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tive proceedings of the State, shall be conducted, promulgated and preserved in the English language.
7. Every person has a right to bear arms for the defence of him. self and the State.
8. The military shall, in all cases and at all times, be in strict subordination to the civil power.
9. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner or occupant, nor in time of war, except in a manner prescribed by law.
10. The people have the right peaceably to assemble together, to consult for the common good, to instruct their representatives, and to petition the Legislature for redress of grievances.
11. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, unless for the punishment of crime, shall ever be tolerated in this State.
12. No lease or grant hereafter of agricultural land for a longer period than twelve years, reserving any rent or service of any kind, shall be valid.
13. Aliens who are, or who may hereafter become, bona fide residents of this State, shall enjoy the same rights in respect to the possession, enjoyment and inheritance of property, as native born citizens.
14. The property of no person shall be taken for public use without just compensation therefor. Private roads may be opened in the manner to be prescribed by law; but in every case the necessity of the road and the amount of all damages to be sustained by the open ing thereof, shall be first determined by a jury of freeholders; and such amount, together with the expenses of proceedings, shall be paid by the person or persons to be benefited.
15. No general revision of the laws shall hereafter be made. When a reprint thereof becomes necessary, the Legislature, in joint convention, shall appoint a suitable person to collect together such acts and parts of acts as are in force, and, without alteration, arrange them under appropriate heads and titles. The laws so arranged shall be submitted to two commissioners appointed by the governor for examination, and if certified by them to be a correct compilation of all general laws in force, shall be printed in such manner as shall be prescribed by law.
ARTICLE XIX.-Upper Peninsula. Sec. 1. The counties of Mackinac, Chippewa, Delta, Marquette, Schoolcraft, Houghton and Ontonagon, and the islands and territory thereunto attached, the islands of Lake Superior, Huron and Michigan, and in Green Bay, and the Straits of Mackinac and the River Ste Marie, shall constitute a separate judicial district, and be entitled to a district judge and district attorney.
2. The district judge shall be elected by the electors of such district, and shall perform the same duties and possess the same powers as a circuit judge in his circuit, and shall hold his office for the same period.
3. The district attorney shall be elected every two years by the electors of the district, shall perform the duties of prosecuting attorney throughout the entire district, and may issue warrants for the arrest of offenders in cases of felony, to be proceeded with as shall be prescribed by law.
4. Such judicial district shall be entitled at all times to at least one senator, and until entitled to more by its population, it shall have three members of the House of Representatives, to be apportioned among the several counties by the Legislature.
5. The Legislature may provide for the payment of the distriet judge a salary not exceeding one thousand dollars a year, and of the district attorney not exceeding seven hundred dollars a year, and may allow extra compensation to the members of the Legislature from such territory, not exceeding two dollars a day during any session.
6. The elections for all district or county officers, State senator or representatives, within the boundaries defined in this article, shall take place on the last Tuesday of September in the respective years in which they may be required. The county canvass shall be held on the first Tuesday in October thereafter, and the district canvass on the last Tuesday of said October.
7. One-half of the taxes received into the treasury from mining corporations in the Upper Peninsula paying an annual State tax of one per cent., shall be paid to the treasurers of the counties from which it is received, to be applied for township and county purposes, as provided by law. The Legislature shall have power, after the year one thousand eight hundred and fifty-five, to reduce the amount to be refunded.
8. The Legislature may change the location of the state prison from Jackson to the Upper Peninsula.
9. The charters of the several mining corporations may be modified by the Legislature, in regard to the term limited for subscribing to stock, and in relation to the quantity of land which a corporation shall hold; but the capital shall not be increased, nor the time for the existence of charters extended. No such corporation shall be permitted to purchase or hold any real estate, except such as shall be necessary for the exercise of its corporate franchises.
ARTICLE XX.- Amendment and Revision of the Constitution.
Sec. 1. Any amendment or amendments to this constitution may be proposed in the Senate or House of Representatives. If the same shall be agreed to by two-thirds of the members elected to each house, such amendment or amendments shall be entered on their journals respectively, with the yeas and nays taken thereon ; and the same shall be submitted to the electors at the next general election thereafter, and if a majority of the electors qualified to vote for
members of the Legislature voting thereon shall ratify and approve such amendment or amendments, the same shall become part of the constitution.
2. At the general election to be held in the year one thousand eight hundred and sixty-six, and in each sixteenth year thereafter, and also at such other times as the Legislature may by law provide, the question of a general revision of the constitution shall be submitted to the electors qualified to vote for members of the Legislature; and in case a majority of the electors so qualified, voting at such election, shall decide in favor of a convention for such purpose, the Legislature, at the next session, shall provide by law for the election of delegates to such convention. All the amendments shall take effect at the commencement of the political year after their adoption.
That no inconvenience may arise from the changes in the constitution of this State, and in order to carry the same into complete operation, it is hereby declared, that
Sec. 1. The common law and the statute laws now in force, not repugnant to this constitution, shall remain in force until they expire by their own limitations, or are altered or repealed by the Legislature.
2. All writs, actions, causes of action, prosecutions, and rights of individuals and of bodies corporate, and of the State, and all charters of incorporation, shall continue; and all indictments which shall have been found, or which may bereafter be found, for any crime or offence committed before the adoption of this constitution, may be proceeded upon as if no change bad taken place. The several courts, except as herein otherwise provided, shall continue with the like powers and jurisdiction, both at law and in equity, as if this constitution had not been adopted, and until the organization of the judicial department under this constitution.
3. That all fines, penalties, forfeitures and escheats accruing to the State of Michigan under the present constitution and laws, shall accrue to the use of the State under this constitution.
4. That all recognizances, bonds, obligations, and all other instruments entered into or executed before the adoption of this constitution, to the people of the State of Michigan, to any state, county or township, or any public officer or public body, or which may be entered into or executed, under existing laws, " to the people of the State of Michigan,” to any such officer or public body, before the complete organization of the departments of government under this constitution, shall remain binding and valid; and rights and liabilities upon the same shall continue, and may be prosecuted as provided by law. And all crimes and misdemeanors, and penal actions, shall be tried, punished and prosecuted, as though no change had taken place, until otherwise provided by law.
5. A governor and lieutenant governor shall be chosen under the existing constitution and laws, to serve after the expiration of the term of the present incumbent.
6. All officers, civil and military, now holding any office or appointment, shall continue to hold their respective offices, unless removed by competent authority, until superseded under the laws now in force, or under this constitution.
7. The members of the Senate and House of Representatives of the Legisla
ture of one thousand eight hundred and fifty-one, shall continue in office under the provisions of law until superseded by their successors elected and qualified under this constitution.
8. All county officers, unless removed by competent authority, shall continue to hold their respective offices until the first day of January, in the year one thousand eight hundred and fifty-three. The laws now in force as to the election, qualification, and duties of township officers, shall continue in force until the Legislature shall, in conformity to the provisions of this constitution, provide for the holding of elections to fill such offices, and prescribe the duties of such officers respectively.
9. On the first day of January, in the year one thousand eight hundred and fiftytwo, the terms of office of the judges of the supreme court, under existing laws, and of the judges of the county courts, and of the clerks of the supreme court, shall expire on the said day.
10. On the first day of January, in the year one thousand eight hundred and fifty-two, the jurisdiction of all suits and proceedings then pending in the present supreme courts, shall become vested in the supreme court established by this constitution, and shall be finally adjudicated by the court where the same may be pending. The jurisdiction of all suits and proceedings at law and equity, then pending in the circuit courts and county courts for the several counties, shall become vested in the circuit courts of the said counties, and district court for the Upper Peninsula.
11. The probate courts, the courts of justices of the peace, and the police court authorized by an act entitled “ An act to establish a police court in the city of Detroit,” approved April second, one thousand eight hundred and fifty, shall continue to exercise the jurisdiction and powers now conferred upon them respectively, until otherwise provided by law.
12. The office of State printer shall be vested in the present incumbent until the expiration of the term for which he was elected under the law then in force; and all the provisions of the said law relating to his duties, rights, privileges and compensation, shall remain unimpaired and inviolate until the expiration of his said term of office.
13. It shall be the duty of the Legislature, at their first session, to adapt the present laws to the provisions of this constitution, as far as may be.
14. The attorney-general of the State is required to prepare and report to the Legislature, at the commencement of the next session, such changes and modifications in existing laws as may be deemed necessary to adapt the same to this constitution, and as may be best calculated to carry into effect its provisions; and he shall receive no additional compensation therefor.
15. Any territory attached to any county for judicial purposes, if not otherwise represented, shall be considered as forming part of such county, so far as regards elections for the purpose of representation.
16. This constitution shall be submitted to the people for their adoption or rejection, at the general election to be held on the first Tuesday of November, one thousand eight hundred and fifty; and there shall also be submitted for adoption or rejection, at the same time, the separate resolution in relation to the elective franchise; and it shall be the duty of the secretary of state, and all other officers required to give or publish any notice in regard to the said general election, to give notice, as provided by law in case of an election of governor, that this constitution bas been duly submitted to the electors at said election. Every newspaper within this State publishing, in the month of September next, this constitution as submitted, shall receive, as compensation therefor, the sum of twenty-five dollars, to be paid as the Legislature shall direct.
17. Any person entitled to vote for members of the Legislature, by the constitution and laws now in force, shall, at the said election, be entitled to vote for the adoption or rejection of this constitution, and for or against the resolution separately submitted, at the places and in the manner provided by law for the election of members of the Legislature.
18. At the said general election, a ballot box shall be kept by the several boards of inspectors thereof, for receiving the votes cast for or against the adoption of this constitution; and on the ballots shall be written or printed, or partly written and partly printed, the words “ Adoption of the constitution-yes," or " Adoption of the constitution-no."
19. The canvass of the votes cast for the adoption or rejection of this constitution, and the provision in relation to the elective franchise separately submitted, and the returns thereof shall be made by the proper canvassing officers, in the same manner as now provided by law for the canvass and return of the votes cast at an election for governor, as near as may be, and the return thereof shall be directed to the secretary of state. On the sixteenth day of December next, or within five days thereafter, the auditor general, state treasurer, and secretary of state, shall meet at the capitol, and proceed, in presence of the governor, to examine and canvass the returns of the said votes, and proclamation shall forth with be made by the governor of the result thereof. If it shall appear that a majority of the votes cast upon the question have thereon “ Adoption of the constitutionyes," this constitution shall be the supreme law of the State from and after the first day of January, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-one, except as is herein otherwise provided; but if a majority of the votes cast upon the question have thereon “ Adoption of the constitution—no," the same shall be null and void. And in case of the adoption of this constitution, said officers shall immediately, or as soon thereafter as practicable, proceed to open the statements of votes returned from the several counties for judges of the supreme court and State officers under the act entitled " An act to amend the revised statutes and to provide for the election of certain officers by the people in pursuance to an amendment to the constitution, approved February sixteenth. one thousand eight hundred and fifty," and shall ascertain, determine and certify the results of the election for said officers under said acts, in the same manner, as near as may be, as is now provided by law in regard to the election of representatives in Congress. And the several judges and officers so a certained to have been elected may be qualified and enter upon the duties of their respective offices, on the first Monday of January next, or as soon thereafter as practicable.
20. The salaries or compensation of all persons holding office under the present constitution, shall continue to be the same as now provided by law, until superseded by their successors elected or appointed under this constitution ; and it shall not be lawful hereafter for the Legislature to increase or diminish the compensation of any officer during the term for which he is elected or appointed.
21. The Legislature, at their first session, shall provide for the payment of all expenditures of the convention to revise the constitution, and of the publication of the same as is provided in this article.
22. Every county, except Mackinaw and Chippewa, entitled to a representative in the Legislature, at the time of the adoption of this constitution, shall continue to be so entitled under this constitution, and the county of Saginaw, with the territory that may be attached, sball be entitled to one representative; the county of Tuscola, and the territory that may be attached, one representative; the county of Sanilac, and the territory that may be attached, one representative; the counties of Midland and Aronac, with the territory that may be attached, one representative; the county of Montcalm, with the territory that may be attached thereto, ove representative ; and the counties of Newaygo and Oceana, with the territory that may be attached thereto, one representative. Each county having a ratio of representation and a fraction over, equal to a moiety of said ratio, shall be entitled to two representatives, and so on above that number, giving one additional member for each additional ratio.
23. The cases pending and undisposed of in the late court of chancery at the time of the adoption of this constitution, shall continue to be heard and determined by the judges of the supreme court. But the Legislature shall, at its session in one thousand eight hundred and fifty-one, provide by law for the transfer of said causes that may remain undisposed of on the first day of January, one