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Summers, William Thomas, banker and founder of San Luis Obispo, Cal., was born May 29, 1867, in Ottumwa, Iowa. He organized and became president of the first national bank that was chartered in Alaska. He is now president of the Union National Bank of San Luis Obispo, and president of the First National Bank of Paso Robles, Cal.

Sumners, Hatton W., United States congressman at large from Texas, was born May 30, 1875, in Lincoln County, Tenn. He has been prosecuting attorney of his county. He was elected to the sixty-third congress for the term of 1913-15, and resides in Dallas, Texas.

Sutherland, George, United States senator from Utah, was born March 25, 1862, in Buckinghamshire, England; was elected to the fifty-seventh congress; declined renomination to the fiftyeighth; was elected to the United States senate by the Utah legislature for the term beginning March 4, 1905. His term expired March 3, 1911; he was re-elected fourth term of 1911-17, and resides in Salt Lake City, Utah.

Sutherland, George Geer, lawyer, banker; born, Madison, Wis., March 21, 1851; son of Chester and Mary Ann (Rood) Sutherland; graduated from University of Wisconsin, A.B., 1872, and from its Law School, LL.B., 1874; married, Fulton, Wis., June 30, 1880, Agnes Sayre; children: Sarah, Clarence, Frank. Since 1874 engaged in law practice; owns a considerable amount of real estate in Wisconsin and in the city of Chicago. President Bower City Bank of Janesville, Wis., The Caloric Co., Janesville Realty Co., Spring Brook Realty Co., Loan and Investment Co.; director Janesville Electric Co. Mason (lodge, chapter and consistory), and Knight Templar. Address : Janesville, Wis.

Sutherland, Howard, United States congressman at large from West Virginia, was born Sept. 8, 1865, near Kirkwood, Mo. He is engaged in the coal and timberland business. He was elected to the sixty-third congress for the term of 1913-15, and resides in Elkins, W.Va.

Swain, John Merton, editor and ornithologist, of Farmington, Me., was born April 22, 1873, in Farmington, Me. He received a high school and academic education. He was editor, secretary and treasurer of the Journal of the Maine Ornithological Society. He is president of the Maine Ornithological Society, and a charter member of the Maine Academy of Science. He is a successful fancy fruit grower. He is the author of Life Histories of Warblers and other monographs.

Swain, Joseph H., educator, president Swarthmore, Pa., College since 1902, was born in Pendleton, Ind., June 16, 1857; son of Woolston and Mary A. Swain; was graduated from Indiana University, 1883; A.M., LL.D., Wabash College. Married, Sept. 22, 1855, in Knightstown, Ind., Frances M. Morgan. Instructor in mathematics and zoology, 1883-85, Indiana University; assistant U.S. Fish Commissioner, 1884; associate professor of mathematics, 1885-86; professor of mathematics, 1886-91, Indiana University; student of mathematics and astronomy, University of Edinburgh, 1885-86; professor of mathematics, Leland Stanford,

Jr., University, 1891-93; president Indiana University, 1893-1902.

. Author of many scientific papers; has been president Indiana State Teachers' Association and president of Higher Education Section of National Teachers' Association; member National Council on Education; member National Council on Religious Education; president National Education Association, 1913-14.

Swanson, Claude Augustus, United States senator from Virginia, was born March 31, 1862, in Swansonville, Va. In 1866 he began the practice of law. He was elected to the fifty-third, fifty-fourth, fifty-fifth, fifty-sixth, fifty-seventh, fifty-eighth and fifty-ninth congresses, and in 1906-10 was governor of Virginia. Since 1911 he has been a member of the United States senate, and resides in Chatham, Va.

Swasey, Ambrose, of 7808 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, Ohio. Mechanical engineering. Born, Exeter, N.H., Dec. 19, 1846. Pub. schools; hon. D.Eng., Case, 1905 ; hon. Sc.D., Denison, 1910. Mem. firm Warner and Swasey, Cleveland, 1880-1900; pres. Warner and Swasey Co., 1912. Mem. jury of awards, Nashville, Pan-Am., La. Purchase and Jamestown Expositions; pres. Cleveland Chamber of Commerce. Chevalier Légion d'honneur, 1900. Mech. Eng. (v.-pres., 1901; pres., 1904); Cleveland Civil Eng. Club pres., 1894); British Inst. Mech. Eng. ; fel. Royal Astron. Soc.; British Astron. Assn. Design of the Lick and Yerkes telescopes; the circular dividing engine; the Swasey depression range finder and other scientific instruments.

Sweet, Dr. John Edson, of 114 Merriman Ave., Syracuse, N.Y., Mechanics. Born, Pompey, N.Y., Oct. 21, 1832. Pub. schools. Prof. practical mech., Cornell, 1873-79; pres. Straight Line Engine Co., 1880-. Director in various mfg. industries; supt. Artisan School, Syracuse; mem. jury of awards, Columbian Expo., 1893; expert, Navy Dept. Mech Eng. (pres, 1883); Min. Eng. ; Eng. Builders Assn. (past pres.); John Fritz Medal Assn. (past pres.) ; Syracuse Tech. Club (past pres.). Machine construction; industrial education.

Swickerath, Rev. Robert, S.J., born Jan. 15, 1869, Kyllburg, Rhine-Province, Germany; educated in Prussian elementary schools, then the Gymnasium at Treves; entered the Society of Jesus, in Holland, in 1890; studied philosophy at Exaten and Valkenberg, 1892-95; came to America that year and taught history and classics at Canisius College, Buffalo, N.Y., from 1895 to 1900; studied theology at Woodstock, Md., from 1900 to 1904; ordained priest there in 1903; has been professor of history and pedagogy at Holy Cross College, Worcester, Mass., since 1907. Published works: History of Middle Ages (1913); Jesuit Education, Its History and Principles in the Light of Modern Educational Problems (Herder, St. Louis, Mo., 1903); second edition, 1905); Character and Character Formation (Harrigan Bros., Worcester, 1909); Juvencius' Lern-und Lehr-methode (Freiburg, Germany, Herder, 1898); in the Collection Volks-aufklärung the following twelve booklets: Glaube und Wissenschaft; Woher! Wohin? oder Mensch und Tier; Religion und Religionslosigkeit; Offenbarung, Wunder und Geheimnisse; Missglückte Angriffe

auf die mosaischen Berichte; Jesus von Nazareth; Die Centralfrage des Christentums; Die wahre Kirche; Die Kirche als Lehrerin der Welt; Die Kirche als Mutter der Gläubigen; Die Hirten der Völker; Katholizisimus und Protestantismus als sittliche Erzieher der Jugend (all at Warnsdorf, Austria, Opitz, 1900-04); has contributed to the Catholic Encyclopedia, and to the following magazines: Catholic Quarterly Review ; Ecclesiastical Review; The Messenger; The Review ; Benziger's Magazine; Pastoral-Blatt; Stimmen aus Maria-Laach. Address : Holy Cross College, Worcester, Mass.

Swift, David Robert, real estate dealer and banker, of Lake Charles, La., was born June 21, 1858, in Belgrade, Texas. He is president of the Swift Coal and Timber Co.; president of the Southern Land and Water Co.; president of the Swift Land Co.; president of the Great Central Lake Lumber Co. and other corporations.

Switzer, Robert Mauck, congressman, was born March 6, 1863. near Gallipolis, Ohio. Since 1892 he has practiced law, and the following year was elected prosecuting attorney of his county. He was elected to the sixty-second and sixty-third congresses as a Republican, and resides in Gallipolis, Ohio.

Sykes, Frederick Henry, educater, college president and author, of New London, Conn., was born Oct. 21, 1863, in Queensville, Ontario. He has been staff lecturer for the American Society for University Extension, and professor of English and director of extension teaching in Columbia University. He is now president of the Connecticut College for Women. He is the author of Elementary English Composition; English Literature in the Nineteenth Century and other works.

Sylvester, Albert Hale, geographer, civil engineer and forester; born Woodside, Cal., May 25, 1871; son of Daniel Webster and Augusta P. (Chapin) Sylvester. Educated in public schools, Geyserville, Cal.; Hopkins Academy, Oakland, Cal., 1888; Santa Rosa High School, Cal., 1888-89; B.S., University of California, 1895; University of Minnesota, special work in mining and geology, 1897. Married Alice Peirce, Nov. 16, 1899, at Chicago, Ill. Topographer, U.S. Geological Survey, 1895-1908. Since 1908, Forest Supervisor, U.S. Forest Service. Member National Geographic Society, Geological Society, American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Society Civil Engineers, Leavenworth Commercial Club, Sigma Nu Fraternity, honorary member Luther Burbank Society. Scientific work: Topographic maps in Washington, Oregon and California ; glaciers and physiography, including vulcanology of Mt. Hood, Oregon. Address: U.S. Forest Office, Leavenworth, Wash.

Taft, Frederick Harris, lawyer; born, Pierrepont Manor, N.Y., April 4, 1857; son of Stephen Harris and Mary Antoinette (Burnham) Taft. A.B., Humboldt (Iowa) College, 1879; LL.B., law department, Northwestern University, Sioux City, Ia., 1892. Married Frances M. Welch, February 23, 1881. Moved to California, 1893. Organizing member law firm, Tanner, Taft & Odell. City attorney, Santa Monica, 1902-07. Member Interna

tional Order of Good Templars. Progressive. Appointed Superior judge, Los Angeles County, Aug., 1913; assigned to Dept. 8, the Juvenile Court. Club, Union League. Residence: Santa Monica, Cal.

Taft, Henry Waters, lawyer, of 40 Wall St., New York City; born Cincinnati, O., May 27, 1859; son of Hon. Alphonso Taft (secretary of war and afterwards attorney-general of the U.S. in Grant's second administration, minister to Austria, 1882-84, minister to Russia, 1884-85), and of Louise M. (Torrey) Taft; educated Yale, B.A., 1880, honorary M.A., 1905. Married, Troy, N.Y., March 28, 1883, Julia W. Smith; children: Walbridge S., born Nov. 29, 1884; William Howard, 2d, born Dec. 11, 1887; Louise Witherbee (Mrs. George H. Snowdon), born Dec. 10, 1888. Has practiced law in New York City since 1882; member law firm Cadwalader, Wickersham & Taft. Served for several years from 1898 as member Board of Education of City of New York; member Board Trustees Coll. City of New York; tendered by Governor Roosevelt and declined appointment of Justice of State Supreme Court; member Charter Revision Commission, appointed by Governor Roosevelt to revise the charter of Greater New York; now one of trustees of New York Public Library. Was appointed special assistant to the attorney general of U.S. to investigate and prosecute the Tobacco Trust; resigned Jan., 1907. Republican. Trustee Mutual Life Ins. Co. of New York. Vicepresident Association Bar City of New York, vice-president New York County Lawyers' Association, member New York State Bar Association and American Bar Association. Member Skull and Bones and Psi Upsilon fraternities. Clubs: University, Century, Yale, Garden City Golf, Shinnecock Hills Golf, National Golf Club, Piping Rock Club, Down Town, Midday, Republican.

Taggart, Joseph, United States congressman from the second district of Kansas, was born June 15, 1867, in Allamakee County, Ia. Since 1894 he has practiced law in Kansas. He was elected to the sixty-second congress to fill a vacancy; was elected to the sixty-third congress for the term of 1913-15, and resides in Kansas City, Kan.

Taggart, Thomas, member Democratic National Committee from Indiana, was born Nov. 17, 1856, in Ireland. In 1861 he located in Xenia, Ohio; in 1874 removed to Garrett, Ind., and since 1877 has lived in Indianapolis. He is president of the Denison Hotel, of Indianapolis, and is also president of the French Lick Springs Hotel Co. In 1886-1894 he was auditor of Marion County, Ind. ; in 1892-96 he was chairman of the Democratic State Committee, and since 1892 has been district chairman for the Seventh Congressional District. In 1895-1901 he served three terms as mayor of Indianapolis. Since 1900 he has been a member of the Democratic National Committee from Indiana, and resides in French Lick Springs.

Takamine, Jokichi, of 550 W. 1730 St., New York, N.Y. Chemistry. Born, Takaoka, Japan, Nov. 3, 1854. Ch.E., Tokio, 1878; M.E., Glasgow, 1879; D.E., 1880; Phar.D., 1881. Chemist, Dept. Agr. and Commerce, Japan, 1883-87. V. commissioner patents,

Patent Office, Japan; chief chemist, Tokio Fertilizer Works; consulting chemist, Parke, Davis & Co. Gold medal, Japan Eng. Soc. M.A.A.; Chem. Soc.; Electrochem. Soc.; Soc. Chem. Indust.; Tokio Chem. Soc.; Japan Eng. Soc.; fel. London Chem. Soc. Member of Imperial Academy of Japan. Diastatic ferments; active principles of the suprarenal glands.

Talbott, Joshua Frederick C., congressman was born July 29, 1843, in Baltimore, Md. In 1871-75 he was prosecuting attorney for Baltimore County, Md. He was a member from Maryland to the forty-sixth, forty-seventh and forty-eighth congresses and was a member of the fifty-third, fifty-eighth, fifty-ninth, sixtieth, sixty-first and sixty-second congresses. He was re-elected to the sixty-third congress from the second district of Maryland for the term of 1913-15; and resides in Towson, Md.

Talcott, Charles A., congressman, was born June 10, 1857, in Utica, N. Y. In 1886 he was city counsel of Utica, N. Y.; and was mayor of his city in 1902-06. He was elected to the sixtysecond and sixtry-third congresses as a democrat; and resides in Utica, N. Y.

Talcott, Harry Randolph, engineer of surveys, Baltimore & Ohio Rd. Baltimore, Md. Born, Nov. 9, 1861, at Richmond, Va. Educated at Rittenhouse Academy, Washington, D. C., June, 1878. Entered railway service 1878 as rodman on preliminary survey Chesapeake & Ohio Rd. from Gordonsville to Fredericksburg, Va.; held successive positions on railway surveys and construction and was for a time with the United States Coast Geodetic Survey, until Nov. 1889, since which he has been consecutively to July, 1892, chief engineer Seattle Lake Shore & Eastern Rd.; July, 1892, to Dec. 1897, second vice-president Seattle Coal & Iron Co.; May, 1894, to Jan. 1898, also chief engineer Seattle Lake Shore & Eastern Rd.; June, 1898, to Aug. 1899, engineer for contractor building the White Pass & Yukon Rd. from Skaguay, Alaska, to Lake Bennett, British Columbia ; Aug. 1899, appointed chief engineer Seattle International Ry, and remained in that position until the road was absorbed by Northern Pacific Rd., from which time to Nov. 1901, he was resident engineer latter road at Seattle, Wash. ; Nov. 1901 to March, 1903, treasurer Taft-Pierce Mfg. Co., at Woonsocket, R.I.; March 1, 1903, to March 1, 1905, assistant engineer in office of district engineer Baltimore & Ohio Rd, at Somerset, Pa.; March 1, 1905, to Dec. 1, 1914, engineer of surveys; Dec. 1, to date, engineer of surveys and chairman of Federal Valuation Committee, B. &0. System.

Talmadge, Henry P., banker; born Troy, N. Y., 1847; son of Henry and Frances (Cossitt) Talmadge; graduated from Harvard College, 1868; married, Brooklyn, N. Y., 1872, Lucy White. President and director Augusta Lumber Co., Augusta, Ga., Haviland Lumber Co., Southern Pine Co. of Georgia; director Albany & Northern Railway Co., Colwell Land Co., Empire Trust Co., National Bank of Brunswick, Ga., Third National Bank of Albany, Ga. Clubs: University, Whist, Union. Residence: Nether. wood, N. J. Office: 50 Pine St., N. Y. City.

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