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of Rhode Island for the city of Woonsocket (1901-02), and served as such for two years in the House of Representatives; in 1902 was elected lieutenant-governor of Rhode Island, and served one term; was elected mayor of the city of Woonsocket in 1905-06, and filled that office for two successive terms. Member of the Cercle National Dramatique and L'Union St. Jean Baptiste d'Amérique. Mr. Archambault is at present legal advisor of L'Union St. Jean Baptiste de’Amérique. Address: 10 Longley Bldg., Woonsocket, R.I.

Archbald, Robert Wodrow, United States Circuit Judge, was born Sept. 10, 1848, in Carbondale, Pa. He graduated from Yale Coll. in 1871. In 1884 he was elected additional law judge of the Forty-fifth judicial district of Pennsylvania; in 1888 became presiding judge of the said district, and was re-elected in 1894 for another ten years. In 1901 he was appointed judge of the United States District Court for the middle district of Pennsylvania, being the first incumbent of the office; and on Feb. 1, 1911, he became one of the judges of the newly created United States Commerce Court. He resides in Scranton, Pa.

Ardrey, James Howard, banker, born at Dallas, Tex., Sept. 14, 1875; son of A. C. and Susan (Downs) Ardrey; educated in public schools of Dallas, and in Texas State Univ., Austin, Tex.; married, Dallas, Oct. 28, 1897, Mamie Guion Hayden; ur children: James Howard, Jr., Alexander H., Rushton L., and one deceased. Engaged as merchant and private banker at Godley, Tex., 1894-1901; in real estate business in Dallas, 1901-05; in banking at Dallas, since 1905, now being cashier and director of the City Natl. Bank of Dallas. Served as councilman, 1903-05; as city treasurer 1906-14; president, Chamber of Commerce, 1908. Democrat. Baptist. Recreation, golf. Club, Dallas. Residence, 4507 Gaston Ave. Office, corner Main and Murphy Sts., Dallas.

Arend, Francis J., manufacturer, born at Trenton, N.J., Dec. 18, 1866; son of Frank E. and Mary F. (Whitley) Arend. Engaged in centrifugal separator business from beginning business life; later in development of the steam turbine in America, real estate, mining, etc. Treasurer and general manager, The De Laval Separator Co.; and president, De Laval Mfg. Co.; secretary and treasurer, De Laval Steam Turbine Co.; president, Jersey Shore Realty Co.; director, Coal & Iron Natl. Bank; member, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Am. Museum of Natural History, Am. Geog. Soc., and numerous trade and civic associations. Clubs, City, Automobile of Am., N.Y. Athletic, Railroad, Sleepy Hollow, Country, etc. Residence, 32 W. 73d St., N.Y. City, and Deal Beach, N.J. Address, 165 Broadway, N.Y. City.

Arkell, Thomas Reginald, of New Hampshire College, Durham, N. H., was born at Arkell, Ont., March 30, 1887. B.S.A., Toronto, 1908. Prof. animal husbandry, N.H. Coll., and animal husbandman, N.H., Agr. Exp. Sta., 1909., M.A.A.; Breeders' Assn.; Am. Soc. Animal Nutrition, Nutrition in sheep; Mendelian inheritance in sheep.

Armour, M. Cochrane, merchant and manufacturer, born in Auburn, N. Y., Jan. 11, 1851; son of John and Lillias (Cochrane)

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Armour. He was educated in the public schools and then became a clerk at Marshall, Mich., in the grain and milling business, and afterward, at the same place, was associated with his father in the grain and grocery business under the name of J. and M. C. Armour. He removed in 1876 to Chicago where he was for some years a department manager for the Adams & Westlake Co., and from there went to Cincinnati, where he was vice president and general manager of the Radford Pipe & Foundry Co., and became also a partner in the firm of Rogers, Brown & Co., leading pig iron merchants. Since 1895 he has again lived in Chicago, as resident partner of that firm in that important market. He is also director of the Chicago Short Line Ry.; president and director of the Iroquois Iron Co.; vice president and director of the Rogers Iron Mining Co., and a director of the RogersBrown Ore Co. He is a member of the Union League Club of Chicago, the Country Club of Evanston, Ill., and the Glen View Golf Club. He married at Hyde Park, Chicago, in June, 1888, Minnie T. Huggins, and they have four children. Residence, 1608 Ridge Ave., Evanston, Ill. Office, Corn Exchange Bank Bldg., Chicago.

Armstrong, Edwin N., president Toledo, Peoria & Western Ry. Office: Peoria, Ill. Born, Sept. 19, 1845, at Nashua, N.H. Entered railway service April 1, 1867, as warehouseman Illinois Central Rd., since which he has been consecutively to 1869, telegraph operator at Kinmundy, Ill., and night operator and dispatcher at Champaign, Ill. ; 1869 to 1872, train dispatcher, superintendent telegraph and agent Indianapolis, Bloomington & Western Rd.; 1872 to 1880, train dispatcher Toledo, Peoria & Warsaw Rd. at Peoria, Ill. ; 1880 to 1882, superintendent Iowa division Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Ry.; Dec., 1882, to July, 1883, superintendent Chicago division; July 1, 1883, to May 26, 1884, superintendent Northern division; May 26, 1884, to June 11, 1885, superintendent Middle division same road; June 11, 1885, to Oct., 1904, general superintendent Toledo, Peoria & Western Ry.; Oct., 1904, to date, president same road.

Armstrong, James Douglas, counsel Great Northern Iron Ore Properties. Office: St. Paul, Minn, Born, April 8, 1866, at St. Paul, Minn. Educated at the University of Minnesota, 1885-86, and University of Michigan, 1887-89. Entered railway service June, 1885, as rodman Duluth & Manitoba Ry., since which he has been, 1890 to 1895, assistant general solicitor St. Paul & Duluth Rd.; 1895 to 1900, member of law firm of Hadley & Armstrong, general solicitors, St. Paul & Duluth Rd.; 1900 to 1906, engaged in general practice; June 1, 1907, to April 14, 1910, assist ant general solicitor Great Northern Ry.; April 14, 1910, to Nov. 25, 1912. general attorney same road; Nov. 25, 1912, to date, counsel Great Northern Iron Ore Properties.

Armstrong, Willis R., banker, born at Orient, Ia., Dec. 11, 1876; son, William F. and H. H. Thacher. Married Dell Heizer Armstrong, May 29, 1904, at Colorado Springs, Colo. Cashier, Colorado Springs Natl. Bank; trustee, Colorado Coll. Club: Colorado Springs Golf. Address, Colorado Springs, Colo.

Arnell, Charles Jonathan, Am. Consul of Tokyo, Japan, was born at sea of American parents, July 1, 1881; high school graduate; took a partial college course; also courses in commercial and normal training; clerk in law office, 1902; Spanish translator, Philippine Civil Service, 1903-4; with Opium Investigating committee, 1904-05; librarian in Philippine Civil Service, 1905; private secretary to the Ambassador to Japan, 1906; appointed, after examination (September 12, 1906), student interpreter and Vice-Consul-General at Mukden, Sept. 14, 1906; retired as student interpreter and appointed interpreter, March 20, 1907; vice and deputy Consul-General, Sept. 19, 1907; assistant Japanese secretary to the embassy to Japan, June 25, 1908; Japanese secretary and interpreter with rank of first secretary to the embassy to Japan, Sept. 7, 1909.

Arnold, Benjamin Walworth, general investments, Albany, born in Albany, 1865. Educated at Hamilton College. Member of the firms of Arnold & Co. of Albany, Folsom & Arnold of Bay City, Mich., and Millen, Arnold Co. of Duluth, Minn., Alger, Smith & Co. of Duluth Minn. Trustee, Albany Savings Bank; director, Mechanics' & Farmers' Bank and is president of the Spanish River Lumber Co. of Spanish River, Ontario; also trustee, Hamilton Coll. ; governor, Union Univ. Member, University Club of New York City, N.Y. Yacht Club, etc.

Arnold, William Hendrick, lawyer, banker, was born at Lisbon, Ark., Feb. 15, 1861. Son of David S. and Temple L. Arnold. He was educated in public schools and academies in Arkansas. Married, first, Texarkana, Ark., Oct. 13, 1887, Jessie Cook; second, Texarkana, Ark., March 17, 1903, Kate Lewis; children: William H., Jr., Jodie, Lucy, David, Ruth, Richard. Engaged in practice of law, Texarkana, Ark., since 1883, and formerly in Prescott, Ark., one year (business confined mostly to court work in civil general practice); has had several cases in U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals and U.S. Supreme Court. Vice-presi. dent, director and counsel State Savings & Trust Co., and State Natl. Bank; counsel Texarkana Gas & Elec. Có. Mayor Texarkana one term, 1894. Democrat, Methodist. President, Arkansas State Bar Assn., 1908-09 (formerly vice-president two years). President School Board of Texarkana, Ark., ten years; school director sixteen years. Mason, Shriner.

Ashbrook, Joseph, life insurance officer; born at Philadelphia, Pa., Aug. 4, 1840; son of James and Eliza (Garwood) Ashbrook; educated in public schools of Philadelphia; married, Philadelphia, Pa., Oct. 29, 1867, Catherine S. Sinclair; children: William S. and Donald S. Vice-president and director, Provident Life & Trust Co. of Philadelphia, until his resignation on account of ill health. Widely known as a writer and speaker on subjects relating to life insurance. Served as captain 118th Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers; was badly wounded soon after entering army; brevetted major United States Volunteers for “gallant and distinguished services." Republican; Methodist. Member, American Historical Assn., Military Order of the Loyal Legion and Grand Army of Republic. Club, Union League of Philadel

phia. Residence, 3614 Baring St. Office, 401-409 Chestnut St., Philadelphia.

Ashbrook, William A., congressman, was born July 1, 1867, near Johnstown, Ohio. Since 1886 he has published the Independent of Johnstown, Ohio. For three years he was secretary of the National Editorial Assn. of the United States; and was elected a representative to the Ohio State Legislature. He was elected from Ohio to the sixtieth, sixty-first, sixty-second and sixty-third congresses as a Democrat; and resides in Johnstown, Ohio.

Ashby, Edward Bird, chief engineer, Lehigh Valley Rd. Office, New York City, N.Y. Born May 23, 1864, at Buffalo, N.Y. Graduated from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute at Troy, N.Y.,

, 1886. Entered railway service, 1886, in office of engineer maintenance of way, Philadelphia & Erie Rd. (Pennsylvania Rd.) at Williamsport, Pa., since which he has been consecutively to 1897, supervisor and engineer same road; 1897 to 1899, principal assistant engineer, maintenance of way, Baltimore & Ohio Rd.; 1899 to 1900, assistant engineer, maintenance of way, Lehigh Valley Rd. ; 1900 to 1908, engineer, maintenance of way, same road; 1908 to date, chief engineer, same road.

Ashhurst, Henry Fountain, United States Senator from Arizone, was born Sept. 13, 1874, in Winnemucca, Nev. He has been a member of the Arizona State Legislature. He was elected United States Senator for term ending 1917, and resides in Prescott, Ariz.

Ashley, Charles Sumner, merchant and public official of New Bedford, Mass., was born Sept. 5, 1858, in New Bedford, Mass. He is a successful merchant of New Bedford, Mass. He was mayor of that city in 1891, 1892, 1897, 1898, 1899, 1900, 1901, 1902, 1903, 1904, 1905, 1907, 1910, 1911, 1912, and now in 1914, and its postmaster in 1893-96.

Ashley, Frank M., mechanical and electrical engineer and patent attorney, of 154 Nassau St., New York City, was born in Catskill, N.Y., June 10, 1867; son of John J. (M.D.) and Susie A. (Merwin) Ashley; educated in Brooklyn public schools and Cooper Inst.; married, Brooklyn, 1888, Jennie Bell Wood; children: Frank S., born 1890; Jessie, born 1891; Merwin Franklin, born 1900; Grace Ashley, born 1912. Inventor of many improvements in engineering machinery and steam and electrical specialties; first in the art to generate and store ozone gas under pressure on a commercial scale (process and apparatus patented); inventor of new method of constructing violins. President Ashley Valve Co. Republican. Baptist. Member Am. Inst. Elect. Engrs., Am. Soc. Mech. Engrs., Nat. Assn. Stationary Engrs., Franklin Inst. of Pa., Patent Law Assn. of Washington, Inventors' League of the U.S., Soc. of Automobile Engrs. Recreations : Music and travel.

Aspinwall, J. Lawrence, architect; born in New York City, June 3, 1854; son of James Scott and Margaret (Maxwell) Aspinwall, his mother being a native of Dumfries, Scotland. He was educated at Dwight's Day School, and afterward at the Lyons

School, and at the school of Prof. Collain, in New York City. Mr. Aspinwall entered the office of James Renwick, architect, in 1875, and in 1880 became a member of the firm of Renwick, Aspinwall & Russell, which later changed to its present style of Renwick, Aspinwall & Tucker. He was architect of the second Stock Exchange, the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children, and that of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals; a large number of hospitals (Scarlet Fever and Department hospitals, New York City, Stony Wold Sanitarium, Adirondack Cottage Sanitarium, New York Infirmary for Women and Children), office buildings, apartment houses, etc. He was also associated with James Renwick in working out much of the detail of St. Patrick's Cathedral and the stone spire of Grace Church, at Broadway and 10th St. He was one of the original members of Troop A, now Squadron A, of the N.Y. State Guard. Mr. Aspinwall is treasurer of the St. Luke's Assn. of Grace Church, New York City; a member of the General Soc. and New York Chapter of the American Inst. of Architects, the Architectural League of New York City, and one of the board of managers of the New York Inst. for the Education of the Blind. He is also a member of the Union, Engineers' and Atlantic Yacht clubs of New York. Mr. Aspinwall married, in 1891, May Morris Carnochan, of New York City, who died Ápril 22, 1892. Address: 320 Fifth Ave., New York City.

Aswell, James Benjamin, U.S. congressman from the eighth district of La., was born Dec. 23, 1869, in Jackson Parish, La. He has been president of the La. Industrial Inst., and served two terms as state superintendent of public instruction.

He was elected to the sixty-third congress for the term of 1913-15, and resides in Natchitoches, La.

Atherton, Thomas Henry, lawyer, banker; born Wyoming, Pa., July 14, 1853; son of William and Sarah P. (Atherton) Henry: surname changed, for family reasons from Henry to Atherton, by Act of Legislature; graduated from Princeton University, A.B. 1874, A.M., 1877; married, Pittston, Pa., Oct. 7, 1880, Melanie Parke; children: Louise, Henry Melanie, Sarah, Elizabeth, and Eleanor. Studied law with Hon. C. E. Rice, and admitted to bar, Sept. 16, 1876; later admitted to the State Supreme and Federal Courts. Director and counsel Vulcan Iron Works, Peoples Bank of Wilkes-Barre, director, vice-president and counsel Second National Bank; president and counsel of the Sheldon Axle Co. Has been identified with numerous civic movements. Republican; Presbyterian. Member Law Association, Pennsylvania Bar Association, Pennsylvania Society of Sons of Revolution, Pennsylvania Historical Society, Wyoming Historical Society, Princeton Alumni Association; vice-president United Charities, Humane Society, and trustee of several educational institutions. Address: 36 W. River St., Wilkes-Barre.

Atkinson, Alfred, Experiment Station, Bozeman, Mont., born, Seaforth, Ont., Oct. 6, '79. Ont. Agr. Col., '99-'02; B.S.A., Iowa State, 04; M.S., Cornell University, 1912; Asst. agron, Ia. Agr. Exp. Sta., 02-04; prof., Mont. Col. and Exp. Sta., 04.

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