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but in such case, the act revised, or section amended, shall be reenacted and published at length.

120. The Legislature shall never adopt any system or code of laws by general reference to such system or code of laws, but in all cases shall specify the several provisions of the laws it may enact.

121. The State shall not become subscriber to the 'stock of any corporation or joint stock company,

122. No corporate body shall be hereafter created, renewed, or cxtended, with banking or discounting privileges.

123. Corporations shall not be created in this State by special laws, except for political or municipal purposes, but the Legislature shall provide, by general laws, for the organization of all other corporations, except corporations with banking or discounting privileges, the creation of which is prohibited.

124. From and after the month of January, 1890, the Legislature shall have the power to revoke the charters of all corporations whose charters shall not have expired previous to that time, and no corporations hereafter to be created shall ever endure for a longer term than twenty-five years, except those which are political or municipal.

125. The General Assembly shall never grant any exclusive privilege or monopoly for a longer period than twenty years.

126. No person shall hold or exercise, at the same time, more than one civil office of emolument, except that of justice of the peace.

127. Taxation shall be equal and uniform throughout the State. After the year 1848, all property on which taxes may be levied in this State, shall be taxed in proportion to its value, to be ascertained as directed by law. No one species of property shall he taxed higer than another species of property of equal value, on which taxes shall be levied; the Legislature shall have power to levy an income tax, and to tax all persons pursuing any occupation, trade or profession.

128. The citizens of the city of New Orleans shall have the right of appointing the several public officers necessary for the administration of the police of the said city, pursuant to the mode of elections which shall be prescribed by the Legislature; provided, that the

mayor and recorders shall be ineligible to a seat in the General Assembly; and the mayor, recorders, and aldermen shall be commissioned by the Governor as justices of the peace, and the Legis. lature may vest in them such criminal jurisdiction as may be sary for the punishment of minor crimes and offences, and as the police and good order of said city may require.

129. The Legislature may provide by law in what cases officers shall continue to perform the duties of their offices until their successors shall have been inducted into office.

130. Any citizen of this State who shall, after the adoption of this Constitution, fight a duel with deadly weapons, with a citizen of this State, or send or accept a challenge to fight a duel with deadly


weapons, either within this State or out of it, with a citizen of this State, or who shall act as second, or knowingly aid or assist in any manner, those thus offending, shall be deprived of holding any office of profit, and of enjoying the right of suffrage under this Constitution.

131. The Legislature shall have power to extend this Constitution, and the jurisdiction of this State over any territory acquired by compact with any state, or with the United States, the same being done by the consent of the United States.

132. The Constitution and laws of this State shall be promulgated in the English and French languages.

TITLE VII.-Public Education. Art. 133. There shall be appointed a superintendent of public education, who shall hold his office for two years. His duties shall be prescribed by law. He shall receive such compensation as the Legislature may direct.

134. The Legislature shall establish free public schools throughout the State, and shall provide means for their support by taxation on property, or otherwise.

135. The proceeds of all lands heretofore granted by the Uniteo States to this State for the use or support of schools, and of all lands which may hereafter be granted or bequeathed to the State, and not expressly granted or bequeathed for any other purpose, which hereafter may be disposed of by the State, and the proceeds of the estates of deceased persons to which the State may become entitled by law, shall be held by the State as a loan, and shall be and remain a perpetual fund, on which the State shall pay an annual interest of six per cent.; which interest, together with all the rents of the unsold lands, shall be appropriated to the support of such schools, and this appropriation shall remain inviolable.

136. All moneys arising from the sales which have been or may hereafter be made of any lands heretofore granted by the United States to this State, for the use of a seminary of learning, and from any kind of donation that may hereafter be made for that purpose, shall be and remain a perpetual fund, the interest of which, at six per cent per annum, shall be appropriated to the support of a seminary of learning for the promotion of literature and the arts and sciences, and no law shall ever be made diverting said fund to any other use than to the establishment and improvement of said seminary of learning

137. An university shall be established in the city of New Orlcans. It shall be composed of four faculties, to wit: one of law, one of medicine, one of the natural sciences, and one of letters.

138. It shall be called the “ University of Louisiana,” and the Medical College of Louisiana, as at present organized, shall constitute the faculty of medicine.

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139. The Legislature shall provide by law for its further organization and government, but shall be under no obligation to contribute to the establishment or support of said University by appropriations.


Mode of Revising the Constitution. Art. 140. Any amendment or amendments to this Constitution may be proposed in the Senate or House of Representatives, and if the same shall be agreed to by three-fifths of the members elected to each house, and approved by the Governor, such proposed amendment or amendments shall be entered on their journals with the yeas and nays taken thereon, and the Secretary of State shall cause the same to be published, three months before the next general election, in at least one newspaper in French and English, in every parish in the State in which a newspaper shall be published; and if in the Legislature next afterwards chosen, such proposed amendment or amendments shall be agreed to by a majority of the members elected to each house, the Secretary of State shall cause the same again to be published in the manner aforesaid, at least three months previous to the next general election for representatives to the State Legislature, and such proposed amendment or amendments shall be submitted to the people at said election; and if a majority of the qualified electors shall approve and ratify such amendment or amendments, the same shall become a part of the Constitution ; if more than one amendment be submitted at a time, they shall be submitted in such manner and form that the people may vote for or against each amendment separately.


This State was originally included in the charter of North Carolina. The Territory was ceded to the United States in 1790, and a territorial government was formed, called the Territory south-west of the Ohio river. In 1796, it was admitted into the union as a State. Its Constitution, which was then adopted, was revised and amended in 1835.

Area, 45,600 sq. m. Pop. in 1850, 1,002,625 of whom 239,461 were slaves, and 6,271 free blacks.


ARTICLE I.Declaration of Rights. Sec. 1. That all power is inherent in the people, and all free governments are founded on their authority, and instituted for their peace, safety, and happiness; for the advancement of those ends, they have, at all times, an inalienable and indefeasible right to alter, reform or abolish the government in such manner as they may

2. That government being instituted for the common benefit, the doctrine of non-resistance against arbitrary power and oppression, is absurd, slavish, and destructive to the good and happiness of mankind.

3. That all men have a natural and indefeasible right to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own conscience;

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that no man can, of right, be compelled to attend, erect, or support any place of worship, or to maintain any minister against his consent; that no human authority can, in any case whatever, control or interfere with the rights of conscience; and that no preference shall ever be given, by law, to any religious establishment or mode of worship

4. That no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under this State.

5. That elections shall be free and equal.
6. That the right of trial by jury shall remain inviolate.

7. That the people shall be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and possessions, from unreasonable searches and seizures; and that general warrants, whereby an officer may be commanded to search suspected places, without evidence of the fact committed, or to seize any person or persons not named, whose offences are not particularly described and supported by evidence, are dangerous to liberty, and ought not to be granted.

8. That no free man shall be taken or imprisoned, or disseized of his freehold, liberties, or privileges, or outlawed, or exiled, or in any manner destroyed or deprived of his life, liberty, or property, but by the judgment of his peers, or the law of the land.

9. That in all criminal prosecutions, the accused hath a right to be heard by himself and his counsel; to demand the nature and cause of the accusation against him, and to have a copy thereof; to meet the witnesses face to face; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor; and in prosecutions by indictment or presentment, a speedy public trial, by an impartial jury of the county or district in which the crime shall have been committed ; and shall not be compelled to give evidence against himself.

10. That no person shall, for the same offence, be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb.

11. That laws made for the punishment of facts committed previous to the existence of such laws, and by them only declared criminal, are contrary to the principles of a free government; wherefore no ex post facto law shall be made.

12. That no conviction shall work corruption of blood or forfeiture of estate. The estate of such persons as shall destroy their own lives shall descend or vest as in case of natural death. If any person be killed by casualty, there shall be no forfeiture in consequence thereof.

13. That no person arrested or confined in jail, shall be treated with unnecessary rigor.

14. That no freeman shall be put to answer any criminal charge but by presentment, indictment, or impeachment.

15. That all prisoners shall be bailable by sufficient sureties, unless for capital offences, when the proof is evident or the presumption great. And the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be

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