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ness from 1881 to 1908; was secretary D. R. K. Central Verein, a National German Catholic Association, which he helped to reorganize, from 1899 to 1907, and which more than doubled its membership during his term of office; President of “Marquette Life Ins. Co.,” which he organized, and which is so far, the only legal Reserve Life Insurance Co., capitalized and controlled by Catholics only; contributes articles to Catholic German papers and periodicals; spent three years from 1878 to 1881, in Paris, France. Address: Peoria, Ill.

Bovard, Freeman Daily, Editor; Minister; born, Alpha, 1nd., Jan. 9, 1851; son, James and Sarah (Young) B. Edu.: public schools; Hanover College; A.B., De Pauw Univ., 1875; A.M., 1878; D.D., 1889; Ph.D., Ill. Wesleyan, 1890. Married, Sallie M. North, June 28, 1875, at Jefiersonville, Ind. Entered the Methodist Episcopal Ministry, 1874; Pastor, Riverside, Cal., 1875; Pastor, Orange, 1876-79; Pastor, Santa Barbara, 1879-80; Vice-pres., and Prof. of Mathematics, Univ. of Sou. Cal., 188085; Pastor of Bush St., San Francisco, 1885-87 ; Supt., of San Francisco District, 1887-93; Pastor, Alameda First Church, 1893-98; Executive Secy. for Relief of the Churches in Cal. from Taxation, 1899; Editor, “Cal. Christian Advocate,” since 1900, and member of the General Conferences, 1900, 1904, 1908, 1912. Member of the Ecumenical Conference, 1911, at Toronto. Ofiice: 1913 Corresponding Secretary of the Board of Home Missions of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Residence: 1026 Arch Street, Philadelphia, Pa.

Bowdle, Stanley E., United States congressman from the first district of Ohio, was born Sept. 4, 1868. He is a lawyer; and has lectured extensively. He was elected to the sixty-third congress for the term of 1913-15; and resides in Cincinnati, Ohio.

Bowen, Alfred Thomas, lawyer; born Hancock Co., Tenn., March 12, 1866; son of Jason Y. and Ruth A. (Lea) Bowen; paternal grandfather Jesse Bowen; maternal grandmother Sallie (Durham) Bowen; maternal grandfather, Archer Lea; maternal grandmother Lucinda (Hendrix) Lee; English descent; father’s occupation farmer; educated Sneedville, McKinney High School; married Amanda J. Baker, June 6, 1884; member of I. 0. 0. F.,

K. of H., A. U. 0. W., W. 0. W., Consul M. W. A., and Rep. to _

State Camp in 1908; early business teaching and merchandising; served as J. P. years 1890-2; Alderman and City Attorney, Rogersville four years. Resides at Knoxville. Member firm of Bowen & Anderson, prominent attorneys; member of firm of Bowen & Thompson, at Rogersville; former special Circuit Judge and special Chancellor; candidate for circuit judge, Republican 1910, but finally declined nomination on account of split in party, but was elected chairman of executive committee; Special Judge Court of Civil Appeals, 1912; Secretary and Treasurer Rogersville Electric Co.; Secretary and General Counsel of Rogersville Ice Co.; Rogersville Telephone and Telegraph Co.; Attorney for Hawkins Co., Bank; Attorney for International Printing Pressmen and Assistants Union of North America which is now expending $100,000.00 in improving Hale Springs, a famous sum

mer resort in Hawkins Co.; member Missionary Baptist chruch, (Deacon).

Bower, George Roseng'arten, manufacturing chemist; born in Germantown, Philadelphia, Aug. 1, 1866; son of Henry and Lucretia K. (Elliott) Bower. He was graduated from the University of Pennsylvania, A.B., 1885, after which he became connected with various chemical concerns. In 1885 he became clerk of Henry Bower & Son, and after two years became secretary and treasurer of the Ammonia Company of Philadelphia. In 1896 he was elected to similar ofiices in the Kalion Chemical Company, and in 1902 president of the Baltimore Chrome Works Company. In 1906, the last named three companies were consolidated into the Henry Bower Chemical Manufacturing Company, of which he has since been president. In politics he is a member of the Republican party, and in religion is affiliated with the Protestant Episcopal church. He is a vestryman of All Saints’ Church, Lower Dublin, at Torresdale. Mr. Bower is a member of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, the American Academy of Political and Social Science, and of the Alumni of the University of Pennsylvania, the Phi Kappa Psi fraternity, and the Athletic Association of the University of Pennsylvania. He spends his vacations in hunting and boating, and is a member of the Philadelphia Gun, Markham, Philadelphia and Union League of Philadelphia; Racquet; and the Down Town Association of New York. Mr. Bower married at Philadelphia, Jan. 10, 1893, Agnes Lee Fuller, and they have two sons. Residence: Torresdale, Philadelphia. Address: Gray ’s Ferry Road and 29th Street, Philadelphia.

Bowker, William Henry, manufacturer, financier; born Natick, Mass., July, 1850; son of Horace and Anna M. (Smith) Bowker; graduated from Massachusetts Agricultural College, Amherst, Mass., B. S., 1871; married, Barre, Mass., Sept., 1875, Charlotte J. Ryder; two children. After graduation engaged in journalism, taught school and sold goods on the road until 1873 when engaged in the fertilizer business in Boston, -founding the Bowker Fertilizer Co., on $500, borrowed capital, and in 1895 the company had a cash capital of $1,000,000, all paid in, and was doing the fourth largest fertilizer business in the country; in 1902 the company was merged with the American Agricultural Chemical Co. of which he is now a director; also director Putnam (Conn.) Water Works Co., Ashland (Wis.) Water Co., and Knoxville (Tenn.) Water Co. Independent Republican. Memher American Association for the Advancement of Science; trustee Massachusetts Agricultural College, and Massachusetts Horticultural Society. Recreations: Farming, gardening. Clubs: St. Botolph, Brookline Country, Exchange, Commercial, Rural. Residence: Concord, Mass. Office: 43 Chatham St., Boston.

Bowlby, Henry L., civil engineer of Salem, Ore., was born Dec 31, 1879, in Crete, Neb. He was educated at Doane College, the University of Nebraska and the United States Military Academy, and has received the degrees of A.B. and C.E. He was a teacher in the University of Washington. In 1909-11 he was state highway commissioner of Washington; and is now state highway engineer of Oregon. He is an executive ofiicer in the Pacific Highway Association of North America.

Boyce, William D., journalist, publisher, founder, was born June 16, 1858, in Allegheny County, Pa. He established a news_ paper ready print business in Chicago, Ill., 1886, and subsequently established the Saturday Blade. He bought the Chicago Ledger; and later established Boyce’s Monthly, now the Woman’s World. Author of Books of Travel in South America, Africa and Colonies of United States. He is president of the Marseilles (Ill.) Land and Water Power Company; and is the owner of the Boyce ofiice building in Chicago, Ill. Clubs: Union League, Chicago Athletic, South Shore, Midlothian Country Club, St. Louis Club, Royal Automobile Club of London, Eng.

Boyd, James N., banker; born Richmond, Va., May 12, 1850; son of John W. and Virginia (Nalle) Boyd; educated at Roger Martin School, Richmond, Va.; married, Halifax County, Va., Jan. 12, 1877, Mildred C. Edmunds; seven children. President Planters’ National Bank, Richmond, Va., James N. Boyd & Co., Inc., Richmond, Va.; vice-president Virginia Trust Co. of Richmond; director Virginia-Carolina Chemical Co., Richmond, Southern Cotton Oil Co. of New York, and Southern Biscuit Works of Richmond. Served as second sergeant Company F, First Virginia Volunteer Regiment. Democrat; Episcopalian. Director Police Benevolent Association, Richmond, Va. Clubs: Westmoreland, Commonwealth, Country Club of Virginia (Richmond). Residence: 117 W. Grace St. Office: Planters’ National Bank, Richmond.

Boyd, Samuel B., chief of Knoxville Fire Department; born Washington Co., Va., March 20, 1865; Scotch-Irish descent; son of Samuel B. and Isabella (Reed) Boyd; father’s occupation, merchant; educated University of Tenn., member of class of 1886 ; in early life he was engaged in furniture business; married Julia Jackson Harrison April 28, 1904; entered public life as Alderman when he was 22 years old which office he held from July, 1888-90; Feb. 23, 1900, was elected Chief of Knoxville (Tenn.) Fire Dept., when it was very small (29 men); he urged and secured passage of appropriation measures before Board of Aldermen, which resulted in increase of Fire Dept. to 72 men; member of Elks, Royal Arcanum; Kappa Sigma Fraternity; former Chairman of Water Committee, Gas & Public Lights, Fire & Police, Vice Chairman Finance Com.; member of International Assn. of Fire Engineers; member Presbyterian Church, South.

Boyer, Gustave, Mayor. B. November 29, 1871, at St. Laurent, Jacques Cartier County, near Montreal; s. of Benjamin and Angélique (Latour) Bayer; m. Pamaela Rhéaume of Montreal, April 10, 1907. Ed. at St. Laurent College. A public lecturer on Agriculture for the Quebec Government; elected to House of Commons at General Assembly, 1904, 1908-1911; elected Mayor of Rigaud January, 1907-13-14. Has been connected with La Patrie as agricultural correspondent, and with La Canada as agricultural editor; founded the Echo de Vau

dreuil, local journal for the counties of Vaudreuil and Soulanges, January, 1907. Had organized the “B” Sq. 17th Reg. Duke of York and later the 33d Hussars Reg. of Cavalry. Chairman of the Dairymen’s Association of P. of Quebec, 1912-13-14. Address: Rigaud, Quebec.

Bradbury, Harry B., lawyer; born Athens, Pa., April 10, 1863; son Daniel and Polly (Phelps) Bradbury; descendants of the Bradbury family of Maine, of which late Senator James W. Bradbury and Wm. H. Bradbury, composer, were members; ancestors, both paternal and maternal arrived in America about 1636; several of them later soldiers in the Revolutionary, Indian and Civil wars; educated common and high schools, Penn Yan and Elmira, N. Y.; married N. Y. City, Sept. 18, 1888, Mary V. Massey; children: Mary I., born 1890; Henry M., born 1891; Adele, born 1895. In early life machinist, telegraph operator and newspaper man. Lawyer since 1893; author of a number of law books, all published by the Banks Law Publishing Co., N. Y. City. Republican; member 10th Assembly District Republican Club and Brooklyn Young Republican Club (Brooklyn). Clubs: Lawyers’ (New York), Wawonaissa (Adirondack Mountains). Member American and New York State Bar Association and New York County Lawyers’ Association; Academy of Political Science, Civil Service Reform Association. Residence: Brooklyn. Address: 141 Broadway, N. Y. City.

Bradford, Edward G., United States judge; born at Wilmington, Del., March 12, 1848; son of Hon. Edward G. and Mary Alicia (Heyward) Bradford. He received his preparatory education at the Delaware Military Academy, and then entered Yale, from which he was graduated with the degree of B.A. in 1868. He studied law and was admitted to the bar, May 9, 1870, practising at Wilmington, Del., until appointed May 11, 1897, as United States district judge for the District of Delaware. Judge Bradford married at Wilmington, Del., Sept. 18, 1872, Eleuthera P. du Pont. Address: Wilmington, Del.

Bradley, Charles Whiting, superintendent telegraph Chesapeake & Ohio Ry. Co. of Indiana. Ofiice: Richmond, Va. Born Sept. 13, 1836, at Ncwtown, Conn. Entered railway service Nov., 1852, as telegraph operator Erie Ry., since which he has been consecutively to 1862, agent, storekeeper, brakeman, conductor, etc., same road; 1862 to 1868, general superintendent’s clerk, superintendent telegraph, train dispatcher, and division superintendent Atlantic & Great Western Rd.; 1868 to 1870, superintendent Cincinnati, Chicago & Louisville Rd.; 1870 to 1872, superintendent Niles & New Lisbon Rd.; 1872 to 1873, division superintendent Atlantic & Great Western Rd.; 1873 to 1878, division superintendent Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Ry.; 1878 to 1880, general western trafiic manager same road; 1880 to 1881, division superintendent Denver & Rio Grande Rd.; 1881 to 1882, superintendent Cincinnati & Northern Rd.; 1882 to 1883, assistant superintendent of construction New York West Shore Buffalo Ry.; 1883 to 1885, division superintendent same road; 1885 to June 1, 1898, general superintendent West Shore, New Jersey Junction and Wallkill Valley RdsjJune, 1899, to Dec. 31, 1910, manager Western New York Car Service Association at Bufffalo, N. Y.; Jan. to Feb., 1911, inspector of transportation Chesapeake & Ohio Ry.; Feb. to Aug., 1911, acting superintendent of telegraph same road; Aug., 1911, to date, superintendent telegraph Chesapeake & Ohio Ry. and Chesapeake & Ohio Ry. of Indiana.

Bradley, George Beckwith, lawyer, banker, jurist and statesman of Corning, N. Y., was born Feb. 5, 1825, in Greene, N. Y. In 1872-73 he was a member of the New York state constitutional commission; and in 1874-77 was a member of the New York state senate. In 1884-97 he was justice of the supreme court of New York. During that time he was judge of the court of appeals for about four years. He is now president of the First National bank of his city.

Bradley, Harold Cornelius, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. Physiological chemistry. Was born, Oakland, Cal., Nov. 25, 1878. A.B., California, 1900; Ph.D., Yale, 1905. Asst. physiol. chem., Yale, 1904-05, instr., med. sch., 1905-06; asst. prof., Wisconsin, 1906-; M.A.A.; Chem. Soc.; Soc. Biol. Chem. Physiological chemistry of Mollusca; the presence of copper and zinc in a marine mollusc; the presence of manganese in fresh-water mussels; human pancreatic juice.—Lipase; the manganese of the

-tissues of Unio and Anadonta. Relation of enzymes to tissue

synthesis. Isogenous anaphylaxis. Specificity of haemoglobins. Autolysis.

Bradley, William H., mechanical engineer, 130 E. 15th St., New York City; residence 23 West 68th St. Born in New Haven, Conn., Aug. 25, 1838. (Married.) Chief engineer Consolidated Gas Co. Member Engineers’ and Lotos Clubs, Sons of the Revolution, American Museum of Natural History, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, American Gas Light Association, Society of Gas Lighting, and New England Gas Engineers’ Association.

- Bradley, William O’Connell, United States senator from Ken: tucky, was born March 18, 1847, near Lancaster, Ky. In 1865 he began the practice of law; and in 1872 was presidential elector. He was a delegate at large to the Republican national conventions of 1880, 1884, 1888, 1892, 1900 and 1904. In 1889 he was appointed minister to Korea, but declined. In 1895 he was governor of Kentucky. He is now United States senator for the term ending 1919; and resides in Beechmont, Ky.

Bradshaw, William Leonard, banker, farmer; born Morgan County, Mo., 1858; son of James Owen and Matilda (Baker) Bradshaw; educated district schools (Mo.); married, Morgan County, Mo., April 16, 1890, Hannah Daniels; eight children. Taught school in country districts ten years. Collected and clerked for fifty-one public sales, as many as three at one place. President and director Bank of Barnett, Barnett Mercantile Co. Road commissioner one year; Central committeeman, secretary four years (of committee). Public administrator Morgan Co., Mo., four years. Clerk of East Prairie District School for twentyfive years. Democrat; Baptist. Director Barnett Academy; clerk

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