The Development of National Administrative Organization in the United States: Thesis (Classic Reprint)
Fb&c Limited, Aug 17, 2018 - 536 pages
Excerpt from The Development of National Administrative Organization in the United States: Thesis
Willoughby is divided, under the duality theory, between the two primary functions Of politics and administration. When the electorate is called upon to express definitely the will Of the state, as in the case of the initiative and referendum, its action is clearly an exercise of political power, while in its task of choosing legis lators and executive Officers, its work comes under what Goodnow calls the function Of establishing, preserving, and developing the governmental organization. It is the function of adminis tration, as that term is employed by Mr. Willoughby, that Offers the greatest difficulty in the attempt to reconcile it with the other two systems of classification. As the exponent of the fivefold classification himself points out, the classical theory either fails to recognize the function of administration or, what is more probable, recognizes it only as a part of the executive function. What Professor Goodnow terms the quasi-judicial, the statistical, and the semi-scientific functions, are clearly a part of the function of administration as conceived by Mr. Willoughby. It would also seem that the executive function, which Goodnow defines as the mere execution Of the expressed will of the state, is also a part Of Willoughby's administrative function. If the latter analysis is the correct one, the duality theory makes no distinct tion between the functions of execution and administration.
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