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and was reelected to the sixty-third congress for the term of 1913-15; and resides in Easton, Md.

Cowing, Edward K., deputy clerk, Criminal Court Building, New York City; residence 47 West 52nd St. Born in New York City Aug. 19, 1868. Educated at Grammar School No. 37, and Columbia Grammar School. Deputy clerk Court of General Sessions, New York City.

Cowles, Alfred Hutchinson, chemical engineer and business president of Sewaren, N. J., was born Dec. 8, 1858, in Cleveland, Ohio. He is past vice-president of the American electro-chemical society. With his brother he started the first electric smelting plant in the world in 1886. He is president of the Electric Smelting and Aluminum company; and president of the Pecos Copper company and other corporations.

Cox, Henry Joseph, meteorologist; born Newton, Mass., April 5, 1863; son of. Thomas and Hannah M. (Perkins) Cox; A.B., Harvard, 1884 (Hon. A. M. Norwich, 1887 and D.Sc., 1914); married Mary Cavanagh, Somerville, Mass., Sept. 8, 1887. In Weather Service since Aug. 1, 1884; while in charge of station Northfield, Vt., 1886-88, served Professor at Norwich University. Has served at various Weather Bureau stations throughout the country; now in charge North-Central Forecast District, with headquarters at Chicago; also in charge of special researches in field of Agricultural Meteorology. Publications : Weather Bureau Records in Court, 1903 (Yearbook of Dept. of Agri.); Monograph Recent Advance in Meteorology, 1904; Lantern Slides in the Teaching of Meteorology and Bulletin, No. 3, Geog. Soc. of Chicago, 1906; Notes of a Meteorologist in Europe, 1907; Frost and Temperature Conditions in Cranberry Marshes, 1910 (Bulletin T, Weather Bureau); The Weather Bureau and the Cranberry Industry, 1911 (Yearbook of Dept. of Agri.) ; Monograph-Weather and Climate of Chicago, 1913. Societies : National Geographic, Nat. Institute of Social Science, Illinois Academy of Science, Geographic Society of Chicago (Pres., 1905-07). Now member of Bd. of Directors of Chicago Geog. Soc. and Citizens League. Clubs: University, Chicago Athletic, Union League, Chicago Yacht, Beverly Country. Office: Weather Bureau, Federal Bldg., Chicago. Residence: 4566 Lake Park Ave.

Cox, James M., governor of the state of Ohio, was born March 31, 1870, in Jacksonburg, Butler County, Ohio. He attended the country schools of his native state and graduated from the high school of his native town. In his early youth he was a newsboy; learned the printers' trade; and became a successful journalist. For many years he was a newspaper reporter; became a well known newspaper publisher of Dayton, Ohio; and has filled numerous positions of trust and honor in his city, county and state. He was elected to the sixty-first and sixty-second congresses as a democrat. He is governor of Ohio for the term of 1913-15; and resides in Columbus, Ohio.

Cox, Palmer, artist and author of New York City, was born on April 28, 1840, in Canada. He became famous the world over

as the author of a series of books entitled “The Brownies, Their Book”; “Another Brownie Book," and other works. -A volume entitled "Queer People,"' contains a collection of many of his contributions to juvenile literature. In his younger days he lived on the Pacific coast, and there published “Squibs of California" and various other works. He illustrated his own works; and has a studio and sanctum on Broadway, New York City. His other works are “Hans Von Petter's Trip to Gotham''; "How Columbus Found America"; "That Stanley”; “Queer People, Such as Goblins, etc.''; “Queer People with Claws and Wings”; “Queer People with Wings and Stings”; and resides in New York City.

Cox, William Elijah, congressman, was born in Dubois County, Ind., Sept. 6, 1865; is a graduate of the Lebanon University of Lebanon, Tenn., and of the law department of the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; is an attorney-at-law, admitted as such on the 10th day of July, 1889; served as prosecuting attorney of his judicial district from 1892 to 1898; was elected to the sixtieth, sixty-first and sixty-second congresses, and re-elected to the sixty-third congress for the term of 1913-15 as a democrat; and resides in Jasper, Ind.

Coxe, Joseph Wentworth, Comptroller Norfolk & Western Ry. Office Roanoke, Va. Born Dec. 13, 1853, at Philadelphia, Pa. Entered railway service April 1877, since which he has been consecutively to April 1, 1879, clerk in auditor's office Empire Fast Freight Line; April 1 to April 21, 1879, in office of auditor freight receipts Pennsylvania Rd., April 21, 1879, to March, 1880, auditor and general ticket agent Buffalo, Chatauqua Lake & Pittsburgh Ry.; March, 1880, to Sept., 1883, auditor and general ticket agent Shenandoah Valley Rd., under same management as above named company; Sept. 1883 to April 1885, auditor Shenandoah Valley Rd., April 1, 1885, to March 31, 1902, auditor Norfolk & Western Rd. and its successor, the Norfolk & Western Ry.; April 1, 1902, to Feb. 1, 1904, general auditor same road; Feb. 1, 1904, to date, comptroller same road; Jan. 1, 1884, to March 31, 1902, also clearing house agent Great Southern Despatch Fast Freight Line.

Coyle, Henry, editor, born in Boston, Mass., 1864; ed. in the grammar schools; served as editor of the Weekly Bouquet for five years and of The Orphan's Friend twelve years; author of The Promise of Morning (verses), 1889; editor and compiler of Our Church, Her Children and Institutions, 3 vols., 1908; Lyrics of Faith and Hope, 1914; contributor to The Independent, Youth's Companion, The Chautauquan, and many other publications; has traveled in England and U.S. Address: 85 Vernon St., Boston, Mass.

Coyle, M. C., Division Superintendent Michigan Central Rd., and Superintendent Detroit & Charlevoix Rd. Office, Bay City, Mich. Born March 24, 1854, at Angelica, N.Y. Entered railway service 1866, since which he has been consecutively to Jan. 1867, messenger New York & Erie Ry.; Jan. 1867 to April 1871, operator same road; April 1871 to Aug. 1874, operator and train dispatcher Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Ry.; Aug. 1874 to Jan. 1,

1883, train dispatcher Canada Southern Rd.; Jan. 1, 1883, to April 1, 1888, train dispatcher Michigan Central Rd. ; April 1, 1888, to Sept. 1, 1894, chief train dispatcher; Sept. 1, 1894, to Dec. 20, 1898, trainmaster, and Dec. 20, 1898, to date, division superintendent same road; Sept. 20, 1910, to date, also superintendent Detroit & Charlevoix Rd.

Crabtree, James William, college president and author of River Falls, Wis., was born April 18, 1864, in Crabtree, Scioto County, Ohio. He has been a successful teacher, superintendent of city schools, state inspector of high schools in Nebraska, and state superintendent of public instruction of Nebraska. For six years he was president of the Peru State Normal School; and since 1911 has been president of the River Falls State Normal School of Wisconsin. He has been president of the Nebraska State Teachers' Association; and is the author of the “Crabtree Speller" and other works.

Craig, Con W., business manager of Paducah, Ky., was born Aug. 17, 1876, in Unionville, Ill. He has been a clerk in the N.C.&St.L. freight office of this city and was commercial agent for the same road for seven years. He is secretary of the Board of Trade, of the Manufacturers' Association and of the Antitubercular Association.

Craig, Locke, governor of the state of North Carolina; born Aug. 16, 1860, in Bertie County, N.C. He is a lawyer; and has been a member of the state legislature. He is governor of North Carolina for the term of 1913-17; and resides in Raleigh, N.C.

Cram, William Everett, farmer, naturalist and author of Hampton Falls, N.H., was born June 27, 1871, in Hampton Falls, N.H. His education consisted of a few years in the little country school in Hampton Falls and home studies. He has contributed to the Popular Science Monthly, the New England Magazine, the Ladies' Home Journal and other publications. He is a writer and illustrator of ornithological works at Hampton Falls, N.H. He is the author of “Little Beasts of Field and Wood” and “More Little Beasts," published by Small, Maynard & Co., Boston, Mass., and is co-author of "American Animals,” published by Doubleday, Page & Co., New York, which was written in collaboration with Witmer Stone, of Philadelphia, Pa.

Cramton, Louis C., United States congressman from the Seventh district of Michigan, was born Dec. 2, 1875, in Lapeer County, Mich. He is the editor and publisher of the Lapeer County Clarion; and has been a member of the State Legislature. He was elected to the sixty-third congress for the term of 191315; and resides in Lapeer, Mich.

Crandell, Walter S., stock broker of 25 Broad St., New York City, was born, Chatham, N.Y., 1879, s. Homer and Mary (Hawley) Crandell; grad. Cornell Univ., LL.B., 1901; m. Kinderhook, N.Y., 1909, Bess Bain; two sons, Walter Bain, b. 1911 and Edwin Hawley, 1914. Admitted to N.Y. State bar, 1901; mem. N.Y. Stock Exchange, Sec., treas, and dir. U.S. Light & Heating Co.; dir. Mo., Kans. & Texas Ry. Co., Great Western Power Co., Iowa Central Ry. Co. Mem. : Phi Sigma Kappa fraternity and Masonic

fraternity. Clubs: Republican, Cornell Univ., Columbia Yacht, Lawyers, Railroad and City Midday.

Crandon, Thomas Philip Franklin, railway official. He was educated at Madison, Wis., and he served in the Union Army from Dec., 1861, to July, 1866. He settled in Batavia, Kane County, Ill., after the war, and he was elected clerk of the County Court of Kane County, and was also a member of the Village Council of Batavia, Ill. Jan., 1874, he entered the service of the Chicago and Northwestern Railway of which he has for years been the tax commissioner. Mr. Crandon has long resided at Evanston, Ill., and has served as a member of the city council there and also as a member of the School Board of School District No. 75, at Evanston. He received the degree of A.M. from Northwestern University in 1894, and he is a member and secretary of the Board of Trustees of that university. Residence: 1414 Forest Ave., Evanston, Ill. Office: Chicago and Northwestern Railway, Chicago, Ill.

Crane, Richard, lecturer; b. August, 1864, at Cincinnati, Ohio, of Irish parentage; m. in 1909, Anna Mulvey, of Newport, Ky. Ed. at the public grammar schools of Cincinnati; Woodward High School; pursued seven-year post-graduate course in philosophy at St. Xavier's College (certificate June, 1905). Member of Fi. nance Committee, Board of Trustees of St. Joseph's Orphan Asylum ; Secretary of the Council and President of St. Xavier Conference of the St. Vincent de Paul Society and is actively engaged in charitable work in connection with the society. Has lectured before many Catholic organizations and in Ohio, Indiana and Kentucky upon ethical and educational subjects. Has contributed to various periodicals. Charter member of Cincinnati Council Knights of Columbus; Secretary of Council of St. Vincent de Paul Society; and member of St. Xavier Alumni Association. Address: Ingalls Building, Fourth and Vine Sts., Cincinnati, Ohio.

Crater, George Edwin, Jr., lawyer and financier, was born in Colorado in 1870; is a member of an old Virginia family; was educated in private schools; began his business career at sixteen and engaged successfully in business enterprises. He studied the sciences and medicine and began the practice of medicine, but left it to study law. He was admitted to the bar and is now member of the bar in the States of New York, California, Colorado, the District of Columbia, and the Supreme Court of the United States. He has organized and been seven times president of a National or State bank, and he has organized over six hundred corporations, including railway companies, water companies, light, industrial and mining corporations. He organized the first steamship company to operate between Seattle and Skagway and Dyea, Alaska. Mr. Crater organized the corporation to construct a railway in Persia from Teheran to the Persian Gulf, which organization completed the greatest railway system the world has ever known, at a cost of three hundred million yen, linking the railways of Europe with India, etc., and shortening the belting of the globe by twenty-one days; after which he

projected the building of a railway twelve hundred kilometers long in Brazil. He has been an extensive traveler in all parts of the world. Mr. Crater is a thirty-second degree Mason, a Knight Templar, and a member of the Arabic Order of Nobles of the Mystic Shrine. While his business activities are on a gigantic scale, Mr. Crater has still found time to be very active in charitable work, and he is chairman of the Advisory Board of the Sunshine Society. His recreations include shooting, yachting and motoring and aerial navigation, being an authority as well as a pioneer in this fascinating field of adventure. He is an expert shot, holding numbers of field and target trophies. He has a villa near Paris on Avenue de Pare, Saint Leu, Seine et Oise, France, and a residence at Craterdale, Standhope, Sussex County, New Jersey. Address : P. O. Box 2049, New York.

Cravath, Paul Drennan, lawyer; born Berlin Heights, Ohio, July 14, 1861; son of Erastus Milo and Ruth (Jackson) Cravath; graduated from Oberlin College, A.B., 1882, A.M., 1886; Law School of Columbia Univ., LL.B., 1886 (first Municipal Law prize, and prize tutorship); married, New York, Nov. 15, 1893, Agnes Huntington; one daughter, Vera A. H. Member law firm Cravath-Henderson; director National Bank of Commerce, Equitable Trust Co. Republican; Congregationalist. Member Association of the Bar of the City of New York; N.Y. State Bar Association; American Bar Association; trustee Charity Organization Society. Metropolitan Opera Co., New Theater, New York Symphony Society. Clubs : Metropolitan, University, Union League, Meadow Brook, Piping Rock, Midday, Downtown, Lawyers', Riding, Seawanhaka-Corinthian, Nassau Country, Automobile of America. Residence: 107 East 39th St., Office: 52 William St., N.Y. City.

Crawford, C. G., publisher, 497-505 Pearl St., New York City; residence, 210 West 72nd St., New York City. Vice-president, Wynkoop-Hallenbeck-Crawford Co. Member Union League and Arkwright Clubs.

Crawford, Coe I., United States senator from South Dakota, was born near Volney, Iowa, Jan. 14, 1858; educated in common schools and law department State University of Iowa; was state's attorney of Hughes County, Dakota territory, 1886-1888; member first state senate, South Dakota, 1890; attorney-general of South Dakota, 1892-1896; was governor of the same state in 1906-08. In 1908 he was elected to the United States senate for the term ending in 1915; and resides in Huron, S.D.

Crawford, George R., insurance pres. of 100 William St., New York City, was born, White Plains, N.Y., June 21, 1841. At 16, entered insurance business as clerk; three years later he became partner with father in fire ins. business, as Elisha Crawford & Son; sec., 1865-1879, pres. since 1879, Westchester Fire Ins. Co. Has been pres. village of Mount Vernon, N.Y., and organized Mt. Vernon Fire Dep't, acting as its chief.

Crawford, Harden Lake, banker; born New York, Sept. 26, 1872; son of Robert L. and Julia Gaines (Lake) Crawford; educated in Lawrenceville School, N.J., class of 1891, Princeton

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