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the reason for conferring such authority on specially created and appointed officers, such as graduate managers or athletic directors. In cases where student athletic associations actually or partially control the fiscal affairs of athletics, there is little doubt that the boards of trustees would be justified in discontinuing such control in view of the large capital investments and earnings, and in view of the fact that the institutions themselves in the end are the responsible agents. Sound business principles dictate that athletic finances be handled through regular institutional channels. All moneys should be collected, deposited, and disbursed by the institution's financial officer.

Chapter VI.-Land and Buildings, Operation, Maintenance,

and New Additions to Physical Plants

Although a meritorious academic program may have been outlined, an excellent staff of teachers and research workers organized, and the necessary educational equipment provided, land for campus and experimental farms and buildings for classrooms, laboratories, administrative offices, residence halls for students, and other facilities are essential for the conduct of the work of the land-grant institutions. Not only must the physical plant be sufficient in size and capacity to meet the needs of the administrative and educational organizations, but it must be operated and maintained at the highest possible standard of efficiency.

In previous sections of this report, the amounts of capital actually invested in the physical plants of the individual land-grant colleges, including campus, farms, other lands, buildings, and residence halls have been presented in detail. Figures have also been given showing the expenditures for new buildings and improvements during the single year of 1928 indicating that because of enlarged programs, growing activities and larger student enrollments the physical plants of most of the institutions are being expanded on a large scale. The present chapter, therefore, will deal with the size of the plants rather than the capital investments in them, the amount of land owned and the purpose for which used, the number of buildings and their types, the sources of funds for their erection, the administration of the buildings, the organizations for the care and maintenance of the buildings and grounds, the operation of power and utility plants, and the procedure for the extension and construction of new additions to the plants. Table 25 shows the land and buildings owned by the colleges in 1928.

237

TABLE 25.--Lands and buildings owned by land-grant institutions

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31

800

100 142 200

1, 109
1, 968
1, 792

80

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125

8 20

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150

30 1,490

1, 589

1

2

1, 090 1, 900 13,374

South Dakota State College
University of Tennessee
Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas
Agricultural College of Utah.
University of Vermont.

44 55 215

15 7

1, 020 1,817 1, 809

10

21 11,330

108

12

8

43 164 367 30 56

26
133
294

19
34

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11 48 47

4 19

41 25 272 30 1

95

655

130

199

11

315

41

14

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5 10 33

33 16 18 12

58 96 237 13

3

4 4 10

45, 168

975

185

66, 647

3,419

1, 742

570

898

2, 338

403

271

Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical College
Oregon Agricultural College..
Pennsylvania State College.
Rhode Island State College
Clemson Agricultural College-

1, 240
2, 910
2, 117

10S
3, 249

Virginia Agricultural and Mechanical College
State College of Washington..
University of Wisconsin.
University of Wyoming

722
1,070
1, 887
1, 206

96
150
96

Total.

119, 447

6, 472

1 Includes branches of institution.

? Estimated.

3 Type of 188 buildings not given.

Federal Government.

Land holdings of the land-grant institutions are generally large and in many instances exceed the actual educational and experimental needs of the colleges. The table shows that 119,447 acres of land are owned by the 42 colleges from which returns were received. Of this amount 52,800 acres are utilized for campus, instruction, and experimental farms, athetics, and military purposes, leaving a surplus of 66,647 acres, or 56 per cent of the total acreage. This surplus is possessed by 30 of the 42 institutions and consists principally of forests and similar areas. The total land owned by the individual institution varies from as high as 16,083 acres to as low as 168 acres. There are 3 institutions with land holdings exceeding 10,000 acres while there are 12 with holdings of less than 1,000 acres. The remainder ranges from 1,000 to 10,000 acres.

The tabulation discloses that 6,472 acres are utilized for campuses by the 42 institutions. As a large and expensive campus is a material factor in increasing physical plant operating costs, it is proposed to consider in some detail the size of the campuses maintained by the different institutions. Two of them in accordance with their own statements have campuses as large as 800 and 673 acres, 3 between 300 and 400 acres, 4 between 200 and 300 acres, and 2 between 180 and 200 acres. Most of these institutions are the larger State universities, but among the list are several smaller colleges and in these instances it is difficult to comprehend why such large campuses are maintained and how they can be properly cared for except through unusually high expenditures. The campuses of the remaining institutions range from 15 acres up to 160 acres in size. As already explained, the care of large campuses involves considerable expense, which otherwise might be devoted to educational uses and purposes. Where the proportion of the total institutional expenditures for their maintenance is high, it would seem advisable for administrators to make inquiry into the subject with the view of reducing the sizes of the campuses to conform to the resources and the needs of the institutions.

As instruction in agriculture and agricultural experimentation are among the principal activities of the land-grant colleges, the number of acres set aside for farm purposes is of importance. An examination of the compilation shows that the farms of the 42 institutions filing returns total 45,168 acres. Many of the colleges have farms of considerable size the areas of which exceed 1,000 acres and run as high as 3,388 acres, the latter being the largest of the group. In the majority of these cases the institutions are located in agricultural States and their work is concentrated in a large measure on agriculture. Among the large farms are three between 2,500 and 3,000 acres, nine between 1,500 and 2,000 acres, and seven between

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