Coal Lands, 83, 110 and foot-note.

Edwards, Abraham, 26.
"Commerce" not limited to navigation, English, Prejudice against, 46, 217.
212, 271, 275.

Entry, Lands withdrawn from, 29; bona
Commerce clause, 269 fr. (See also in fide by settlers, 33.
terstate Commerce.)

Erie Canal, 241, 248.
Commission, Interstate Commerce, 307 f. Eveners, Association of, 267.
Common carriers, 208.

Expropriation, 63.
Common law vs. statutory regulation, Extension of time, on land grants, 14, 22,
284, 285.

80.
Competition, 112, 206, 235, 258, 260, 303,
310.

Fares, see Rates, extortionate.

Fillmore, President, 145.

Interior department, 24, 29, 31, 89, 132,
Financial conditions and Congress' atti- 133.

tude toward railways. (See Govern Internal improvements, 15, 50, 160.
ment Aid, condition of treasury Interoceanic Ship Railway, 148.
and)

Interstate Commerce, 179 f., 191, 195,
Freight railways, 249.

216, 218, 221, 237, 238, 244, 245,

263, 268.
Interstate Commerce Act, 9, 212, 255,

268, 290 f., 299 a., 323.
Gadsden Purchase, 114.

Interstate Communication, Bill to facili-
Garay, Jose de, 146.
Gauge, 59, 63, 117, 124, 254.

tate, passed, 224.

Investments, Railways as private, 18
Gould, Jay, 112.

note, 60.
Government aid, Chapters ji-v.

Iron, Railway, 39 tr.
Aid policy, evolution of, 323 ;

Growth of American manufactures, 39;
Bonds, 53, 58, 61, 62, 64, 84 ; interest

Import duties on, 39; and the protect-
payment disputes, 85 ff., 125 ;

ive tariff, 42;
Causes regulation, 34 ff.

Price of rails, 40.
Condition of treasury and, 40, 55, 57,

Isthmian railway developments, 145.
81 ;
Survey, appropriation for, 54.
Government construction proposed, 157. Jackson, President, 201,
Government control, see Regulation ;

gov't controlled ry. proposed, 161. Know-nothing Party, 57.
Government ownership, 9, 154, 311.
Grades and rates, 251.

Labor :
Grain traffic, 241, 248.

And regulation for safety, 316;
Granger movement, 22, 29, 81, 189 note,

And tariff on iron, 45 ;
240 ff.

Employes' votes influenced, 107 :
Grant, President, 264.

Proposal to enlist under military dis-

cipline, 63 ;

Scarcity of, 57; immigration and, 57,
Hadley, A. T., cited, 301, 309 note.
Hargous, P. A., 146.

Versus capital, 244, 286.
Homestead idea, 29.

Laisser faire, 226, 284.
Homestead settlers on railway grants, Land grants, chapters ii-iv:
30 : act to confirm homestead entries, Abuses in administration, 26 f.;
31.

End of the land-grant policy, 20, 81 ;
Hours of service, first proposition to Extension of time, 14 ;
limit, 317.

Forfeiture of, 14, 23, 133;
Howe, F. C., cited, 177.

Mileage of land-grant railways, 14;
Huntington, 107, 119, 129.

Pre-emption, 31 ;
Proprietor idea, 16, 150;

Rights of way, 20;
Illinois Central. (See Index of rail- Taxation of, railways elude, 181.
ways.)

Land-grant railways, list of, receiving
Immigrants, regulation of transportation grants direct, 19; transportation of
of proposed, 265.

mails, troops, etc., upon, 34 ff., 211.
Incorporation, numerous special bills, “Land states," 15.

187; in District of Columbia, 194 ; Legislation, Railways influence, 107.
of bridge company, 237; federal, Lincoln, President, 157.
proposed, 273.

Livestock traffic, 260 f.; evils in. 261,
Incorporate, Territories forbidden

266 f.; rates, 260 note; shrinkage,
186; authorized to, 186.

267.
Increasing retums, 310.

Lobby, 47, 107.
Indian titles, extinguishment of, 56, 117. | Long-and-short-haul clause, 194, 289,
Infation, 240.

292, 300, 303, 304 f.

63;

to,

McCrary Bill, 255, 283.

Preemption Act, 31.
Mail service, chapter xvi:

Preemption rights. (See Land-grants.)
Land grants and, 16, 49, 56, 59, 60; Prentice, E. P., 212.
On land-grant railways 211 ;

President authorized to take and operate
Regulation, 201, 203, 205 f., 317;

railways, 157.
Special facilities, 210;

Pro-rating, 111, 196, 224, 236.
Unsatisfactory conditions in, 204. Public defense, Railways and, (See Mili-
Mexico, trade with, 125, 150.

tary relations).
Military relations, chapters xiii, 216, Publicity of rates, 300.

223 ; land grants and, 16, 34 f., 59,

60, 125, 149, 168.
Monopoly, 21, 46, 110, 113, 197, 214 f., Rails. (See Track.)

220 1., 230, 244, 245, 247, 257, 286. Railway :
Morrill Act, 44.

Construction, 17, 39, 269.
Double track freight, 249 f., 233.

Periods in history of, 8, chapter XXV.
Narrow gauge fad, 254 f.

versus canals, 246, 253,
National Party, 26.

Rates :
Nationalism, 162 f.

Charter limitations, 108.
Net earnings, definition of, 91, 99; Cost and, 49, 237, 251, 310, 311.
amount of Pacific railway, 92.

Extortionate, 82, 108, 159, 164, 219,
New States, 15, 16, 43.

234, 243, 245.
Newcomb, Dr., 52.

Not taxes, 311.
North, The, 60.

Regulation of, 117, 124, 190, 195, 196,

234, 255, 292.

Reagan Bill, 288, 293.
Old States, 16, 43.

Rebates, 109 f.
Overcapitalization, 112, 309.

Regulation, 7, chapters XIII-XXIV,

321 f.

In territories, 184 f.
Pacific Mail Company, 112, 130, 139.

Post roads clause, 212.
Pacific railways, chapters vi-xii;

Reports from subsidized roads, 106.
Charters, 152;

Under commerce clause, 224, 232 f.,
Corruption, 81 ;

262, 290.
Government ownership, 57, 151 ;

Under free-from-toll clause, 35.
Investigation by commission : 1887, Republican party, 21, 26, 59, 62.
106;

Rights of way. (See Land-grants.)
Objects of, 151 ;

Ringwalt, cited, 215, 230, 254.
Opposition to, 25, 81 ;

Rolling stock, southern indebtedness for,
Repayment of bond subsidies, 84 ff.; after war, 165.
sinking funds, 94 ff.;

Routes, Pacific Railway, 49 f., 55, 61 f.
Southern route, 50 f., 114 ;

Roosevelt, President, 208.
When completed, 81, 90.
Pacific Ship Railway, 148.
Passes, 107.

Safety, Efforts to secure laws for, 313 f.
People's Pacific Railway Company, 61. Sanford, J. B., cited, 15, 16.
Petroleum Industry, discrimination in, Sectionalism, 43, 50 ff., 60, 230, 244.
286.

Settlers, 22, 30 ff.
Pierce, President, 17, 147, 184.

Sinking funds, 194 f.; for Pacific rall-
Pooling, 112, 137 f., 267 note, 287, 299,

ways, 94 f.
302 1.

Slave states, 61.
Poor, H. V., 41.

Smalley, cited, 142.
Postoffice cars, 206.

Soldiers' bounty lands, 19, 29.
Post roads clause of the Constitution, South, The, 15, 16, 17, 43, 60, 124, 150.
208, 212, 216, 220.

Southern railways, Indebtedness of, after
Post routes, completed parts of railways the war, 165 t.
made, 202.

Southern Pacific Company, 129.

South Improvement Company, 286. Taxation, chapter xiv—continued.
Spearman, cited, 225.

State taxes and high rates, 179 ;
Speculation, 18 f., 21, 304.

To be borne by travellers, 172, 175 ;
Stanford, Leland, 107, 119, 129.

Wage certificates, 181.
Standard Oil Company, 287, 288.

Territories, regulation in, 184 ; territorial
States :

subsidies, 191.
Federal regulation preferred by rail. Thurman act, 98.
ways, 291;

Toll, on land-grant railways, 34 ff.; 13.
Fiscal purposes, high rates made for, transportation charge, 36.
179;

Track, 252, 253, 255.
Laws, Congress authorizes bridge con. Transcontinental traffic, pools and dis-
trary to, 236;

crimination in, 112, 139, 287 f.
Monopoly, 214 f. ;

Trunk Lines, 244, 256.
Regulation, weakness of, 278, 284. Twenty-eight hour law, The first, 264
States' rights, 19, 162, 176, 217 f., 220, note.

226, 245, 261 f., 270 ff.
Steel, replaces iron for rails, 45.
Stock issues, of Pacific railways, regu-

Union, railways and the, 150.
lated, 63, 64, 95, 123, 152; other
railways, 195, 199.

Vested rights, 98, 100 f., 216, 257, 284.
Strict construction, 15, and see States' Vinton, S. F., 41.

rights.
Stryker, John, 41.

Walker, Robt, J., 52.
Subscription by District of Columbia au- Washington, Poor railway facilities at,
thorized, 198.

164.
Water transportation, 246, 249, 292, 300.

Webster, Daniel, 146.
Tariff, and railway regulation, 178; on West, The, 43, 158, 209, 240, 259.
railway iron, 39 ff.

Whig Party, 58.
Taxation, chapter xiv:

White, H. K., cited, 85.
of gross passenger revenue, 172; Whitney, Asa, 49.
or total gross revenue, 176 ;

Wilson, N. L., 41.

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