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of Cultural Affairs of the U.S. High Commissioner for Germany, would serve as Acting Administrator of the Cooperative State Experiment Station Service. Dr. H. C. Knoblauch was named Deputy Administrator. Dr. E. C. Elting continued in the Agricultural Research Service as Deputy Administrator for Research Planning and Coordination.

The close administrative working relationships between the directors and USDA has served as the keystone of the arch of effective, whole-hearted cooperation. Although the name of the Office of Experiment Stations was changed, following departmental reorganization in 1953, to that of State Experiment Stations Division, Agricultural Research Service, and again in September 1961 to that of Cooperative State Experiment Station Service, the pattern and spirit of realistic cooperation endures.

The above objective review of the administrative relationships and formal and informal cooperation between the stations and the Department of Agriculture leaves no doubt that the cooperative mechanisms that have evolved have been a major force in stimulating productive research that has served the country well.

LITERATURE CITED

(1) ALLEN, E. W. [Secretary). 1919. REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON EXPERIMENT STATION ORGANIZATION AND

POLICY. Assoc. Amer. Agr. Cols. and Expt. Stas. Proc. 32: 114-120.

(2)

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1930. MEMORIAL TO DR. A. C. TRUE. Assoc. Land-Grant Cols. Proc. (1929)

43: 41-45. (3) ASSOCIATION OF AMERICAN LAND-GRANT COLLEGES AND EXPERIMENT

STATIONS.
1908.

23 pp.

REPORT OF COMMISSION ON AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH. (4) BRYAN, E. A. 1900. [MOTION TO APPOINT A COMMITTEE ON COOPERATIVE WORK BETWEEN

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AND EXPERIMENT STATIONS.]

Assoc. Amer. Agr. Cols. and Expt. Stas. Proc. (1889) 13: 55. (5) 1901. REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON COOPERATIVE WORK BETWEEN THE DEPART

MENT OF AGRICULTURE AND EXPERIMENT STATIONS. Assoc. Amer.

Agr. Cols. and Expt. Stas. Proc. (1900) 14: 58–59. (6) CONOVER, MILTON. 1924. THE OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS ; ITS HISTORY, ACTIVITIES AND ORGANIZATION.

178 pp.

The Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore. (Inst. Govt. Research, Serv. Monog., U.S. Govt. 32.) (7) DAVENPORT, E., Chairman. 1915.

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON EXPERIMENT STATION ORGANIZATION AND

POLICY. Assoc. Amer. Agr. Cols. and Expt. Stas. Proc. 29: 123–125. (8) 1918. REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON EXPERIMENT STATION ORGANIZATION

AND POLICY. Assoc. Amer. Agr. Cols. and Expt. Stas. Proc. (1917)

31: 37-43. (9) 1922. REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON STATION ORGANIZATION AND POLICY.

Assoc. Land-Grant Cols. Proc. (1921) 35 : 178–184. (10) EDDY, E. D. Jr. 1956.

COLLEGES FOR OUR LAND AND TIME. 328 pp. Harper & Bros., New

York. (11) EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OF THE ASSOCIATION. 1907. SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION UNDER GOVERNMENT AUSPICES. (AP

pointment of Committee and Discussion.) Assoc. Amer. Agr. Cols. and Expt. Stas. Proc. (1906) 20: 61–68.

634244 0 - 62 - 12

(12) EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OF THE ASSOCIATION.

1914. RECOMMENDATION (AND ADOPTION BY CONVENTION) FOR APPOINT

MENT OF COMMITTEE ON RELATIONS, COMMITTEE ON PROJECTS, AND
COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATIONS. Assoc. Amer. Agr. Cols. and Expt.

Stas. Proc. (1913) 27 : 115. (13) 1924. RECOMMENDATION AND ADOPTION BY THE CONVENTION OF REPORT OF

COMMITTEE ON EXPERIMENT STATION ORGANIZATION AND POLICY.

Assoc. Land-Grant Cols. (1923) Proc. 37: 483-484. (14) 1941. PROCEEDINGS OF THE FIRST ANNUAL CONVENTION (1887) OF THE

ASSOCIATION OF AMERICAN AGRICULTURAL COLLEGES AND EXPERIMENT
STATIONS, 6 PP. (Note: No account of this convention was printed
originally. However, a manuscript summary by C. E. Thorne,
Secretary of the Convention, which was filed in the Office of
Experiment Stations, was ordered printed by the Executive

Committee of the Association on May 5, 1951.) (15) 1954. POSITION OF THE ASSOCIATION ON STATUS OF THE OFFICE OF EXPERI

MENT STATIONS, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. Assoc. Land

Grant Cols. and Univs. Proc. 68:116-117. (16) 1955. STATUS OF OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF

AGRICULTURE. Amer. Assoc. Land-Grant Cols. and State Univs.

Proc. 69: 130–131. (17) FLETCHER, S. W., Chairman. 1932. REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON FEDERAL-STATE RELATIONS IN [AGRI

CULTURAL RESEARCH. Assoc. Land-Grant Cols. Proc. (1931) 45:

266, 514-522. (18)

1933. REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON FEDERAL-STATE RELATIONS IN AGRICUL

TURAL RESEARCH. Assoc. Land-Grant Col., Proc. (1932) 46 :

279–280. (19) FLETCHER, S. W. 1937. THE MAJOR RESEARCH ACHIEVEMENTS MADE POSSIBLE THROUGH

GRANTS UNDER THE HATCH ACT. Assoc. Land-Grant Cols. and

Univs. Proc. 51:136-144. (20) HILLS, J. L. 1929. THE BUILDERS OF THE ASSOCIATION (PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS). Assoc.

Land-Grant Cols. Proc. (1928) 42:24 33. (21) 1930. MINUTE CONCERNING THE LATE DR. EDWIN WEST ALLEN. Assoc.

Land-Grant Cols. Proc. (1929) 43: 45–47. (22) HOUSTON, D. F.

1915. ADDRESS OF WELCOME. Assoc. Amer. Agr. Cols. and Expt. Stas.

Proc. (1914) 28: 20–23. (23) JORDAN, D. S., Chairman. 1909. REPORT OF THE COMMISSION ON AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH. Assoc.

Amer. Agr. Cols, and Expt. Stas. Proc. (1908) 22: 38. (24) KLEIN, A. J. 1931. REPORT ON SURVEY OF LAND-GRANT INSTITUTIONS. Assoc. Land

Grant Cols. Proc. (1930) 44: 72–79. (25) MUMFORD, F. B. 1915. REPORT OF JOINT COMMITTEE ON PROJECTS AND CORRELATIONS. Assoc.

Amer. Agr. Cols. and Expt. Stas. Proc. (1914) 28: 109–115. (26) MUMFORD, F. B., Chairman. 1930. REPORT OF THE JOINT COMMITTEE ON PROJECTS AND CORRELATION OF

RESEARCH. Assoc. Land-Grant Cols. Proc. (1929) 43: 202–205. (27) PUGSLEY, C. W. 1923. ADDRESS OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETABY OF AGRICULTURE. Assoc.

Land-Grant Cols. Proc. (1922) 36 : 209–218. (28) RUSK, H. B., Chairman. 1949. TASK FORCE REPORT ON AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES FOR THE COM

MISSION ON ORGANIZATION OF THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH OF THE GOV-
ERNMENT. Appendix M:7–11.

(29) Shaw, B. T.

1958. DEVELOPMENT OF RESEARCH FACILITIES AND THE ROLE OF REGIONAL

LABORATORIES IN STATE AND FEDERAL PROGRAMS. (Abstract.)
Amer. Assoc. Land-Grant Cols. and State Univs. Proc. 72: 166–

167.
(30) TALBOTT, M. W., AND CRONEMILLER, F. P.

1961. SOME BEGINNINGS IN RANGE MANAGEMENT. Jour. Range Manage

ment 14(2): 95–101. (31) THATCHER, R. W., Chairman. 1924. PUBLISHING THE FINANCIAL RESOURCES OF THE STATION. (In

Report of Committee on Organization and Policy.) Assoc.

Land-Grant Cols. Proc. (1923) 37: 225–228. (32) TRUE, A. C. 1896. REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR OF THE OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS

FOR 1896 TO HON. STERLING MORTON, SECRETARY. U.S. Dept. Agr.,

Off. Expt. Sta. Ann. Rpt., 143 pp. (33) 1900. STATEMENT REGARDING COOPERATION BETWEEN THE STATIONS AND

THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. Assoc. Amer. Agr. Cols.,

and Expt. Stas. Proc. (1889) 13: 52–53. (34) 1900. A REPORT ON THE WORK AND EXPENDITURES OF THE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS FOR THE YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1889.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Off. Expt. Sta. Bul. 83:7. (35) TRUE, A. C.

1915. PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. Assoc. Amer. Agr. Cols. and Expt. Stas.

Proc. (1914) 28: 92–93. (36) 1937. A HISTORY OF AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENTATION AND RESEARCH IN

THE UNITED STATES, 1607-1925. U.S. Dept. Agr., Misc. Pub. 261:

216, 251. (37) TRULLINGER, R. W. 1937. THE POLICIES AND PROCEDURE INVOLVED IN THE HATCH ACT FROM

THE STANDPOINT OF EFFICIENCY IN ADMINISTERING PRODUCTIVE

RESEARCH. Assoc. Land-Grant Cols. Proc. 51: 144-147. (38) U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 1946. FEDERAL LEGISLATION, REGULATIONS, AND RULINGS AFFECTING CO

OPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Misc. Pub. 285, 61 pp. (39) WALKER, E. A. 1960. REORGANIZATION FOR PROGRESS. Amer. Assoc. Land-Grant Cols.

and State Univs. Proc. 74: 41–48. (40) WALLACE, H. C. 1923. ADDRESS OF THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE. Assoc. Land-Grant

Cols. Proc (1922) 36: 20–26. (41) 1924. THE DEPARTMENT AND THE COLLEGES (ADDRESS BEFORE THE CON

VENTION. Assoc. Land-Grant Cols. Proc 37: 43-49. (42) WEBBER, H. J. 1921. PROBLEMS OF AGRICULTURAL INVESTIGATION. Assoc. Land-Grant

Cols. Proc. 34: 149–158.

Chapter Eight-
PUBLISHING RESULTS OF

RESEARCH:
Information, Communications,
and Public Relations

Founders of the agricultural experiment stations recognized from the beginning that informational processes played a vital part in the administration of scientific research. Publications were regarded as the lifeblood of effective coordination. The theory under which the early directors launched their stations was that the needs of agriculture required application of those principles basic to the pursuit of all science, namely, the ascertainment of fact, the grouping of facts to show the laws under which they operate, and verification. In addition the directors knew, as Johnson and Atwater had learned in the school of practical experience, that dissemination of facts, as these emerged from research and proved practical, was highly important if the stations were to serve as continuing instruments of farm improvement.

No subject was more frequently discussed by the early experiment station leaders than publications. Nor has there been any other subject in which cooperation between the stations and the Department began earlier or proved more enduring. Publications and communications were prominent in the proceedings of that first Convention of Delegates from Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Stations, called by Commissioner Colman in 1885 (6, pp. 90-104). The Convention urged creation of a bureau of public information and exchanges in the Department. “The subject of publications," said ESCOP's report in 1917, devoted entirely to publications (4), “their kind and character, is as old as the experiment stations."

Publication matters early divided themselves into two principal problems. As institutions that could not survive without public support, communication with the main supporting group of the general public, the farmers, was essential. To communicate with scientists at the various stations, and with other members of the scientific community, there soon emerged also a need for the precise, carefully documented kind of publication later to be known as the technical bulletin. The philosophy of the earliest directors regarding the popular type of publication was expressed in the following words by E. Lewis Sturtevant, pioneer director of the New York Agricultural Experiment Station (Geneva) (26) in his first annual report of 1883:

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The province of an agricultural experiment station is not so much the discovery of new facts as it is the testing of applications and the theory of relations. Its ultimate object is to give expression to values which shall assist the farmer in the largest sense in meeting and overcoming the various obstacles which arise in the practice of his pursuit .... The duties of an agricultural experiment

* Italic numbers in parentheses refer to Literature Cited, p. 155.

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