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Jowett was extremely intelligent. But it quite outran his scholarship and sometimes his patience in the quest for truth. As happens to all men of this type, a well turned sentence to him almost proved itself. “Could I write as well as Renan?" he somewhere asks. In his teaching, we are told, he was satisfied with no interpretation that could not be expressed in perfect English. This would be an admirable counsel of perfection for our slovenly American class-rooms. But the scholar who adopts it will be under constant temptation to ignore niceities of thought that do not easily fit the traditional forms of classic and idiomatic English. And he will be reluctant to sacrifice in the interests of truth and precision any happy phrase that has once occurred to him. This quality of Jowett's mind, even more than the limitations of his scholarship, makes it not quite safe to use his admirable translations even in the definitive third edition for any argumentative or critical purpose. And it is to this that is due the inconclusiveness as well as the charm of many of the essays.

Jowett, in short, was not in the technical sense of the words a great scholar. His early proficiency won him prizes and a fellowship. His Latin prose was much admired in the years of his tutorship, and he read the Greek classics freely all his life. But he never made or desired to make any original contributions to human knowledge. He was not only distrustful of conjectural text emendation, but he took no interest in the main task which philological science has set itself, the filling up by patient induction and combinatory reasoning of the gaps in our imperfect tradition of classical antiquity. To a student who quoted a German dissertation and spoke of the present state of the question he replied impatiently, "There is no present state of the question—the question is where it was twenty years ago." Of a man deeply versed in the commentators on Aristotle, he said: “That sort of learning is a great power if a man can only keep his mind above it.” Bentley, he thought, had injured English scholarship. For he kept bad com

pany and knew the scholiasts and secondary writers better than he did the supreme classics. In fine Jowett viewed the classics solely from the standpoint of "culture"-the limited culture and discipline of undergraduates and the general reader. “The time for minute criticism on the classics or on most of them has passed,” he wrote to a friend. “I want to get them turned into English classics and sent far and wide through the world.” That is as if one should say: “The time for minute investigations in science is past. I want to get good popular handbooks written that will diffuse our present knowledge far and wide through the world.” A man may and must limit his own life-work,—he cannot set bounds to the high curiosities of the human spirit. For the American (undergraduate) college, Jowett's ideal of culture should be dominant, and it is a gospel which needs to be preached in correction of the excesses of the German invasion, and the premature obtrusion of university methods on unprepared minds. But we need not, for this reason, ally ourselves to the sentimentalists who declaim against that indispensable instrument of higher philosophical training, the doctoral dissertation, and would limit the function of the university professor to imparting "inspiration" and teaching the "spirit" of literature by brilliant essays and eloquent outpourings of soul. There is a time for all things—a time to gush, a time to construe, and a time and place for minute scholarly research.

BIBLIOGRAPHY.

SHROPSHIRE: J. A. Symonds, Sir Philip Sidney, (English Men of Letters Series). Shakespeare, Henry IV, Part I. (for the Battle of Shrewsbury.) Thomas Gray, The Bard, (for the Conquest of Wales. W. W. Skeat, Verse: A Tale of Ludlow Castle (London, 1866). A. E. Housman, A Shropshire Lad (Lane, N. Y., 1897), Autobiography of Edward, Lord Herbert of Cherbury.

HEREFORDSHIRE: Christopher Marlowe: Edward II. (for Roger de Mortimer). Thomas Traherne, The Poetical Works of Thomas Traherne, Ed. by Bertram Dobell (London, 1906). Elizabeth Barrett Browning: The Lost Bower, Hector in the Garden, Wine of Cyprus. The Cathedrals of Hereford, Worcester, and Gloucester. (Bell's Cathedral Series.) Alexander Pope, Moral Essays: Epistle III. (for The Man of Ross).

MONMOUTHSHIRE : Wordsworth's poem on Tintern Abbey. George MacDonald, St. George and St. Michael (for Charles I at Raglan Castle). Shakespeare, Henry V. (for Nonmouth and Welsh Associations). Geoffrey of Monmouth, History of the Britons (Bohn Library). Henry James, Portraits of Places, Chapter I, in Monmouthshire.

WORCESTERSHIRE: W. S. Symonds, Hanley Castle, an Episode of the Civil Wars and the Battle of Worcester. S. Baring-Gould, Nebo the Nailer (a Romance of Industrial Worcestershire). Florence Converse, Long. Will (a Romance of Langland, with scenes on the Malvern Hills). Wordsworth's Sonnet: A Gravestone upon the Floor in the Cloisters of Worcester Cathedral. Shakespeare, King John.

GLOUCESTERSHIRE: W. S. Symonds, Malvern Chase (an Episode of the Wars of the Roses and the Battle Tewkesbury). Shakespeare, Henry VI, Parts II and III, and Richard III (for thc Wars of the Roses and the Death of Clarence). Dinah Mulock Craik, John Halifax, Gentleman.

REVIEW QUESTIONS. 1. What counties of the Severn basin lie close to the Welsh border? 2. What rivers of this region form tributaries to the Usk? 3. What is the situation of Shrewsbury? 4.. What noted personages are associated with it? 5. What remains of the old city of Uriconium? 6. How are we reminded at Wroxeter of the Roman occupation, 7. What victory is commemorated by Battlefield Church? 8. What traditions of the Mortimers belong to Ludlow Castle ? 9. What young princes spent their childhood here? IO. What famous woman is buried in the church of St. Lawrence? II. What two works of literature have added to the fame of Ludlow Castle? 12. What family once ruled at Wigmore Castle? 13. What is the story of Brampton-Bryan Castle? 14. What traces of AngloSaxon days are to be found in this region ? 15. What virtues are attributed to the "Man of Ross?" 16. Who was Goeffrey of Monmouth? 17. What is the history of Tintern Abbey? 18. With what famous name is Chepstow associated ? 19. What is the character of West Monmouth? 20. What famous poem belongs to the Malvern Hills ? 21. Describe the view from these hills. 22. What ruined abbeys here are a reminder of the Middle Ages ? 23. What claims to distinction had Layamon? 24. What historic associations has Worcester? 25. What tragic interest has Tewkesbury Abbey? 26. What modern author had added fame to the town? 27. What are the chief attractions of Gloucester ?

SEARCH QUESTIONS. 1. Who was Thomas Fuller? 2. For what is Jeremy Taylor remembered? 3. With what period of English Literature is Shenstone associated? 4. Who was Richard Baxter? 5. What was Domesday Book? 6. Who was Caractacus ? 7. What English play and poems commemorate the British Queen Boadicaea? 8. Who was Sir Scudamour?

End of May Required Reading, pages 145-216.

By Owen R. Lovejoy Assistant Secretary of the National Child Labor Committee.

“The untimely labour of the night, and the protracted labour of the day, with respect to children, not only tends to diminish future expectations as to the general sum of life and industry, by impairing the strength and destroying the vital stamina of the rising generation, but it too often gives encouragement to idleness, extravagance and profligacy in the parents, who, contrary to the law of nature, subsist by the oppression of their offspring.”

Thus wrote Dr. Percival in a series of resolutions he laid before the newly formed Manchester Board of Health one hundred and eleven years ago. The resolutions were written for the purpose of urging governmental regulation of the cotton mills, those great industrial institutions destined to make Manchester famous the world over. The resolutions also expressed the belief that "we shall have the support of the liberal proprietors of these factories in proposing an application for parliamentary aid ... to establish a general system of laws for the wise, humane and equal government of all such works.”

These resolutions may fittingly stand as the prophecy of better things which England, through a full century, and by halting and feeble steps, has been attempting to fulfil.

Factory employment was then a new phase, a form of commercial activity destined to drive the so-called "home industries” ever farther from their dormant position until they should finally degenerate (at least in large cities) into the tenement sweatshops so familiar today. It must not be supposed, however, that even then home industries were uniformly well conducted or that children were free from

*This is the fifth in a series of special articles upon English social topics of current interest. Articles which have already appeared are: “The Ancoats Brotherhood," of Manchester, by Katharine Coman (December); “The Unemployed Camp at Levenshulme, Manchester," by Katharine Coman (January); “The London County Council," by Milo R. Maltbie (February); “The Garden City Movement," by John H. Whitehouse (March).

abuse. In his "Notes of a Tour in the Manufacturing Districts" the elder Cooke Taylor relates conversations with many old weavers who described the system of home industry as worse than conditions created by the introduction of machinery. “The creatures were set to work as soon as they could crawl, and their parents were the hardest of task-masters.So prevalent was the idea that the child should be set to some useful task at the earliest possible moment, that there was scarcely a protest though large numbers of children were employed in homes in the framework knitting trade from five or six o'clock in the morning until ten o'clock at night.

The workhouse was the "conventionalized” home factory of the period, and the parishes did a flourishing business in ridding themselves of their little paupers by placing them at hard labor. Many a devout churchman shared the belief of the author of an "Essay on Trade" who, in 1770, advocated that all children of four years who must be brought up at public expense, be sent to the public workhouse. "Being constantly employed at least twelve hours in a day

we hope the rising generation will be so habituated to constant employment that it would at length prove agreeable and entertaining to them.” The next sentence is refreshing in its sincerity and helps to explain the cruelties of the old home industries, the curse of child slavery in the parish workhouse, the excessive hours and crowded, unsanitary conditions in the early factories, and the dreary and devious way through which labor legislation in other countries as well as in England has passed. “From children thus trained up to constant labor

may venture to hope the lowering of its price.”

The first steps in government regulation were taken because of the evident social menace in a system which encouraged overcrowding, malignant disease, permanent ignorance and excessive hours of labor. Dr. Ferrier, an associate of Dr. Percival, discussing the prevalence and virulence of fevers among the factory population due to the dirt and

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