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gether. Dr. Muspratt knew well how to deal with this statement; he showed first, upon theoretical grounds, that such a metamorphosis was in a high degree improbable, and subsequently proved, after a close investigation, that the presumed Valerianic Acid was no other than Acetic.

"In 1845 Dr. Muspratt left Giessen; and in the following two years visited various parts of Germany, in order to become personally acquainted with her distinguished men. This tour alone would have rewarded him amply for all the labors of his study; since everywhere he received the most flattering welcome from men of rank and learning. Rosé, of Berlin, assured him, on his presenting his letter of introduction, that' Sulphite Muspratt needed no introduction.'

"In 1847 he again visited Giessen and spent four months in its Laboratory, discovering several remarkable bodies produced from the Sulphocyanides of Ethyle and Methyle. A paper on this subject was printed in Liebig's Annalen, as well as in the Chemical Society's Transactions. In 1848 he gave a paper on the Selenites; in 1849 he proved the existence of Carbonate of Alumina, and also published some very interesting remarks in Liebig's Annalen on the Blowpipe, reactions of Stontia and Baryta. In 1851 one of his greatest efforts appeared; his paper on Carmufellic Acid, a new acid from cloves. This treatise has been published in the proceedings of the Royal Society, and in the Philosophical Magazine. Subsequently he published an article on the influences of chemistry on the animal, vegetable and mineral kingdom,' the third edition of which was issued in 1852. But the most important act hitherto of his life was the foundation of a College of Chemistry in Liverpool, of which he is now the popular and successful head.

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His motto, adopted in 1848, for the College seal, is illustrative of his character: "Ancora Imparo "-"Yet learning."

In 1853 he commenced the publication of an elaborate work, "Chemistry, theoretical, practical and analytical, as applied and relating to the Arts and Manufactures; in thirty-six numbers; imperial octavo; illustrated by nearly 1000 engravings on wood," which has been very favorably received by the British public, having 22,000 subscribers in England. It is also translated into German and French, and has twelve thousand subscribers in Germany and nine thousand in France.


"Learned bodies abroad and at home have recognized his claims. The Royal Societies of Edinburgh and Dublin elected him by a unanimous vote, and recently France announced him a member of the Societé D'Encouragement, one of her first scientific institutions. The following excellent and beautiful reply, Dr. Muspratt sent the President. It is given for the purpose of showing the style of the Liverpool Professor :

1 Mr. Charles Dickens, soon after the College was instituted, wrote the following to the Professor :- "I am delighted to hear of the success of your College, and I sincerely hope that Liverpool will one day - and not long hence either endeavor to find some expression for the obligation she owes you."

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"SIR,As art is illimitable, improvement acknowledges no point at which it may say to itself I must stop.' In that which seems perfect to-day, the examination of to-morrow discovers some demand for alteration or addition; so that the work which genius had laid aside as finished, it now takes up again as a subject for the renewal of labor. But human enterprise, in order to fulfil thoroughly its mission, requires, too frequently, something more to stimulate it than the mere anticipation of successful achievement. Hence the demand so gloriously responded to by that Society which has done me the honor to appoint me as one of its members -a Society, the humane aim of which is to encourage those who, with truly Christian philanthropy, make it their ambition to devote their faculties to studies and experiments which have for their object the enlightenment, the exaliment, the usefulness, and the happiness of their fellow-creatures. To be deemed worthy of being enrolled in such an association is, in itself, a reward for loftier merits than I can presume to lay claim to, though, from my youthhood, I have devoted myself independently, spontaneously, and zealously to the prosecution of science. It is therefore, with the deepest feeling of satisfaction and pride, and gratitude, that I accept the honoring distinction which the Society, of which you are the worthy head, has been pleased to confer upon me, and which I cordially attribute more to generous kindness on the part of its members, than to any desert of my own. As it has been said by another, Such appreciation, proceeding from a foreign land, sounds like the distant plaudits of posterity.'


"I have the honor to be, &c.,

"SHERIDAN MUSPRATT, F. R. S. E., Dr. Phil., &c.”

"It must be confessed that Dr. Muspratt has no reason to complain of any slowness on the part of his cotemporaries to recognize the effort he has made for the elucidation of chemical truths, the ability he has displayed, and the successes he has achieved.

"It remains now to speak of him in his private capacity. He has already taken that sensible step which by no means detaching the mind from vehement pursuit of its views, provides it relief in the occupations of an interesting home. On his return from Giessen, in 1848, he married Miss Susan Cushman (see 1922) who is also well known to fame by her admirable delineation of the lovely Juliet. Thus he achieved one of the happiest, if not greatest successes of life and not without deserving it. For, to a mind peculiarly adapted for chemical pursuits, nature has added for him the better gift of a disposition kindly, affectionate, and sincere.

"In person he is above the medium height, strong set, and well proportioned. His forehead is fine and his countenance decidedly handsome. The portrait which accompanies this biography is taken from an excellent photograph by Beard.1

1 Bally, the distinguished phrenological artist, thus describes him :-"You have one of the largest brains in proportion to your size, which constitutes a

The following are his honorary and literary titles: - Dr. Sheridan Muspratt, F. R. S. E., Member of the Royal Irish Academy; Founder and Principal of the College of Chemistry, Liverpool; Honorary Fellow of the New York College of Pharmacy; Fellow of the Royal Agricultural Society of England; Membre de la Société D'Encouragement; Membre de l'Académie Nationale de France; Author of Outlines of Analysis; Chemistry of Vegetation; Influence of Chemistry; and Editor of Muspratt's Plattner on the Blowpipe, &c.


Cushmans who have died since their Biography was printed.


KENELAM CUSHMAN, (406) d. at Wiscasset, Me., 23 Mch. 1855, in his 81st year. An obituary notice of him says: "He was m. in 1797 to Mrs. Hannah B. Nutter, who still survives him. They lived together in great harmony fifty-seven years and eleven months, and became the parents of eleven chil., five of whom survive him. * He was a man of remarkable industry, of temperate and sober habits, of marked integrity, prudence and economy. He lived a blame. less life and retained the respect and confidence of the community to the last. He was a professor of religion, having belonged to the Cong. chh. in Wiscasset more than twenty years. He d. of the influwith great calmness and peace.


HON. POLYCARPUS L. CUSHMAN, (552) d. at Bernardston, Wednesday, 16 May 1855, ae. 76 years 7 months and 25 days. The following obituary notice is taken from the "Franklin Democrat," published at Greenfield, Mass., Monday, May 21, 1855:

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"The death of Mr. Cushman, which took place after a short and severe illness at his residence in Bernardston, is an event that deserves more than the brief statement usually given in an obituary record. Mr. Cushman was native in Bernardston, and lived there during his whole life. He was of a good family, a descendant in the direct line, from one of the Pilgrim Fathers.' In his character were exhibited, in more than an ordinary degree, those traits that distinguished the early settlers of New England. In all the social and domestic relations of life he discharged the duties that devolved upon him in an exemplary manner. In all his dealings and intercourse with others, he was liberal, high-minded and honorable. As a citizen, he was, in the true sense of the term, public-spirited and chari

strong mind; rather slow to action, but when set to work, you will go through it with great energy-indomitable perseverance—you possess love of fame or approbation in a very high degree above everybody in the profession - the moral faculties are very good.


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table. In his views and feelings he was conservative. His opinions were the result of careful investigations and reflection, and when once formed, were not quickly changed. He held fast to that which he had, in his own mind, proved, and was not disposed to regard every change as an improvement. He largely enjoyed the respect and confidence of his fellow-citizens. He was repeatedly elected to important town offices. In the years 1816 and 1840 he represented the town in the General Court. In 1844 he was one of the Senators from this county. In all the positions to which he was called he acquitted himself with ability and honor, and to the satisfaction of his constituents. In connection with his service in the Senate, occurred an incident unusual in political life, which was much commented upon at the time, and which it will not be improper to mention here. He was elected by the people with the late Hon. William Whittaker of New Salem, on the Whig ticket. Early in the session the death of Mr. Whittaker occasioned a vacancy which was filled by the legis lature, by the election of Hon. Henry W. Cushman, who was in the preceding canvas, a candidate for senator on the democratic ticket. Thus father and son, the latter an only child both of the same town, but of opposite politics, though agreeing in everything else, were seated at the same Senate board. Such a combination of circumstances seldom occurs.

"But it was to agriculture that Mr. Cushman mainly devoted his attention. Farming was his chief delight. He studied to make it profitable and at the same time improve the quality of his lands. Although tending towards conservatism in everything else, in this he was experimenting and progressive, quick to appreciate and adopt all real improvements. He was early in favor of Agricultural Associations, and was one of the first and most active members of the Franklin County Agricultural Society. In his favorite pursuit he availed himself of all the information to be derived from agricultural books and papers, of which he was a constant reader. He was a warm friend of the cause of education. It would seem from his life that he thought he could best discharge his duty to himself and the community, in devoting his influence

"To improve the soil and the mind.”

"At the time of his death Mr. Cushman was a member of the Congregational (Unitarian) church in Bernardston. He was twice married first in 1804, to Sally Wyles of Colchester, Conn., who died at Saratoga Springs, August 13, 1845, at the age of 63, and second, in 1846, to Mrs. Abigail, widow of the late Capt. Thaddeus Coleman, of this town, who survives him. His funeral was attended at Bernardston on Sunday, at 4 P., M., by a large concourse of friends and fellow-citizens. Rev. John F. Moors of Deerfield preached an able and impressive sermon on the occasion."

FREDERICK CUSHMAN LOMAS (975) of New York City, d. at Mag nolia, Florida, (whither he had gone for the benefit of his health,)

29 Apl. 1855, in his 44th year. "He was a merchant, and by his enterprise, industry and integrity, had accumulated a competence and secured a wide circle of appreciating friends."


Statistics of the Cushmans.

The foregoing pages contain an account of ten generations of Cushmans, each generation having the following number:- First generation, 1; second generation, 1; third generation, 8; fourth generation, 24; fifth generation, 98; sixth generation, 286; seventh generation, 758; eighth generation, 1384; ninth generation, 757; tenth generation, 19; making 3336 Cushmans whose history is here written besides almost as many more of Cushman descent or connected with them by marriage.

Among the Cushmans, 22 have been clergymen, 15 lawyers, and 12 physicians.


Twenty-eight have graduated from colleges and other institutions, besides several more from medical institutions, as follows: College, 2; Harvard University, 1; Dartmouth, 4; Middlebury, 2; Bowdoin, 4, Brown University, 3; Union College, 3; Williams, 2; Columbia, 1; Amherst, 1; Oberlin, 1; U. S. Military Academy, 2; Capt. Patridge's Military Academy, 2; U. S. Naval School at Annapolis, 1.

The following offices have been held by Cushmans: One Lieut. Governor; 3 members of Congress; over 20 members of State Legislatures; 1 United States Commissioner under the late Reciprocity Treaty with England; and various other civil offices.

Five Cushmans are Life Members of the American Bible Society.

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COAT OF ARMS. There is a tradition that the Cushman Family have had a Coat of Arms, and copies of such have been furnished me. But their authenticity was so doubtful that I have rejected them all. A diligent examination of the books on Heraldry in England, has been made, but thus far no such remnant of aristocracy can be found attached to our name. 1 AP 59

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