Undeveloped Wealth in India and State Reproductive Works: The Ways to Prevent Famines, and Advance the Material Progress of India
Virtue, Spalding, 1874 - Famines - 395 pages
Collected articles on the economic, political and social consequences of past famines in India.
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acre actual agricultural amount average Bengal Bombay brought canal capital carried cattle cause cent charge coal complete constructed cost cotton crops cubic cultivation delta districts doubt duty effect engineer England English entirely estimated existing expenditure expense extent fact fall famine feet fields five four Ganges give Godavery Government half hundred importance improvement inches increase India interest iron irrigation labour land less loss machine Madras manufactures manure means ment miles millions months native natural navigation nearly object obtained officer outlay plough population practical present produce profit Provinces quantity question railways rain raised Report revenue rice rivers rupees season soil square supply taken tanks thousand tion tons traffic villages whole yards
Page 78 - ... and maintained at a mighty charge. In the territory contained in that map alone, I have been at the trouble of reckoning the reservoirs, and they amount to upwards of eleven hundred, from the extent of two or three acres to five miles in circuit. From these reservoirs currents are occasionally drawn over the fields, and these watercourses again call for a considerable expense to keep them properly scoured and duly levelled.
Page 133 - His rude and feeble plough costs when " new no more than two or three shillings; and all the rest of his " few agricultural implements are equally primitive and inefficient. " His dwelling is a hut of mud walls and thatched roofs, far ruder, " smaller, and more dilapidated than those of the better classes of " Ryots above spoken of, and still more destitute if possible of any " thing that can be called furniture. His food and that of his fa...
Page 78 - For that reason, in the happier times of India, a number, almost incredible, of reservoirs have been made in chosen places throughout the whole country ; they are formed for the greater part of mounds of earth and stones, with sluices of solid masonry; the whole constructed with admirable skill and labour, and maintained at a mighty charge.
Page 143 - Government may incur in the education of the people, will be amply repaid by the improvement of the country ; for the general diffusion of knowledge is inseparably followed by more orderly habits, by increasing industry, by a taste for the comforts of life, by exertion to acquire them, and by the growing prosperity of the people.
Page 132 - A ryot of this class of course lives from hand to mouth ; he rarely sees money, except that obtained from the chetty to pay his kist ; the exchanges in the out villages are very few, and they are usually conducted by barter. His ploughing cattle are wretched animals not worth more than...
Page 4 - No misapprehension can be greater than to suppose that the settlement of the public demand on the land is only lightly, or, as some say, not at all connected with the occurrence of famines. It lies, in reality, far nearer to the root of the matter, because of its intimate and vital relation to the every-day life of the people and to their growth towards prosperity or towards degradation, than any such accessories as canals, or roads, or the like, important though these unquestionably are.
Page 78 - Carnatic is refreshed by few or no living brooks or running streams, and it has rain only at a season; but its product of rice exacts the use of water subject to perpetual command. This is the national bank of the Camatic, on which it must have a perpetual credit, or it perishes irretrievably.
Page 394 - Treasurer, quarter-yearly, of all moneys and properties which shall be by him received by virtue of his office, with sureties to be approved by the Solicitor of the Treasury. Such bond shall be filed in the office of the First Comptroller of the Treasury, to be by him put in suit upon any breach of the conditions thereof.