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requisite examinations, ever open a book on Roman Law again. The knowledge of it is of importance in some branches of our law, as two of the works reviewed in our present issue show, but the really important part which the study of Roman Law now plays is in Legal Education, more particularly at the Universities, and it will probably take a more important place in legal studies when the talked-of Legal University is established, or the Study of Jurisprudence is pursued in some more systematic manner than it is at present. As the system of Scotch Law is much more largely based on the Civil Law than our own, it is not surprising that many of the best books on the subject are by Scotch authors. This is no exception, and the present edition which has been carefully revised and edited by Professor Goudy, who has brought to the task a thorough knowledge of all the most recent Continental research on the subject, seems like to retain the high repute the work has hitherto enjoyed. The learned editor has added some valuable notes of his own in the Appendix besides the conjecturally restored text of the XII. Tables.

Second Edition. A Digest of the Death Duties. By A. W. NORMAN, B.A. London : William Clowes & Sons. 1899. Pp. 532. Price 2os.

In his first edition Mr. Norman indulged his readers with such a complete index that it actually contained more pages than the body of the work. Carrying this arrangement further, this edition has, in a sense, become all index, and is turned into an alphabetical digest. Mr. Norman is well qualified from his official experience to write a guide to this most difficult and intricate subject. He has done it thoroughly well, and produced a book of the greatest value to all the unfortunate people who get involved, personally or professionally, in the web of the Inland Revenue Commissioners. It is hardly a book to read through, but one is sure to find under an appropriate heading all that has been decided upon the point in which one is interested. The two latest decisions on the Act in the House of Lords had not been given at the time of publication, but they are noted up in their respective places as decided by the Court of Appeal. There is a grim humour about some of the headings, i.e. Mourning not a deduction against Probate Duty or Estate Duty, not being a “reasonable funeral expense according to law.”

Third Edition. Armorial Families. A Directory of some gentlemen of Coat Armour, showing which Arms in use at the moment are borne by legal Authority. Compiled and Edited by ARTHUR CHARLES Fox-DAVIES. Edinburgh. T. C. & E. C. Jack. 1899. Pp. 924.

This handsome volume is issued with a purpose. Mr. Fox-Davies is apparently vexed with the utter lawlessness existing nowadays in the use of Arms. “To establish the right to bear Arms in England it is necessary to prove legitimate male descent from some person to whom a grant of Arms has been made, or from some person to whom Arms were confirmed at the Visitations." “ Failing this, there is no alternative but to obtain a grant of Arms yourself.” So the Law is summed up, and no doubt correctly, by the Author in his introduction entitled “The Abuse of Arms."

But this cannot be enforced ; the Heralds no longer go on their Visitations like Revising Barristers, armed by Royal Warrant with Powers to summon all persons bearing Arms to justify their Right or Disclaim, backed up as they were by all the awful and mysterious powers of the Court of Chivalry. The last Heralds' Visitation took place in the year 1686.

Most people now get their Arms from Heraldic Stationers, Jewellers, and Coachbuilders, regardless of the fact that they are taking Arms which do not belong to them and do belong to other people, and we are afraid that in spite of Mr. Fox-Davies—and the ignominy of being described in his books in italics, if indeed described at all—they will continue to do so.

Mr. Fox-Davies suggests that every person, as he obtains his majority, should “ascertain and record what arms, quarterings, and difference mark he should display. And upon his marriage it ought to be considered as much a matter of course as consulting a lawyer as to his marriage settlement, that he should consult an Officer of Arms as to what difference his marriage makes in his achievement.” We fear the public grumble too much over the lawyer's bill to wish to add to it that of an Officer of Arms. The Introduction contains much interesting as well as amusing matter. As regards the correctness of the Arms and Pedigrees of the families, distinguished or otherwise, in the body of the work we are not competent to judge, but we think it rather hard on poor Mr. Gerald Balfour that he should be posted in italics while his brother Mr. Arthur Balfour is in the proper print befitting a “genuinely armigerous person." Surely he is entitled to the same Arms as his brother with the proper difference. The most wonderful Achievement is that of Mr. Henry

Crampton Lloyd, which is quarterly of 356. Mr. Lloyd is stated to be the sixty-seventh in descent in an unbroken male line from Belinus the Great (Beli Mawr), King of Britain. As all the early Ancestors existed before Arms were instituted, we don't quite see how those attributed to them can be correct; and as the Pedigree is certified as correct at the College of Arms, certificates and other evidences of descent must have been much more regularly preserved in the early periods of our history than we had any idea of.

SOME WORKS OF REFERENCE. The Shipping WorldYear Book, 1899.-Edited by Major E. R. Jones. London : Shipping World Office. Pp. 1146. (Price 55.)-As a Desk Manual in Trade, Commerce, and Navigation, this useful publication, now in its thirteenth year, is as well known and indispensable in shipping circles as Whitaker" is in the household. The changes and additions in the present volume appear to be both numerous and important, and comprise digests of the recent Acts affecting shipowners; complete new tariffs of Japan, Chili, Brazil, and several of our Colonies; the addition of new ports to the “Port Directories” (an important feature of the book); and the marking of new coaling stations and Atlantic "lanes” on the map accompanying the book, which has been specially designed by Mr. J. G. Bartholomew. A shipowner's library would not be complete without a copy of this year book, and we should think that both barristers and solicitors with a shipping practice would find it a handy book of reference.

The Literary Year-Book, 1899. Edited by JOSEPH JACOBs. London: Geo. Allen, 156, Charing Cross Road. Pp. 360. (Price 3s. 6d.) The current volume contains a succinct retrospect of Literature in 1898, Conspectus of Books published, 1893-98, Royalty Tables, Directories of Authors, Publishers, etc., together with lists of Pseudonyms, Publications that Review Books, and various other information which authors should find most useful. Whilst not claiming to be by any means complete, or to suit everybody, especially those left out in the cold, it seems to be a work which literary (book) men should have on their study tables.

Debrett's House of Commons and The Judicial Bench, 1899 (33rd year). London: Dean & Son, Ltd., 160A, Fleet Street. Pp. 456.-In the Parliamentary Section of this admirable work, which is illustrated with eight hundred armorial bearings, are given Biographies of all the Members, Results of General and Bye-elections, an Explanation of Technical Parliamentary Terms, an Abridged Peerage, and much other information ; whilst in the Judicial Bench Portion are now included particulars of the Judges of the Superior Courts of the United Kingdom, Magistrates, and Colonial Judges, etc. Altogether it is a most useful handbook for the politician and lawyer.

The Advertiser's A B C: The Standard Advertisement Press Directory, 1899 (13th year). London: T. B. Brown, Ltd., 163, Queen Victoria Street. Pp. 1112. (Price ros. 6d.)

The Newspaper Press Directory and Advertiser's Guile, 1899 (54th year). London: C. Mitchell & Co., 12 and 13, Red Lion Court, Fleet Street. Pp. 552. (Price 25.)

Willing's Press Guide and Advertiser's Directory and Handbook, 1899 (26th year). London: James Willing, Jun., Ltd., 125, Strand. Pp. 398. (Price is.)

A new and pleasing addition to the present volume of The Advertisers' A BC is the fac-simile reproduction, in their exact colours, of the covers of several magazines and other well-known publications, which marks a yet further advance in what has now become a fine art.

Most useful information is given in the Newspaper Press Directory with regard to the tariffs existing in the principal colonies. It also contains a number of valuable articles and suggestions on subjects of commercial and general interest.

Willing's Press Guide is too well known to need much comment, and we merely remark that it is as concise and handy as ever, containing a mass of information in a small compass.

The Local Government Annual, 1899. Edited by S. EDGECOMBE Rogers. London : Local Government Journal Office. Pp. 320. (Price 2s. 6d.)—This is the eighth issue of a very useful little book for those interested in Local Govern

It contains a complete Official Directory and a large amount of statistics in connection with that subject.

ment.

Received too late for notice in this issue :-Compendium of Modern Equity, by ANDREW THOMSON, B.A., LL.D. (Wm. Clowes & Sons, Ltd.); Digest of Shipping Cases, by R. G. MARSDEN; Specific Performance of Contracts, by W. D. RAWLINS (Sweet & Maxwell; Stevens & Sons); Suggestions towards Applied Sociology, by E. P. PAYSON (G. P. Putnam's Sons); Foreclosure of Mortgages of Reality, by A. T. HUNTER (Carswell Company, Toronto); Local Government, by Dr. BLAKE ODGERS, Q.C. (Macmillan & Co.).

Other publications received :—The Newcastle Chronicle Almanac and Year Book, 1899; West Australian Year Book, 1899; Journal of the Society of Comparative Legislation (new series); Law Notes, vol. xvii., 1898; Report of American Bar Association, 1898 ; American and English Digest (Lawyer's Co-operative Publishing Co., Rochester, N.Y.).

The Law Magazine and Review receives or exchanges with the following amongst other publications :-Review of Reviews, Juridical Review, Public Opinion, Law Times, Law Journal, Justice of the Peace, Law Quarterly Review, Irish Law Times, Scots Law Times, Australian Law Times, Speaker, Accountants' Journal, North American Review, Canada Law Journal, Chicago Legal News, American Law Review, University Law Review, Harvard Law Review, Case and Comment, Green Bag, Virginia Law Register, American Lawyer, Albany Law Journal, Madras Law Journal, Calcutta Weekly Notes, Law Notes, Lawyer and Magistrate, Queensland Law Journal, Bombay Law Reporter, Law Students' Journal.

N.B.-Contemporary Foreign Literature and Reviews of Foreign Books, by Mr. JAMES WILLIAMS, D.C.L., and some Reviews of New Editions, are held over until next number owing to want of space.

THE

LAW MAGAZINE AND REVIEW.

NO. CCCXIII.-AUGUST, 1899.

1.-COUNTY COURTS.

O much has been written on County Courts any time

these thirty years—in fact, ever since the Legislature commenced to graft upon the very simple jurisdiction as defined half a century ago—that it might at first sight seem that there was nothing new to be said. But, on the invitation of the Editor, I will endeavour to bring the situation up to date, avoiding needless detail and minute reference to statutes which are rather wearying, and tend to obscure the real issue.

I need not excuse myself for accepting the editorial behest, for perhaps I have a slightly greater right to speak upon this subject than the majority of that branch of the profession to which I belong. In my early career as a solicitor, I desired to transfer myself to the Bar, but in those unenlightened times there was an obstacle to a change which many aspirants like myself vainly endeavoured to overthrow, although our public efforts have since borne fruit for the benefit of the present generation. I availed myself of the next best thing then open to me, to acquire some of the clements of public speaking by taking every opportunity of personally advocating such cases as fell into my way admissible of being dealt with in the County Court. Though I never had, from beginning to end, any appreciable business of this kind, I realized from the outset that, sooner or later, the so-called County Court would occupy prominent attention. Even half

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