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range of deans of women is stated as from “under 30” to “45 or above,” with the median at 45. Only 4 deans of the 39 reporting were under 35 years of age, and only 15 of the entire number were under 45 years of age. This would indicate that those who select the person to fill the office of dean of women in the land-grant institions are not inclined to select her from among the lower age levels, perhaps because they feel that actual experience in living is necessary to give sound judgment in dealing with the problems that come to this office for solution. On the other hand, too old a woman may not be sympathetic with the problems of present-day youth. After all, however, the matter of age is relative, not chronological, and does not depend upon actual years.

It is quite evident to anyone familiar with the earlier policy of administrations in filling this position that a real change has taken place in the point of view regarding the training that is necessary. Only five of the institutions failed to report some degree for the dean of women. One had the training of a graduate nurse, 8 held only the bachelor's degree, 22 held the master's degree, and 6 held the Ph. D. A number of those holding master's degrees had done one or more years of graduate work beyond this degree, although not sufficient to complete work for the Ph. D. Twelve had taken some one of the special courses offered in various colleges on the work of the dean of women. Of these the greater number had taken their work at Columbia University in the highly theoretical course offered there.

In faculty rank, the recognition was generous. Of the 39 who reported, 38 were members of the general faculty, though 7 were given no actual professorial rating. Ten held full professorships, 6 associate professorships, 5 assistant professorships, and only 1 was ranked as an instructor. In addition to this list, 2 were rated as deans of divisions, 1 as dean of the college, 2 as heads of departments, and 1 as chairman of the faculty in the absence of the president. Twenty-nine reported that they held equal rank with the deans of the colleges in their institutions and were members of the board of deans. It is clear that the dean of women in the greater number of the land-grant institutions is in the upper ranks of the faculty and has both academic and administrative recognition.

The duties of the office are not yet any more standardized than are the qualifications of appointees. Certain functions, however, stand out clearly. Practically all of the deans of women give full time to the work of their offices. Work with student organizations, direction of the social activities of women students, individual student advising and discipline, are the duties most frequently listed by the reports; supervision of housing, feeding, and scholarship, orientation of freshmen, student employment, issuing of excuses, administration of loan funds, and placement work, follow in the order named. Two deans mentioned that they supervised the physical education for women students, although in only one institution was the dean of women head of the physical education department. Two mentioned that they had certain responsibilities in regard to the religious education of women students. The reports on the actual distribution of time show that more than one-half of the deans of women spend 50 per cent or more of their official day in individual conferences and advising with women students.

The order of the following list indicates the relative importance of the different functions as reported by the deans of women in the Survey of Land-Grant Colleges. (1) Supervision of social activities and discipline; (2) work with the student organizations; (3) individual student guidance; (4) supervision of housing and feeding; (5) supervision of scholarship; (6) handling of excuses for absence and handling of employment of women students; (7) supervision of individual student health and administration of loan funds for women students; and (8) placement work, supervision of physical education, and supervision of religious education of the women students. According to Miss McGlade's report supervision of social activities consists to a very great extent in granting college permits, in keeping records of social affairs where both men and women are guests, and of planning with the students certain parts of the major social program for women on the campuses.

While the dean of women in the land-grant institutions has a good deal to do with the discipline of women students, 28 of the institutions replying to Miss McGlade's questionnaire handle this through a discipline committee of which the dean of women is a member. In 11 of the institutions discipline is solely in the hands of the dean of women. Three of the institutions did not reply on this point.

There are many advantages in the committee method of handling student discipline. Perhaps the most obvious is that no individual has to bear the brunt of rendering unwelcome decisions upon individual cases. There is a real advantage also in the fact that more than one person brings experience and judgment to bear upon disciplinary problems. Whether a committee is more likely to render justice than an individual depends entirely on the constitution of the committee and the disposition of the individual. On the other hand, there are many cases in which the benefit to be gained by the offender through discipline is more apt to ensue if the case is handled by a single person to whom the student can talk in

confidence. This is particularly true of women students. Many times appearance before a committee of strangers is in itself a punishment quite out of proportion to the offense. The committee may overemphasize the student's misdemeanor and find itself unable to take into consideration motives and circumstances which a student can hardly explain to such a group. Each offense is an individual case and the wisest treatment is to recognize its individuality and, in the light of all the circumstances, to mete out the discipline needed as a curative measure. The tendency is to have no set of penalties that must be attached to a corresponding set of offenses. While, therefore, it is probably the wisest procedure to have a discipline committee to which cases may be appealed if the student so wishes, probably the first handling should be done, in the case of women students, by the dean of women herself, and the discipline committee should be used as a court of last appeal. At this point it may be well to add that the presence of the dean of women on the discipline committee that deals with all cases in the institution, those involving men students only, as well as those involving women students, is very desirable. It gives her wider knowledge of the situations on her campus. It is also a real gain for the committee to have a woman's point of view on the problems of men students.

There are few student offenses which involve one sex exclusively, and in coeducational institutions it sometimes seems that all the sins are like those of Kipling's Tomlinson, “The sins that ye do by two and two." Tables 1 and 2 indicate something of the nature of the offenses for which discipline is applied and the frequence of their occurrence.

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TABLE 1.—Discipline of women students 1 Number of women on probation, suspended, or expelled for specific offenses, 1928

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Institution

Alabama Polytechnic Institute
University of Arizona...
University of Arkansas.
University of California
Connecticut Agricultural College
University of Delaware..
University of Hawaii..
University of Illinois.
Purdue University-
Iowa State College.
Kansas State Agricultural College
Louisiana State University.
University of Maine.
Massachusetts Agricultural College.
University of Minnesota.
University of Missouri.
Montana State College.
University of Nebraska..
University of Nevada.
University of New Hampshire.
Rutgers University.
Ohio State University
Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical College
Oregon Agricultural College
South Dakota State College..
University of Tennessee
Agricultural College of Utah.
Virginia Agricultural and Mechanical College
State College of Washington.
University of Wisconsin.
University of Wyoming-

Total..

1 2,914 students, or 7 per cent, were disciplined.

TABLE 2.Discipline of men students 1 Number of men on probation, suspended, or expelled for specific offenses, 1928

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