Page images

in the distance aforesaid: Provided, that nothing in this act shall affect tavern keepers, distillers or others, exercising their calling at their usual, legitimate places of doing business, nor any person who shall have a written permit from the President of such Agricultural, Mechanical or Horticultural Society to sell bread or other provisions for the supply of persons attending such Fair or exhibition, their horses or cattle, such persons conforming to all regulations of said Society and the laws of the State.

Sec. 2. That any person who shall be guilty of a breach of this act shall be notified by any one of the officers hereby authorised to make an arrest or seizure, or by any person, that he, she or they are violating the law, and if after such notice any such person shall continue in such violation, he, she or they shall forfeit and pay for every such offense any sum not less than five nor more than fifty dollars to the Society holding such Fair or exhibition, to be recovered before any justice of the peace or court having jurisdiction of the prosecution; and any judge of the circuit or county court, sheriff, coroner, justice of the peace, or constable of the proper county, shall, upon view or information, and without warrant, apprehend any person so offending, and seize booth, tent, wagon or other carriage, vessel or boat, spirituous or other liquors and other articles of traffic, and convey the same to a place of safe keeping, and take the said persons before any convenient justice of the peace having jurisdiction, together with an inventory of the things so seized; and the justice of the peace, upon complaint or oath, or affirmation of any competent witness, shall issue his warrants, which the said officer or constable shall have authority to serve, and cause the said offender to be arrested, and proceed forthwith to inquire into the truth of the accusation, and if found true, shall enforce the penalty of this act.

Sec. 3. If the accused shall fail to pay such fine as said justice of the peace shall inflict, together with all costs of proceedings, including the necessary expense of such seizure, the said justice of the peace shall forth with issue an execution, commanding any constable of the county in which such inquiry shall be had to make the said fine, costs, necessary expenses and costs of execution, by sale of so much of the things so seized, and of so much of the other property of the accused as shall be necessary therefor and to make return thereof in ten days thereafter, and the overplus of the things so seized as aforesaid, after the satisfaction of said execution, shall be delivered to the defendant, on demand.

SEC. 4. In case the officer to whom said execution shall be delivered shall be unable to find sufficient property of such defendant to satisfy such execution, such Agricultural or other Society, upon affidavit of any of its officers, shall

be entitled to a ca. sa. against the body of the defendant, as in other cases. The defendant in any suit under this act shall have the right of trial by jury, as in other cases under the laws of this State.

Sec. 5. This act is hereby declared a public act.
APPROVED February 13, 1857.




Section 1. Be it enacted by the People of the State of Illinois, represented in the General Assembly, That the act entitled “An act to aid and encourage County Agricultural Societies," approved February 18th, 1857, be revived and continued in force, from and after the first day of June next until otherwise provided by law; and that the sum of one hundred dollars be annually paid by the Treasurer of the State to the Treasurer or Fiscal Agent of each County Agricultural Society in the State, as therein directed.

SEC. 2. This act shall take effect and be in force from and after its passage. APPROVED February 18, 1861.



FOR 1861, 1862, 1863 AND 1864.

To the Governor and General Assembly

of the State of Ilinois : Conforming to an established custom, the Executive Board of the Illinois State Agricultural Society respectfully submit the following brief review of the condition of the industry of the State, and of the operations of the organization they have the honor to represent, for the four years last past.

The period covered by this report has been the most eventful in the history of the State and the nation. Our labors as officers of the society commenced just at the dawn of the great rebellion in January 1861, were concluded some three months prior to the final capture or dispersion of the armed insurgent forces, and were therefore performed under an ever-present sense of threatened danger and disturbance to the interests it was made our special duty to guard.

“Upon the farmer and his labor must at last depend the production of the prime necessities of human life; and whether the present national disturbances shall be of long or short duration, your duty as tillers of the soil is plain.

“There is now, in one portion of the State, what, in times of quiet, would be regarded as a large surplus of breadstuffs, and in another portion the prospect is good for a heavy crop of wheat the coming

· harvest; but notwithstanding these things, unless the proper efforts are put forth and continued to save the surplus now in your granaries, and to sow and plant and produce still more, that surplus will soon disappear. Let us exhort you to till this year every productive acre of your soil. Let no excitement, no interest in the stirring events of the day interrupt the operations of the farın. You know not what a year may bring forth. Your market is certain, and all history is a lie if it shall not be remunerative.

“We urge you then to strain every nerve; your interest financially cannot fail to be promoted by it, while your country and the cause of humanity alike demand it.”

The inventors and manufacturers were also assured by the same circular that “the Mechanical Department, Class F, had been entirely and throughout reconstructed, both as to the objects and to the amounts offered in premiums. The artisans of the State will find their wants and interests have been carefully consulted.” In short, so far as the management of this society could effect it, the industry of the State was placed upon a war basis at the earliest possible moment after civil war became a verity, and throughout our entire term everything within the means at our command which could be done to stimulate production or economise labor has been done.

We have no cause to be dissatisfied with the results. From 1861 to 1864, inclusive, there were actually mustered into the various branches of the Federal military service, and credited to this State one hundred and ninety-eight thousand five hundred and eighteen (198,518) able-bodied men, and this out of an entire population in 1860, of one million seven hundred and nineteen thousand four hundred and ninety six, (1, 719,496) or more than eleven per cent. of the whole. The muster rolls in the Adjutant General's office show that by far the largest number of these soldiers were drawn from the farms, and that the workshops of the State furnished almost all the remainder; this could hardly be otherwise in a State where, as in this, the industrial interests so largely prepon: derate over all others, and is mentioned in this connection simply to illustrate the extent to which our early apprehensions were realized, and that it may be held in remembrance while considering the following report of progress made during the same period in the several branches of industry referred to.


It would be far more satisfactory, and the conclusions arrived at would be far better assured, if we could verify them by facts and figures gathered from official and other sources. This can be done only through the operation of a law for the specific purpose of collecting them. There is no statutory provision at all adequate to insure the reliable performance of any part of the work ordinarily assigned to a bureau of statistics. Even the census, when taken by Federal or State authority, is not always a very close approximation to the truth, while the figures obtained in regard to other objects than population, by the officers charged with that duty, are many times full of errors, and, we think, never entirely to be relied on.*

Aside, however, from the want of that accuracy without which all pretended statistics are simply pernicious delusions, the range of subjects to which under existing laws the attention of census-takers and assessors is called, is so limited as to render the whole work, if even well performed, of little real value in itself, and chiefly to be esteemed because furnishing the most satisfactory evidence that a much more comprehensive system should at the earliest possible day be provided for. The cost of widening this range so as to embrace all proper subjects, would be insignificant compared with the enhanced value of the results to be obtained. Agriculture and the industries dependent upon, and closely allied to it, being so greatly the leading material interest of the people of this State, the condition and progress of every other interest must exert an appreciable influence upon the prosperity of that, and hence, to collect merely the statistics of Agricultural production can afford but a small part of the information required for the successful and intelligent prosecution of the business of farming. Not this alone, however: every farmer is a citizen and bound to all the elements of society by ties an relations as strong and multiform as those which bind citizens pursuing any other avocation; and hence is, and should be, as deeply concerned as they in all the movements of society. In respectfully urging this subject upon the attention of your Excellency and of the General Assembly, we do not, therefore, speak simply in behalf of a class or a portion of the people, but of all who affect or are affected by society in movement.

*[ Our friends in Bureau county (Lat. 41° 30') will be surprised to find by U. S. Census Report for 1860, they are credited with four (400) hundred bales of ginned cotton, of 400 lbs to the bale, produced that year. Jasper county is credited in same Report with 430 bales of ginned cotton, produced in that year.]

The Hon. E. D. Mansfield, Commissioner of Statistics for Ohio, in his first annual report, in 1857, thus ably presents this subject in replying to the question "what is statistical science ?” “The science of statistics is a branch of what may be termed social SCIENCE.

This social science has been gradually growiny up, especially in Europe, just in proportion as liberal institutions ad. vanced, as the people became enlightened, and governments cared for the people. It is not written out in any formal treatise, like mathematics, mechanics or astronomy, but exists in detached fragments in a yet uuformed state. This has been the case with all science, till each separate fact and principle has been discovered in sufficient numbers to constitute general laws and systems. Then they become embodied in elementary treatises and take place among the branches of fixed knowledge. Social science is no more doubtful or confused than chemistry was a century since. Yet chemistry is now an established and beautiful science; and so will the laws of society become in another generation. Of this social science STATISTICS is the real basis. Its object is to ascertain both the facts and the laws of social movement. Its inquiries extend to the physical laws of man as a social being; to the resources of the country in which he lives ; to the growth of society; to its labor and production; to its commerce, manufactures, and arts; to its property and wealth ; to crime, poverty and mortality ; to education and religion; and in fine, to all those facts of condition which may increase or diminish the strength, growth or happiness of a people. With an extent so broad, and objects so useful, statistics are raised to a dignity even higher than that of those fixed sciences whose beauty and utility have so long been the objects of admiration to mankind; for the laws which govern his own condition and happiness must be of higher importance to man than a knowledge of those, however useful, which no effort of his can change.

“The high value of statistics, as an element of government, has in the last half century come to be understood and fully apprecia

« PreviousContinue »