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1. Have never been evacuated by Egyptian troops since the year 1882; or

2. Which, having before the late rebellion in the Soudan been administered by the Government of His Highness the Khedive, were temporarily lost to Egypt, and have been reconquered by Her Britannic Majesty's Government and the Egyptian Government, acting in concert; or

3. Which may hereafter be reconquered by the two Governments acting in concert.

II. The British and Egyptian flags shall be used together, both on land and water, throughout the Soudan, except in the town of Suakin, in which locality the Egyptian flag alone shall be used.

III. The supreme military and civil command in the Soudan shall be vested in one officer, termed the "Governor-General of the Soudan." He shall be appointed by Khedivial Decree on the recommendation of Her Britannic Majesty's Government, and shall be removed only by Khedivial Decree, with the consent of Her Britannic Majesty's Government.

IV. Laws, as also Orders and Regulations, with the full force of law, for the good government of the Soudan, and for regulating the holding, disposal, and devolution of property of every kind therein situate, may from time to time be made, altered, or abrogated by Proclamation of the Governor-General. Such Laws, Orders, and Regulations may apply to the whole or any named part of the Soudan, and may, either explicitly or by necessary implication alter or abrogate any existing Law or Regulation.

All such Proclamations shall be forthwith notified to Her Britannic Majesty's Agent and Consul-General in Cairo, and to the President of the Council of Ministers of His Highness the Khedive.

V. No Egyptian Law, Decree, Ministerial Arrêté, or other enactment hereafter to be made or promulgated, shall apply to the Soudan or any part thereof, save in so far as the same shall be applied by Proclamation of the Governor-General in manner herein before provided.

VI. In the definition by Proclamation of the conditions under which Europeans, of whatever nationality, shall be at liberty to trade with or reside in the Soudan, or to hold property within its limits, no special privileges shall be accorded to the subjects of any one or more Power.


VII. Import duties on entering the Soudan shall not be payable on goods coming from Egyptian territory. duties may, however, be levied on goods coming from elsewhere than Egyptian territory; but in the case of goods entering the Soudan at Suakin, or any other port on the Red Sea littoral, they shall not exceed the corresponding duties for

the time being leviable on goods entering Egypt from abroad. Duties may be levied on goods leaving the Soudan, at such rates as may from time to time be prescribed by Proclamation.

VIII. The jurisdiction of the Mixed Tribunals shall not extend, nor be recognized for any purpose whatsoever, in any part of the Soudan, except in the town of Suakin.*

IX. Until, and save so far as it shall be otherwise determined by Proclamation, the Soudan, with the exception of the town of Suakin, shall be and remain under martial law.

X. No Consuls, Vice-Consuls, or Consular Agents shall be accredited in respect of, nor allowed to reside in the Soudan, without the previous consent of Her Britannic Majesty's Government.

XI. The importation of slaves into the Soudan, as also their exportation, is absolutely prohibited. Provision shall be made by Proclamation for the enforcement of this Regulation.

XII. It is agreed between the two Governments that special attention shall be paid to the enforcement of the Brussels Act of the 2nd July, 1890, in respect of the import, sale, and manufacture of fire-arms and their munitions, and distilled or spirituous liquors.

Done in Cairo, the 19th January, 1899.


AGREEMENT between Great Britain and Egypt, abrogating the provisions of the Agreement of the 19th January, 1899, excluding Suakin from the General Administration of the Soudan.† Signed at Cairo, July 10, 1899.


WHEREAS, under our Agreement made the 19th day of January, 1899, relative to the future administration of the Soudan, it is provided by Article VIII that the jurisdiction of the Mixed Tribunals shall not extend nor be recognized for any purpose whatsoever in any part of the Soudan except in the town of Suakin;

And whereas no Mixed Tribunal has ever been established at Suakin, and it has been found to be inexpedient to establish any such tribunal in that locality, by reason notably of the expense which the adoption of this measure would occasion; And whereas grievous injustice is caused to the inhabitants

* Abrogated by Agreement of July 10, 1899, on this page.
+ Extract from the Egyptian "Jounal Officiel " of July 10, 1899.
See Page 356.

of Suakin by the absence of any local jurisdiction for the settlement of their disputes, and it is expedient that the town of Suakin should be placed upon the same footing as the rest of the Soudan;

And whereas we have decided to modify our said Agrecment accordingly in manner hereinafter appearing:

Now, it is hereby agreed and declared by and between the Undersigned, duly authorized for that purpose, as follows:

Art. I. Those provisions of our Agreement of the 19th day of January, 1899, by which the town of Suakin was excepted from the general régime established by the said Agreement for the future administration of the Soudan, are hereby abrogated. Done at Cairo, the 10th July, 1899.




CONSTITUTION of the Republic of the Equator; 80 far as relates to Nationality, Naturalization, Religion, Slavery, Public Debt, Foreigners, Declaration of War, Conclusion of Treaties, &c. Quito, January 14, 1897.


Section 1. Of the Equatorians.

6. The following are Equatorians :


(1.) Those who are born in the territory of the Equator of Equatorian father or mother;

(2.) Those born in the said territory of foreign parents if they reside therein;

(3.) Those who, born in a foreign State of Equatorian father or mother, come to reside in the Republic and express their wish to become Equatorians;

(4.) Natives of other countries who may be in the enjoyment of Equatorian nationality;

(5.) Foreigners who profess science, art, or useful industry, or who may be owners of real property or invested capital, and who, after having resided one year in the Republic, declare their intention of becoming domiciled therein and obtain letters of naturalization;

(6.) All who obtain nationality rights for services to the Republic.

7. No Equatorian, even although he may acquire another nationality, shall be exempted from the duties imposed by the Constitution and the laws so long as he remains domiciled in the Republic.

Section 2. Of the Citizens.

8. To be a citizen it is necessary to be 18 able to read and write.

9. The rights of citizenship are lost

years of age, and

(1.) By entering the service of a nation at war with the Republic;

(2.) By naturalization in another country; and

(3.) In the other cases determined by the laws.

10. Equatorians who may have lost the rights of citizenship shall be able to obtain rehabilitation from the Senate; but those sentenced to confinement or imprisonment for a term exceeding six months shall not obtain rehabilitation until their sentence has expired.

Any Equatorian who may be naturalized in another country shall recover his rights of citizenship if he returns to the Equator and, renouncing his foreign nationality, declares his intention of reassuming Equatorian citizenship.

11. The rights of citizenship are suspended

(1.) By judicial interdiction;

(2.) By judicial sentence, pronounced in consequence of infractions of the law which entail the loss of the rights of citizenship; and

(3.) By judicial sentence against a public official or functionary.

CHAPTER III.-Of Religion.

12. The religion of the Republic is the Apostolic Roman Catholic, to the exclusion of any other contrary to morality. The public powers shall be under the obligation to protect it, and to cause it to be respected.

CHAPTER IV.-Of Guarantees.

13. The State respects the religious beliefs of the inhabitants of the Equator, and shall cause the exercise of the same to be respected.

Religious belief shall be no obstacle to the exercise of political and civil rights.

14. Capital punishment for political or ordinary offences remains abolished.

21. There are not, nor shall there be, slaves in the Republic, and those who set foot on Equatorian territory shall be free.

34. The public credit is guaranteed; consequently, the funds for the amortization of the Public Debt, as provided by law, shall not be diverted from that object, except in the case indicated in Article 98, paragraph (9).

37. Foreigners shall be admitted into the Equator, and shall enjoy the Constitutional guarantees in so far as they respect the Constitution and the laws of the Republic. The immigration of religious communities is excepted, and no ecclesiastic who may not be an Equatorian by birth shall exercise the prelacy, be employed in the Equatorian Church, nor administer the property of the monastical institutions existing in the Republic.

38. All contracts concluded by a foreigner with the Government or with a private individual carry the express condition of the renunciation of all diplomatic claims.

CHAPTER VI. Of the Legislative Power.

Section 5.-Of the Attributes of Congress divided into Legislative Chambers.

65. The following are the attributes of Congress :

(12.) To declare war, on information received from the Executive Power; to require him to enter into negotiations for peace, and to approve or withhold approval from public Treaties and other Conventions, without which approval they will not be ratified or the ratifications exchanged;

(17.) To grant or refuse permission for the transit of foreign troops through the territory of the Republic, or the stationing of foreign ships of war in the ports when for a period longer than two months.

CHAPTER VII.—Of the Executive Power.

Section 2. Of the Attributes and Duties of the Executive Power.


94. The following are the attributes and duties of the Executive Power :

(6.) To direct diplomatic negotiations, conclude Treaties, ratify them, after Congress has approved them, and exchange the ratifications;

(11.) To declare war, when decreed by Congress, and make peace, with the approbation of the same.

98. In case of foreign invasion or internal commotion, the Executive will have recourse to Congress, should it be assembled, and, if not, to the Council of State, in order that, after seeing their report and appreciating the urgency, they concede or refuse, with such restrictions as they judge proper, all or part of the following powers:—

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