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of Cultural Affairs of the U.S. High Commissioner for Germany, would serve as Acting Administrator of the Cooperative State Experiment Station Service. Dr. H. C. Knoblauch was named Deputy Administrator. Dr. E. C. Elting continued in the Agricultural Research Service as Deputy Administrator for Research Planning and Coordination.
The close administrative working relationships between the directors and USDA has served as the keystone of the arch of effective, whole-hearted cooperation. Although the name of the Office of Experiment Stations was changed, following departmental reorganization in 1953, to that of State Experiment Stations Division, Agricultural Research Service, and again in September 1961 to that of Cooperative State Experiment Station Service, the pattern and spirit of realistic cooperation endures.
The above objective review of the administrative relationships and formal and informal cooperation between the stations and the Department of Agriculture leaves no doubt that the cooperative mechanisms that have evolved have been a major force in stimulating productive research that has served the country well.
(1) ALLEN, E. W. [Secretary). 1919. REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON EXPERIMENT STATION ORGANIZATION AND
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Founders of the agricultural experiment stations recognized from the beginning that informational processes played a vital part in the administration of scientific research. Publications were regarded as the lifeblood of effective coordination. The theory under which the early directors launched their stations was that the needs of agriculture required application of those principles basic to the pursuit of all science, namely, the ascertainment of fact, the grouping of facts to show the laws under which they operate, and verification. In addition the directors knew, as Johnson and Atwater had learned in the school of practical experience, that dissemination of facts, as these emerged from research and proved practical, was highly important if the stations were to serve as continuing instruments of farm improvement.
No subject was more frequently discussed by the early experiment station leaders than publications. Nor has there been any other subject in which cooperation between the stations and the Department began earlier or proved more enduring. Publications and communications were prominent in the proceedings of that first Convention of Delegates from Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Stations, called by Commissioner Colman in 1885 (6, pp. 90-104). The Convention urged creation of a bureau of public information and exchanges in the Department. “The subject of publications," said ESCOP's report in 1917, devoted entirely to publications (4), “their kind and character, is as old as the experiment stations."
Publication matters early divided themselves into two principal problems. As institutions that could not survive without public support, communication with the main supporting group of the general public, the farmers, was essential. To communicate with scientists at the various stations, and with other members of the scientific community, there soon emerged also a need for the precise, carefully documented kind of publication later to be known as the technical bulletin. The philosophy of the earliest directors regarding the popular type of publication was expressed in the following words by E. Lewis Sturtevant, pioneer director of the New York Agricultural Experiment Station (Geneva) (26) in his first annual report of 1883:
The province of an agricultural experiment station is not so much the discovery of new facts as it is the testing of applications and the theory of relations. Its ultimate object is to give expression to values which shall assist the farmer in the largest sense in meeting and overcoming the various obstacles which arise in the practice of his pursuit .... The duties of an agricultural experiment
* Italic numbers in parentheses refer to Literature Cited, p. 155.