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which he cannot control, and of which he may even be ignorant. Under the old law, where a husband was entitled to all his wife's goods and chattels, the position of the husband was perhaps endurable-now it is not. It should be added that the above decision is concomitant with Seroka v. Kattenburg (54 L.T. 649), and with the remarks of Lord Esher, M.R., in Scott v. Morley (87 L.T.R. 919).

SHERSTON BAKER.

Reviews.*

[SHOR
RT NOTICES DO NOT PRECLUDE REVIEWS AT GREATER

LENGTH IN SUBSEQUENT ISSUES.]
A History of the Law of Nations. By THOMAS ALFRED WALKER,
M.A., LL.D. Cambridge: The University Press. 1899. Vol. I.

The work, of which this is the first volume, promises to be a valuable assistance to the study of International Law, and to supply a gap in the literature of the subject. The volume now issued embraces the period up to the Peace of Westphalia. In his introduction, Dr. Walker first of all discusses the propriety of the name “ International Law," and argues with considerable force against Austin's objections to the term. He then proceeds to consider the “Evolution of International Law," and traces the rules of conduct towards other nations in peace and war of the Israelites, Greeks, and Romans, and on through the Middle Ages down to the end of the Thirty Years' War. This history is very interesting, and it is curious to notice the ebbs and flows in the tide of international advance, and how the Romans, the knights of the Middle Ages, and the Moslems, all in turn fell from an earlier and higher standard, and, most interesting to observe, the influence exercised by Christianity, the Crusades, and the Church. It is also remarkable how long it was before the idea of Neutrality seems to have been realized. It reminds us of the recent Peace Congress and the Dum Dum bullet, when we read that the Second Lateran Council (1139) forbade the use of the cross-bow, a prohibition which does not seem to have

* Several reviews of new editions are unavoidably held over owing to want of space.

been long effective. Dr. Walker also deals in this volume with the literature of International Law, tracing its growth through Civilians, the Canonists, the Moral Theologians, to Gentilis and the great Grotius himself. He gives useful summaries and analyses of the most important writers in these classes, specially interesting being the work of the Spanish theologian Franciscus a Victoria, who deals with his subject with a surprising “brilliancy and independence of thought,” and lays down principles much in advance of the practice of the age. An elaborate and appreciative analysis of Grotius's great work concludes the volume, and we shall look forward with interest to the continuation of a work so well begun.

The Roman and Roman-Dutch Law of Injuries. By MELIUS DE Villiers, M.A., LL.B. London: William Clowes & Sons, Limited. 1899.

The only parts of the British Dominions in which the RomanDutch law prevails are Ceylon, British Guiana, the Cape Colony and Natal. It is possible in the not-distant future this sphere may be enlarged ; in which case no doubt the law will meet with increased attention. The present work is, as indicated by its sub-title, a translation of the title “De Injuries” from the great Dutch Jurist Voet's Commentary on the Pandects with annotations. Mr. de Villiers is well equipped for the task he has undertaken, and gives a list of authorities creditable alike to his erudition and his candour, as he has taken the somewhat unusual course of marking with an asterisk those he has consulted. There is a short but interesting introduction; but we could have wished that the author had pointed out in more detail, on what points the Dutch customs or local laws modified the Roman law, and had also given us some idea as to what extent the law has become modified, if at all, since its introduction into South Africa, either by the course of judicial decisions or ordinances. The book will be examined with much interest by lawyers, and many points in our law will have light thrown on them by a careful comparison with the Roman law. Mr. de Villiers' annotations are very full, and supported by numerous authorities of weight, and where he does not agree with Voct he has the courage to say so. Some interesting questions are fully discussed, such as the position of corporations in respect of actions of injury, and the liability for repetition of defamatory statements originated by others, and there is much else that is worth the attention of jurists.

The London Government Act, 1899. By Alex MACMORRAN, M.A., Q.C., S. G. LUSHINGTON, M.A., B.C.L., and E. J. NALDRETT. London: Butterworth & Co. 1899.

The London Government Act, 1899, is in some way a remarkable Act. It proposes to carry out the very important objects for which it was passed mainly by reference to the Statutes of the past, and the action of the Privy Council and the Local Government Board in the future. Seldom can there have been an Act in which legislation by reference was carried so far, or in which so much was left to be done by schemes and orders. Such an Act, more than others, requires a book to explain it, and the present one does much towards that end. Besides the Act itself, it purports to contain such parts of other Statutes as are specially incorporated or referred to therein, but does not attempt to include the adoptive Acts. There are a number of notes to both the principal Act and the other Statutes. These contain a great deal of necessary information, and are very clear and accurate, but we are inclined to think are mostly too short. We would gladly have seen a longer note on section 30, which deals with existing officers, and also think the subject of Charities might have been more fully dealt with, and though section 70 of the Local Government Act, 1894, is stated in the note to be post, we have been unable to find it. An introduction pointing out the chief features and objects of the Act would have been a great assistance in considering it.

No doubt Mr. Macmorran and his colleagues deliberately decided upon the present compass of their work, in order to make it all they claim for it, namely, “a convenient edition' of the Act. The book is excellently got up, the paper, type, margin, etc., being all that can be desired.

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Commentaries on the Procedure of Civil Courts in British India. By HUKM CHAND, M.A. Bombay :· The Bombay Education Society's Steam Press. 1899. Vol. I.

Mr. Hukm Chand is well known as a legal author, his important works on Res Judicata and Lirw of Consent having met with a very favourable reception. However, works of learning and research as they were, they seem likely to be quite surpassed by the present, of which the first volume contains something like a thousand closely printed pages.

The work aims at being “an exhaustive treatise on the procedure of Civil Courts, with a special reference to the Indian Code of Civil Procedure, which may be useful not only in British

India and Indian Native States, but wherever questions of procedure arise and are settled on general principles of Jurisprudence." To carry out such a programme, it is necessary to be familiar with the laws and codes of many countries, and to have not only this knowledge, but also great powers of marshalling and arranging the same. As far as we have been able to judge, Mr. Hukni Chand possesses both these requisites in an eminent degree. He annotates and illustrates the Code of Civil Procedure, with references to cases and principles of English and American as well as Indian law, and this without overweighting the notes or rendering them obscure; and although the book is intended mainly for the use of practitioners in the Indian Courts, we can recommend a reference to it by English lawyers when they want to support propositions by further authorities than we find in our English Reports, or to examine the broad principles which are so often common to codes of law differing widely in many of their details.

The Ycarly County Court Practice, 1900. By G. PITT-LEWIS, Q.C., C. ARNOLD WHITE, B.A., and ARCHIBALD READ, B.A. London: Butterworth & Co.

1900.

2 vols.

A great deal of labour has been expended on the present edition of this work. It need scarcely be said that it has, as usual, been brought up to date in its notices of cases and statutes; but a good deal more than this has been done. Many of the notes have been practically rewritten, and many interesting and difficult points have been carefully considered and commented on. But even the learned editors are not prepared to give a decided opinion on some of the questions, as, for instance, whether the High Court has power to order the taxation of County Court costs. There is a particularly useful summary of the Practice on Appeals, and valuable practical information is given as to how a party is to insure a point of law being open to him on appeal. But the most novel feature of the book is the addition of some practical nautical information, for the benefit of both judges and advocates dealing with collisions and such like matters. Mr. Pitt-Lewis has no doubt found, from his experience at the City of London Court, how useful such knowledge is, and with the assistance of his nautical friends has provided it for the benefit of his readers. We might also call attention to the notes on the cases decided under the Workmen's Compensation Act. Thorough information on this subject is indispensable to any lawyer

who practises in the County Court, and he will thoroughly appreciate the pains and ability which have been employed in this instance to meet his requirements.

Workmen's Compensation Cases. Edited by R. MINTON-SENHOUSE. London : William Clowes & Sons. 1899.

The Case Law of the Workmen's Compensation Act, 1897. By R. MINTON-SENHOUSE. London: Effingham Wilson. 1899.

Mr. Minton-Senhouse is indefatigable in his labours to elucidate the difficulties of the Workmen's Compensation Act, 1897. Both his last productions may be considered as supplemental to his larger work, and both should prove very useful to those who have to deal with the Act. In the first are published from various sources nearly if not quite all the cases of any importance decided by the Court of Appeal, and some important decisions of County Court judges, together with a few notes by the editor. The convenience of having all the cases on the subject in one handy volume can be well understood. The other book contains in a short form the effect of the cases decided since the Act, as well as a good many decided before, which may help to explain definitions, etc. Its value and interest is considerably increased by letters from Mr. George Livesey, Mr. Thomas Burt, M.P., and the manager of the Law Accident Insurance Society, commenting on the Act from the point of view respectively of the employer, employed, and insurer. In the appendix is given the Report of the Registrar of Friendly Societies, containing a very interesting account of the proceedings of the registrars under the Act in reference to schemes, and the Workmen's Compensation Rules, 1899.

The Annual Statutes, 1899. By J. M. LELY, M.A. London: Stevens & Sons. 1899.

Paterson's Practical Statutes of 1899. Edited by JAMES SUTHERLAND COTTON. London: Horace Cox. 1899.

The past year not having been very fruitful in legislation, the editors of these two valuable series of selected and annotated statutes have not had their industry tried so severely as usual ; but their labours in the way of summaries, introductions, and notes are carefully and judiciously done, and go far to lighten the labours of those who have to consult the Statutes they have dealt

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