Advances in Microbial Toxin Research and Its Biotechnological Exploitation

Front Cover
R. K. Upadhyay
Springer Science & Business Media, Jun 30, 2002 - Science - 288 pages
Microbial toxins are secondary metabolites that accumulate in the organism and, to a large extent, are metabolically inactive towards the organism that produces them. The discovery of penicillin, a secondary metabolite of Penicillium notatum West (= P. chrysogenum Thom), in 1929 marked a milestone in the development of antibiotics (microbial toxins). In the intensive studies that followed this discovery, scientists chemically characterized several new molecules (toxins) from secondary metabolites of microbes, some having a definite function in causing pathogenesis in plants. Toxins are also known to playa significant role in inciting animal (human) and insect diseases and as plant growth regulators. Many common toxins have also been isolated from different microbes exhibiting a wide spectrum of biological activity. Toxins are broadly divisible into several characteristic groupings - polyketides, oxygen heterocyclic compounds, pyrons, terpenoidS, amino acids - diketopiperazines, polypeptides etc. Recent research has indicated that these toxins play an important role in plant pathogenesis, disease epidemics, plant breeding, biological control of plant pathogens and insect pests, induced resistance, plant-pathogen interactions etc. Toxins produced by weed pathogens are exploited as lead molecules in developing environmentally friendly herbicides.
 

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Contents

A CHEMICAL APPROACH FOR ELUCIDATING THE MOLECULAR INTERACTION OF HOSTSPECIFIC AKTOXIN WITH JAPANESE PEAR
1
CHEMISTRY BIOLOGY AND SIGNIFICANCE
23
SUPPRESSOR AND ELICITORACTIVITIES OF MAGNAPORTHE GRISEA TOXIN IN RICE LEAVES
31
CLONAL VARIABILITY AND INFLUENCE OF SUBSTRATE AND AGROCHEMICALS
39
EVOLUTION FUNCTION AND PROSPECTS FOR CONTROL
47
OXYGEN ACTIVATION BY FUNGAL AND BACTERIAL TOXINS
63
THERMORESPONSIVE PHYTOTOXIN PRODUCTION IN PLANT PATHOGENIC BACTERIA
81
CERATOULMIN A TOXIN PRODUCED BY THE PATHOGENS OF THE DUTCH ELM DISEASE
93
TOXICITY OF SYRINGOMYCINS AND ITS PATHOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE
141
STRUCTURAL DIVERSITY OF LICHEN METABOLITES AND THEIR POTENTIAL USE
151
ALGAL AND CYANOBACTERIAL METABOLITES AS AGENTS FOR PEST MANAGEMENT
171
ENGINEERING DISEASE RESISTANCE IN PLANTS USING PHYTOTOXINS AS MOLECULAR STOOGES
197
INHIBITION OF CERAMIDE SYNTHESIS IN PLANTS BY PHYTOTOXINS
211
ADVANCES IN MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF PHYTOTOXIN PRODUCTION AND ITS INVOLVEMENT IN PLANT PATHOGENESIS
231
INSECTICIDAL PROTEINS OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS AND THEIR APPLICATION IN AGRICULTURE
259
SUBJECT INDEX
281

LIPOPEPTIDE SECONDARY METABOLITES FROM THE PHYTOPATHOGENIC BACTERIUM PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE
105

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