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and never hesitated to express his opinions in strong trenchant arguments, which are well worth reading, though not in accordance with the views of the principal economic writers of the present day. Mr. Fairfield contributes a good deal of matter of his own on these subjects, and is evidently clever and well informed, but is rather wanting in courtesy towards those who have the misfortune to differ with him. To call men like Cliffe, Leslie, Jevons, Toynbee, and others " distinguished wobblers," and talk of a “feverish (or ShawLefevreish) temper," is bad taste.

Cases on International Law during the Chino-Japanese War. By SAKUYÉ TAKAHASHI. Cambridge University Press. 1899.

One of the most striking features of Modern History is the rapid progress of Japan in civilization, and the unexpected efficiency of her Army and Navy, as shown in the war with China. The former of these is illustrated still further by the facts stated in this volume. Japan was most anxious to conduct hostilities upon the most up-todate principles of International Law, and this, too, although it was probable that her opponent would not reciprocate. Japan tried to come to an agreement, that private property should be exempted from capture at sea, but was unable to induce China to assent. She established Prize Courts, promulgated Prize Law, and sent a legal expert with both the army and the fleet to act as adviser on International Law. Professor Takahashi acted in this capacity on board the Japanese fleet, and contributes in this volume an interesting collection of cases which had to be considered in the course of the war. The main points discussed, are as to the rights of belligerents to visit, search, and detain neutral vessels, and are all of great interest to a maritime nation in these threatening times. The most interesting discussion is that about the Gaelic, in which was examined the theory of "continuous voyages” in relation to contraband of war. This case is also discussed in a learned introduction by Professor Westlake, Q.C., who examines the question minutely, and comes to the conclusion that, although the Japanese Government were not justified by the doctrine of contraband of war in searching the Gaelic at Yokohama, the ulterior destination of that vessel being a neutral one, yet that the fact of the ship being in Japanese waters did confer on them that right. The other cases of most interest are those of the Kowshing, and of Cameron. The eulogium on the Japanese Government and officers is perhaps a little too glowing, but the book is otherwise marked throughout by a very moderate tone.

A Guide to the Law of Licensing. By B. STEPHEN FOSTER. London: Waterlow & Sons. 1898.

The Law of Licensing is very important, and, it may be added, very difficult; and divers points do not seem to be quite settled at the present day. The natural result of all this is that there have been a number of books written on the subject to aid the practitioner in his difficulties, which may be either added to or diminished by the outcome of the Royal Commission at present sitting, if indeed outcome there be at all. Mr. Foster arranges his book in somewhat a novel manner, which he hopes may form a step in the direction of consolidating and codifying the present law. He has collected and grouped together, though not necessarily in chronological order, all the sections in the Acts which relate to the subject under various principal headings, such as “ The General Annual Licensing Meeting, ” “Transfer Sessions," " Disqualification of Justices," etc., and has put his notes and references at the end of each such collection. As the sections of the Acts are again printed in the Appendix, the bulk of the book is somewhat increased by this plan, and we do not think it adds to the facility of reference. The work has been thoroughly done, and the latest cases are carefully noted up. There are points of importance to the occupiers of licensed premises which are not alluded to, such as the liability of having soldiers billeted on them, the lien of innkeepers, etc., but perhaps they do not come strictly within the scope of this work. We think, however, that the Disqualification of Justices through interest might have been more fully treated.

Outlines of English Legal History. By A. T. CARTER, M.A. London : Butterworth & Co. 1899.

Some small volume giving the main features of English Legal History clearly, and paying most attention to origins, as the part of the history most obscure, difficult, and least known to the average student, has hitherto not appeared. This the author has made a very praiseworthy and successful attempt to produce. He modestly calls it only “ Outlines," but we think it worthy of a more ambitious title, and even wish it had been a little longer. Mr. Carter has profited judiciously by the labours of Professor Maitland, the learned editors of the Selden Society's publications, and many other workers in the field which he has surveyed in the present book. He has laboured hard to explain the history of juries, criminal and civil, but has been obliged to leave much doubtful and disputed; as indeed who

is to decide when Sir James Stephen and Professor Maitland disagree. However, the chapters on this subject well repay a careful perusal; as also do those tracing the development of the Great Council into the various jurisdictions of the House of Lords, the Star Chamber, the Privy Council, etc. The growth of the Chancellor's Jurisdiction is also well described. It may, perhaps, be news to some of our readers to hear that the Star Chamber “was not only a most valuable but a popular court." We can recommend this work, not only to students but to all who take an interest in the history of our law.

Price 155.

Estate Fences, their Choice, Construction, and Cost. By ARTHUR VERNON, F.S.I., and A Chapter on Boundaries and Fences in their Legal Aspect. By T. W. MARSHALL, B.C.L. London: E. & F. N. Spen, Ltd. 1899. Pp. 403.

This should be a very useful book to all connected with, or interested in the management of landed property. The mode of construction of every variety of fence, gate, etc., is described, its advantages and disadvantages discussed, and illustrations and elaborate tables of cost, duration, etc., supplied. The legal aspects of the subject are not neglected. There are two chapters which deal with them. The first is a very useful chapter entitled “Surveyors' difficulties as to ownership of fences," pointing out the importance of preserving evidence of the ownership of fences, and describing what the practical presumption in such cases are. The second by T. W. Marshall deals with “Boundaries and Fences in their Legal Aspect.” This in some forty pages deals concisely but clearly with a very wide range of questions, including the ownership of soil of highway, position of tenants in tail, for life, for years, and with or without impeachment of waste, mortgagors, mortgagees, easements, and liabilities of various sorts. It cannot of course be exhaustive in the space, but it gives as much law, and that accurately, as a layman is likely to want, or be able to apply, and refers him to standard works on the subject if he requires more.

The Law and Practice relating to Workmen's Compensation and Employers' Liability. By W. Ellis Hill. London: Waterlow & Sons. 1898.

A number of books have appeared on this subject, and the arrangement of most of them is very much the same. They first examine the liability of the employer at common law, then under the

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Employers' Liability Act of 1880 and Lord Campbell's Act, and then under the Workmen's Compensation Act of 1897. Mr. Hill does all this, and he does it clearly and well, and examines the decided cases with much critical acumen. He also adds a chapter on the Factory and Workshops' Acts, which should be useful, and discusses Lord Campbell's Act with marked care. He would, perhaps, have helped his readers more if he had speculated a little more fully on some of the questions likely to arise under the Act of 1897, and the fact of the Rules, etc., being in a Supplement, considerably interferes with the facility of cross references, and gives the book the disadvantage of a double index. Mr. Hill gives much practical advice as to the best course for litigants to pursue under various circumstances, which considerably adds to the value of his work.

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The Yearly Supreme Court Practice, 1899. By M. MUIR MACKENZIE, B.A., S. G. LUSHINGTON, M.A., and John CHARLES Fox, Master of the Supreme Court. London : Butterworth & Co.

The White Book has long reigned supreme in the realms of practice, but its supremacy is now disputed by a formidable rival, intended, no doubt, from the colour of its cover, to be called the yellow book. What first strikes one as a strong point in its favour is that it has been limited to one volume, which in the case of a special edition, called the Thin Edition, is quite a portable book. The other new features are that the Judicature Acts are printed as a consolidated statute, the rules and notes appear separately but concurrently at the top and bottom of each page, and the details of cases cited have been much abridged. It is the last feature which has enabled the editors to issue the work in such a comparatively small bulk, but of course it has its disadvantages, as it sometimes necessitates a much longer hunt through cases to find the one most in point than if more particulars were given. The work seems, as might be expected from the editors, to be well done, but the notes under Order 30 hardly give the reader the assistance which that difficult but important Order necessitates.

The Annual County Court Practice, 1899. Edited by WILLIAM CECIL SMYLY, Q.C. London : Sweet & Maxwell. 1899.

2 vols, Pp. 1092, 543. Price 25s.

The work of the County Court Judges has been considerably increased by the passing of the Workmen's Compensation Act, 1897,

and from the same cause the standard works on the practice of their Courts have been enlarged by the addition of the Workmen's Compensation Rules, 1898, the Regulations for Medical Referees and forms. This has necessitated the omission of some less important matter and the consolidation of more. There have been a good many important decisions in the Superior Courts during the last year touching the practice and powers of County Courts-Judge Smyly says an unusual number-many of which were connected with rights of Appeal, Jurisdiction in Bankruptcy, and Admiralty Practice. These have all been included in the present edition. Fortunately not many new Statutes or parts of Statutes have had to be added to the second volume, to which has been removed the practice under the Partition Acts, and the Settled Land Act. The index, which is not the least important part of a book, has, as the editor claims, been improved, and the whole work maintains its high standard.

The New Zealand Official Year Book, 1898. Pp. 684.

This carefully compiled publication contains a great deal of interesting information about a thriving Colony. It is worth while calling attention to the Judicial Statistics. There are three classes of Courts; the Supreme Court composed of a Chief Justice and four Puisne Judges; the Chief Justice and one Puisne Judge reside in Wellington, one Judge resides at Auckland, one at Christchurch, and one at Dunedin. Circuit sittings are held at fourteen places. The second class is composed of District Judges holding Courts at seventeen towns. The third class consists of twenty-nine Stipendiary Magistrates with a limited jurisdiction. It is stated that the procedure of the Courts is remarkably simple—by Courts is meant, we think, Magistrates' Courts—so that in the majority of cases it is not necessary to employ the services of a professional man. In these Courts the vast majority of the litigation of the country takes place ; as in the year 1896, 19,708 cases were tried there, against 50 tried in the District Courts, and 153 in the Supreme Court. As regards criminal cases, there were 19,276 charges heard before the Magistrates' Courts, 14,481 summary convictions, and 310 convictions in the Superior Courts.

Some Lectures on the Law and History of Copyright in Books. By AUGUSTINE BIRRELL, Q.C. London: Cassell & Co. 1899.

This book contains part of a series of Lectures delivered by Mr. Birrell at University College in his capacity of Quain Professor of

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